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Scholarly method

Eric Tate, Valerie Decker, Craig Just
Increasing trends in global flood risk are driven by a complex web of interactions among natural, built environment, and social systems. As a result, flood resilience research is an ideal topic for an interdisciplinary approach. Core characteristics of interdisciplinary research are team collaboration and the systematic integration of disciplinary knowledge, in both problem formulation and analytical methods. Indicators of interdisciplinarity tend to focus on scholarly outcomes, but collaborative processes may be even more important for knowledge integration...
December 11, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Filippo Migliorini, Markus Tingart, Marc Niewiera, Björn Rath, Jörg Eschweiler
PURPOSE: In the last couple of years, a significant amount of studies comparing the UKA and TKA for unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis have been published. However, there is a lack of recent meta-analysis comparing the two implants. Since the number of performed UKAs is currently increasing and the indications are obsolete, it becomes important to update current evidences and outcomes. With these premises, a meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing UKA versus TKA was conducted. METHODS: In October 2018, the following databases were accessed: Cochrane Systematic Reviews, Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
E Guardincerri, J D Bacon, N Barros, C Blasi, L Bonechi, A Chen, R D'Alessandro, J M Durham, M Fine, C Mauger, G Mayers, C Morris, F M Newcomer, J Okasinski, T Pizzico, K Plaud-Ramos, D C Poulson, M B Reilly, A Roberts, T Saeid, V Vaccaro, R Van Berg
The dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are under way to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only known reinforcement is a wood chain 7.75 m above the springing of the Cupola. Multiple scattering muon radiography is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the dome's wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in it...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Alyson Haslam, Spencer P Hey, Jennifer Gill, Vinay Prasad
BACKGROUND: Surrogates are frequently used in cancer medicine as the end-point of clinical trials and as the basis of United States Food and Drug Administration approvals, but they do not always represent outcomes that are important for patients. We aim to build upon previous umbrella reviews of surrogate validation studies by identifying and examining all meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials that evaluate the strength of correlation between overall survival (OS) and surrogate markers...
December 5, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Mark Davis
Online media has provided unprecedented opportunities for anti-vaccination groups to spread their message. An extensive scholarly literature has consequently emerged to analyse such discourse and develop strategies for countering it. In this article, I take a different approach. My contention is that it is no longer appropriate to approach anti-vaccination discourse as a stand-alone formation. Such sites, I argue, building on work by McKenzie Wark and Bart Cammaerts, are increasingly part of a wider proliferation of 'anti-public' discourse that contests fundamental democratic conventions, rules of argumentation and so on...
December 10, 2018: Public Understanding of Science
Ayman Mahdy, Gamal M Ghoniem
AIMS: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is common in the adult females. Surgical treatment options include synthetic mid-urethral sling (MUS), autologous sling, bulking agents, and Burch colposuspension. The autologous pubovaginal sling (PVS) has re-emerged in response to complications of synthetic MUSs and FDA communications regarding the use of vaginal mesh. This resulted in patients' fear related to vaginal mesh and drop in number of patients seeking surgical treatment of SUI. PVS has re-emerged as an option for treatment of primary SUI...
December 7, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Cristina Estebaranz-Santamaría, Ana María Palmar-Santos, Azucena Pedraz-Marcos
OBJECTIVE: to identify the predictive variables or the massive transfusion triggers in severely traumatized patients through the existing scales. METHOD: a review of the literature was carried out using the Scoping Review method across the electronic databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, the Cochrane and IBECS libraries, and the Google Scholar search tool. RESULTS: in total, 578 articles were identified in the search and the 36 articles published in the last ten years were included, of which 29 were original articles and 7 review articles...
November 29, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Lingzhong Meng, Yingwei Wang, Lina Zhang, David L McDonagh
OBJECTIVES: Pressure autoregulation is an organ's intrinsic ability to maintain blood flow despite changes in perfusion pressure. The purpose of this review is to discuss autoregulation's heterogeneity among different organs and variability under different conditions, a very clinically relevant topic. DATA SOURCES: Systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE; nonsystematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Animal or human studies investigating the potency or variation of pressure autoregulation of any organs or the association between autoregulation and outcomes...
December 3, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Sophie O'Keefe, Mandy Stanley, Kerry Adam, Natasha A Lannin
Purpose Addressing return to work early after neurological impairment from stroke or moderate and severe traumatic brain injury may improve likelihood of returning to employment, yet little is known about how best to organize work interventions for delivery in the inpatient hospital setting. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify knowledge gaps and inform program development in hospital-based work interventions. Method We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, OTSeeker and Embase for English-language articles published from database inception until March 2018...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Zhi-Jing Wen, Zheng-Chao Gao, Teng Lu, Yi-Bin Wang, Hui Liang, Xi-Jing He
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of rapid prototyping drill navigation template-assisted pedicle screw fixation and traditional anatomic landmark-based fixation in the treatment of spinal disease by accessing and searching some relevant literatures home and abroad. METHODS: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and prospective case-control studies or retrospective case-control studies about rapid prototyping drill templates-assisted pedicle screw fixation and traditional anatomic landmark-based fixation for the treatment of spinal disease were searched electronically in PubMed, The Cochrane Library(Issue 5, 2017), Clinical Trial, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang database and VIP database before June 2017...
