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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930186/the-effect-of-copper-addition-on-the-activity-and-stability-of-iron-based-co%C3%A2-hydrogenation-catalysts
#1
Matthew J Bradley, Ramagopal Ananth, Heather D Willauer, Jeffrey W Baldwin, Dennis R Hardy, Frederick W Williams
Iron-based CO₂ catalysts have shown promise as a viable route to the production of olefins from CO₂ and H₂ gas. However, these catalysts can suffer from low conversion and high methane selectivity, as well as being particularly vulnerable to water produced during the reaction. In an effort to improve both the activity and durability of iron-based catalysts on an alumina support, copper (10-30%) has been added to the catalyst matrix. In this paper, the effects of copper addition on the catalyst activity and morphology are examined...
September 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928752/climate-clever-clovers-new-paradigm-to-reduce-the-environmental-footprint-of-ruminants-by-breeding-low-methanogenic-forages-utilizing-haplotype-variation
#2
Parwinder Kaur, Rudi Appels, Philipp E Bayer, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnere, Jiankang Wang, Hideki Hirakawa, Kenta Shirasawa, Philip Vercoe, Katia Stefanova, Zoey Durmic, Phillip Nichols, Clinton Revell, Sachiko N Isobe, David Edwards, William Erskine
Mitigating methane production by ruminants is a significant challenge to global livestock production. This research offers a new paradigm to reduce methane emissions from ruminants by breeding climate-clever clovers. We demonstrate wide genetic diversity for the trait methanogenic potential in Australia's key pasture legume, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). In a bi-parental population the broadsense heritability in methanogenic potential was moderate (H(2) = 0.4) and allelic variation in a region of Chr 8 accounted for 7...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927478/molecular-hydrogen-generated-by-elemental-magnesium-supplementation-alters-rumen-fermentation-and-microbiota-in-goats
#3
Min Wang, Rong Wang, XiuMin Zhang, Emilio M Ungerfeld, Donglei Long, HongXiang Mao, JinZhen Jiao, Karen A Beauchemin, Zhiliang Tan
We tested the hypotheses that supplementation of a diet with elemental Mg increases ruminal dissolved H2 (dH2) in rumen fluid, which in turn alters rumen fermentation and microbial community in goats. In a randomised block design, twenty growing goats were allocated to two treatments fed the same basal diet with 1·45 % Mg(OH)2 or 0·6 % elemental Mg. After 28 d of adaptation, we collected total faeces to measure total tract digestibility, rumen contents to analyse fermentation end products and microbial groups, and measured methane (CH4) emission using respiration chambers...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926922/potential-use-and-the-energy-conversion-efficiency-analysis-of-fermentation-effluents-from-photo-and-dark-fermentative-bio-hydrogen-production
#4
Zhiping Zhang, Yameng Li, Huan Zhang, Chao He, Quanguo Zhang
Effluent of bio-hydrogen production system also can be adopted to produce methane for further fermentation, cogeneration of hydrogen and methane will significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency. Platanus Orientalis leaves were taken as the raw material for photo- and dark-fermentation bio-hydrogen production. The resulting concentrations of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and ethanol in the photo- and dark-fermentation effluents were 2966mg/L and 624mg/L, 422mg/L and 1624mg/L, 1365mg/L and 558mg/L, and 866mg/L and 1352mg/L, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926921/two-stage-anaerobic-digestion-of-sugar-beet-silage-the-effect-of-the-ph-value-on-process-parameters-and-process-efficiency
#5
Elzbieta Kumanowska, Mariana Uruñuela Saldaña, Simon Zielonka, Hans Oechsner
The study investigated the influence of the target pH-values 4.5, 5, 5.5 and 6 in the acidification reactor on process parameters, such as substrate-specific methane yield and the intermediates, in the two-stage anaerobic digestion of sugar beet silage. The total specific methane yield (Nlkg(-1)CODd(-1)) increased with an increase in the pH (pH 4.5: 140.58±70.08, pH 5: 181.21±55.71, pH 5.5: 218.32±51.01, pH 6: 256.47±28.78). The pH-value also had an effect on the dominant intermediate in hydrolysate. At the pH-value of 4...
September 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926918/effects-of-graphene-oxide-on-the-performance-microbial-community-dynamics-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-reduction-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-swine-manure
#6
Junya Zhang, Ziyue Wang, Yawei Wang, Hui Zhong, Qianwen Sui, Changping Zhang, Yuansong Wei
The role of graphene oxide (GO) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure concerning the performance, microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) reduction was investigated. Results showed that methane production was reduced by 13.1%, 10.6%, 2.7% and 17.1% at GO concentration of 5mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L and 500mg/L, respectively, but propionate degradation was enhanced along with GO addition. Both bacterial and archaeal community changed little after GO addition. AD could well reduce ARGs abundance, but it was deteriorated at the GO concentration of 50mg/L and 100mg/L and enhanced at 500mg/L, while no obvious changes at 5mg/L...
September 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926916/improved-methanization-and-microbial-diversity-during-batch-mode-cultivation-with-repetition-of-substrate-addition-using-defined-organic-matter-and-marine-sediment-inoculum-at-seawater-salinity
#7
Toyokazu Miura, Akihisa Kita, Yoshiko Okamura, Tsunehiro Aki, Yukihiko Matsumura, Takahisa Tajima, Junichi Kato, Yutaka Nakashimada
The activation of microbes, which are needed to initiate continuous methane production, can be accomplished by fed-batch methanization. In the present study, marine sediment inoculum was activated by batch mode methanization with repetition of substrate addition using defined organic matter from sugar, protein, or fat at seawater salinity to investigate the potential for application of the activation method to various types of saline waste and microbial community compositions. All substrates had methane potentials close to the theoretical value except for bovine serum albumin (BSA) whose methane potential was lower, but the maximum methane potential reached the value during repeated methanization...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926915/bioelectrochemical-methane-ch4-production-in-anaerobic-digestion-at-different-supplemental-voltages
#8
Kwang-Soon Choi, Sanath Kondaveeti, Booki Min
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) at various cell voltages (0.5, 0.7 1.0 and 1.5V) were operated in anaerobic fermentation. During the start-up period, the cathode potential decreased from -0.63 to -1.01V, and CH4 generation increased from 168 to 199ml. At an applied voltage of 1.0V, the highest methane yields of 408.3ml CH4/g COD glucose was obtained, which was 30.3% higher than in the control tests (313.4ml CH4/g COD glucose). The average current of 5.1mA was generated at 1.0V at which the maximum methane yield was obtained...
September 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926913/enhanced-methanogenic-degradation-of-cellulose-containing-sewage-via-fungi-methanogens-syntrophic-association-in-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor
#9
Rong Chen, Yulun Nie, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Qigui Niu, Qian Li, Yu-You Li
An anaerobic membrane bioreactor was configured for methanogenic degradation of cellulose-containing sewage. The degradation performance and microbial changes were evaluated under five hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results indicated the methane production was largely enhanced with 92.6% efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) converting to methane and 80% proportion of methane in produced biogas, meanwhile the biomass yield presented the fewest at the shortest HRT 8h. Enhanced methane production with decreased biomass yield was attributed to an association between fungi and methanogens...
September 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926908/importance-of-inoculum-source-and-initial-community-structure-for-biogas-production-from-agricultural-substrates
#10
Tong Liu, Li Sun, Bettina Müller, Anna Schnürer
This study evaluated the importance of inoculum source for start-up and operation of biogas processes. Three different inocula with different community structure were used to initiate six laboratory continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) processes operated with a grass manure mixture as substrate. The processes were evaluated by chemical and microbiological analysis, by targeting the overall bacterial community and potential cellulose-degrading bacteria. As expected, the results showed a large difference in community structure in the inocula and in process performance during the first hydraulic retention time (HRT)...
September 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926254/new-in-situ-measurements-of-the-viscosity-of-gas-clathrate-hydrate-slurries-formed-from-model-water-in-oil-emulsions
#11
Ahmad Majid, David T Wu, Carolyn A Koh
In-situ rheological measurements for clathrate hydrate slurries were performed using a high pressure rheometer to determine the effect of hydrate particles on the viscosity and transportability of these slurries. These measurements were conducted using a well-characterized model water-in-oil emulsion1. The emulsion consists of a model liquid hydrocarbon, water, and a surfactant mixture of sorbitane monooleate 80 (Span 80) and sodium di-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT, AOT). This emulsion was used as an analog to water-in-crude oil (w/o) emulsions and provides reproducible results...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925579/nutrient-and-acetate-amendment-leads-to-acetoclastic-methane-production-and-microbial-community-change-in-a-non-producing-australian-coal-well
#12
Michiel H In 't Zandt, Sabrina Beckmann, Ruud Rijkers, Mike S M Jetten, Mike Manefield, Cornelia U Welte
Coal mining is responsible for 11% of total anthropogenic methane emission thereby contributing considerably to climate change. Attempts to harvest coalbed methane for energy production are challenged by relatively low methane concentrations. In this study, we investigated whether nutrient and acetate amendment of a non-producing sub-bituminous coal well could transform the system to a methane source. We tracked cell counts, methane production, acetate concentration and geochemical parameters for 25 months in one amended and one unamended coal well in Australia...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925545/methane-delays-the-senescence-and-browning-in-daylily-buds-by-re-established-redox-homeostasis
#13
Huali Hu, Dan Liu, Pengxia Li
BACKGROUND: During the postharvest senescence of fruits and vegetables, redox imbalance occurs. Although the release of methane (CH4 ) has been observed for a long time and its antioxidant properties have recently been demonstrated in animals and plants, the corresponding physiological role of CH4 in regulating plant senescence has not yet been elucidated. RESULTS: Here, our results indicate that the postharvest deterioration of daylily buds during storage is greatly ameliorated by the exogenous application of CH4 , particularly in the inhibition of tissue browning...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923658/corrigendum-to-between-cow-variation-in-digestion-and-rumen-fermentation-variables-associated-with-methane-production-j-dairy-sci-100-4409-4424
#14
E H Cabezas-Garcia, S J Krizsan, K J Shingfield, P Huhtanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922643/vacuum-ultraviolet-photoabsorption-of-prime-ice-analogues-of-pluto-and-charon
#15
S Pavithraa, J-I Lo, K Rahul, B N Raja Sekhar, B-M Cheng, N J Mason, B Sivaraman
Here we present the first Vacuum UltraViolet (VUV) photoabsorption spectra of ice analogues of Pluto and Charon ice mixtures. For Pluto the ice analogue is an icy mixture containing nitrogen (N2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and water (H2O) prepared with a 100:1:1:3 ratio, respectively. Photoabsorption of icy mixtures with and without H2O were recorded and no significant changes in the spectra due to presence of H2O were observed. For Charon a VUV photoabsorption spectra of an ice analogue containing ammonia (NH3) and H2O prepared with a 1:1 ratio was recorded, a spectrum of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) was also recorded...