November 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Flávia Casale Abe, Cristiane de Cássia Bergamaschi, Mabel Fernandes Figueiró, Luciane Cruz Lopes
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is currently considered the main risk to global health. A variety of microbial species have been isolated from endodontic and periodontal infections. However, clinical endodontic and periodontics bacterial isolates have not been sufficiently characterized with regard to their capacity for antibiotic resistance. We aim to assess the existing evidence to estimate the prevalence of the main antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistant organisms in endodontics and periodontics and to describe their geographic distribution in Latin America...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Farron McIntee, Kendra R Evans, Jeanne M Andreoli, Abigail J Fusaro, Melanie Hwalek, Ambika Mathur, Andrew L Feig
For many college students, joining a research group is a critical step toward developing strong mentor-mentee relationships that help shape their science identities and research self-efficacy. ReBUILDetroit, a program that seeks to diversify the biomedical research workforce, uses a scaffolded process to help its scholars transition into research. The first-year curriculum includes a research methods course and a course-based undergraduate research experience that prepare ReBUILDetroit Scholars for entering a research group...
2018: Scholarship and practice of undergraduate research
Omorogieva Ojo, Xiao-Hua Wang, Osarhumwese Osaretin Ojo, Jude Ibe
Background : People who abuse substances are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes resulting partly from increased cell damage and due to the effects of opioids on glucose homeostasis. Therefore, people with diabetes who abuse substances may carry greater health risks than the general population resulting from their effect on glucose metabolism. These substances may be in the form of cannabis, hallucinogens, opioids, and stimulants. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of substance abuse on blood glucose parameters in patients with diabetes...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jose M Castillo, Jennifer R Wolgemuth, Diana S Ginns, Joseph Latimer, Nicholas Scheel, Meaghan McKenna, Amanda L March, Sara Moulton, Joy Wang, Sarah Thoman, Andrew Jenkins, Kelli Henson, John M Ferron
INTRODUCTION: A multitiered system of supports (MTSS) represents a widely adopted public health approach to education in the USA. Researchers agree professional learning is critical for educators to implement the critical components of MTSS; however, professional learning approaches vary in their designs and targeted outcomes. While researchers increasingly focus their inquiries on professional learning for MTSS, no systematic research review exists. OBJECTIVES: The primary objectives for this mixed-methods review are to (1) understand how professional learning focused on MTSS has been operationalised (2) determine the impact of professional learning on educator (eg, knowledge) and implementation (eg, data-based decision-making processes) outcomes and (3) understand the contextual variables that influence professional learning in the USA...
November 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Diana C Patterson, Debbie Chi, Bradford O Parsons, Paul J Cagle
BACKGROUND: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) accounts for nearly one-third of shoulder arthroplasty utilization nationally. The complication rate has increased concurrently. Consensus is lacking regarding the incidence, etiology, and treatment of acromial or scapular spine fractures after RSA. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to analyze the occurrence and outcomes of this complication. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were queried in late 2017 for combinations of the words "acromial," "fracture," "reverse," "shoulder," and "arthroplasty...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Margarate Nzala Munakampe, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Adolescents face significant barriers to contraception access and utilization that result in adverse health effects of early pregnancy and childbirth. Unsafe abortions continue to occur partly due to failure to prevent pregnancies, with Sub-Saharan Africa contributing the most significant burden of all unsafe abortions among young people globally, of which a quarter occurs in those aged 15-19 years. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the contraceptive and abortion knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents in low and middle-income countries to increase the understanding of the sexual and reproductive health dynamics that they face...
November 29, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Pegah Mahmoodi, Mona Fani, Majid Rezayi, Amir Avan, Zahra Pasdar, Ehsan Karimi, Iraj S Amiri, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
Human papillomavirus type (HPV) is a common cause of sexually transmitted disease (STD) in humans. HPV types 16 and 18 as the highest risk types are related with gynecologic malignancy and cervical cancer (CC) among women worldwide. Recently, considerable development of genosensors, which allows dynamic monitoring of hybridization events for HPV-16 and 18, has been a topic of focus by many researchers. In this systematic review, we highlight the route of development of DNA-based genosensory detection methods for diagnosis of high risk of HPV precancer...
November 29, 2018: BioFactors
Shin Alexandre Koseki
Scholarly studies and common accounts of national politics enjoy pointing out the resilience of ideological divides among populations. Building on the image of political cleavages and geographic polarization, the regionalization of politics has become a truism across Northern democracies. Left unquestioned, this geography plays a central role in shaping electoral and referendum campaigns. In Europe and North America, observers identify recurring patterns dividing local populations during national votes. While much research describes those patterns in relation to ethnicity, religious affiliation, historic legacy and party affiliation, current approaches in political research lack the capacity to measure their evolution over time or other vote subsets...
2018: PloS One
Nicoline Normann, Nexhmedin Morina
Background: Metacognitive therapy (MCT) continues to gain increased ground as a treatment for psychological complaints. During the last years, several clinical trials on the efficacy of MCT have been published. The aim of the current study was to provide an updated meta-analytic review of the effect of MCT for psychological complaints. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of trials on MCT for young and adult patients with psychological complaints published until January 2018, using PsycINFO, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mansour Moghimi, Saeed Kargar, Mohammad Ali Jafari, Hossein Ahrar, Mohammad Hossein Jarahzadeh, Hossein Neamatzadeh, Jalal Sadeghizadeh- Yazdi
Background: A number of case-control studies were conducted to investigate the association of angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphism with breast cancer. But the results remain controversial. This meta-analysis aims to comprehensively evaluate the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with breast cancer. Method: A comprehensive literature search on PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for studies published up to June 01, 2018 was performed. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated...
November 29, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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