August 26, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920699/visible-light-mediated-anti-regioselective-nitrone-1-3-dipolar-cycloaddition-reaction-and-synthesis-of-bisindolylmethanes
#16
Lewei Zheng, Fei Gao, Chao Yang, Guo-Lin Gao, Yating Zhao, Yuan Gao, Wujiong Xia
The development of photoredox reactions of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrones with alkenes is reported. It offers an efficient synthetic method to obtain isoxazolidine derivatives under mild conditions in synthetically useful yields. The nitrones are cyclized with oxidizable styrenes and aliphatic alkenes via a polar radical crossover cycloaddition reaction through photocatalytic reaction without additives. In addition, bis(indole)methanes can also be prepared through this method.
September 18, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919881/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-growth-supporting-dehalogenation-of-chlorinated-methanes-in-methylobacterium
#17
Pauline Chaignaud, Bruno Maucourt, Marion Weiman, Adriana Alberti, Steffen Kolb, Stéphane Cruveiller, Stéphane Vuilleumier, Françoise Bringel
Bacterial adaptation to growth with toxic halogenated chemicals was explored in the context of methylotrophic metabolism of Methylobacterium extorquens, by comparing strains CM4 and DM4, which show robust growth with chloromethane and dichloromethane, respectively. Dehalogenation of chlorinated methanes initiates growth-supporting degradation, with intracellular release of protons and chloride ions in both cases. The core, variable and strain-specific genomes of strains CM4 and DM4 were defined by comparison with genomes of non-dechlorinating strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919475/improvement-of-methane-content-in-a-hydrogenotrophic-anaerobic-digester-via-the-proper-operation-of-membrane-module-integrated-into-an-external-loop
#18
Felipe Ojeda, Péter Bakonyi, Germán Buitrón
This work assessed the feasibility of a hydrogenotrophic biogas process integrated with a membrane module in the external-loop design. The major scope was to conduct the investigation from the perspective of the membrane unit and reveal how the operating strategy influences the efficiency of biogas formation. It was observed that the fermenter worked with an improved efficacy, indicated by the higher concentration of methane in the headspace (80-90%) when the gas loading intensity, defined as the ratio of inlet gas permeation rate and the circulation rate of the liquid phase, was adjusted to lower values (3-5...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918527/alterations-in-epididymal-proteomics-and-antioxidant-activity-of-mice-exposed-to-fluoride
#19
Zilong Sun, Sujuan Li, Yuxiang Yu, Hongyu Chen, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Ram Kumar Manthari, Ruiyan Niu, Jundong Wang
It is well known that high fluoride results in low fertility. Epididymis is the important place for spermatozoa maturation, which is essential for successful fertilization. In the previous studies, fluoride was reported to damage the epididymal structure of mouse and rabbit. However, the mechanism underlying sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced epididymal toxicity has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore the global protein alterations in epididymis of mice exposed to NaF using the iTRAQ technique...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918347/anaerobic-digestion-of-brewery-spent-grains-trace-elements-addition-requirement
#20
Claire Bougrier, Delphine Dognin, Cécile Laroche, Valérie Gonzalez, Dalel Benali-Raclot, Jesús Andrés Cacho Rivero
The current study evaluates and compares the stability of anaerobic digestion of Brewery Spent Grains (BSG) with and without addition of nutrients. Based on the composition of the BSG two levels of nutrients addition were defined. Control reactor, without addition of nutrients, showed signs of instability after 3months of operation and collapsed. On the contrary, supplemented reactors led to a COD removal rate of 60% and a methane production of 280NLCH4.kg(-1) VSadded. According to these results, it was possible to define an additive solution adapted to BSG degradation...
September 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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