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Chayanon Sawatdeenarunat, Hyungseok Nam, Sushil Adhikari, Shihwu Sung, Samir Kumar Khanal
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass i.e. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), was investigated via a series of batch and bench-scale experiments. Two semi-continuous bench-scale horizontal bioreactors were operated in parallel for nearly 300 days, and the reactors were able to handle the organic loading rate (OLR) up to 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m(3)-d, which was among the highest OLR reported in the literature for lignocellulosic biomass. Hemicellulose was the main structural carbohydrate of lignocellulosic biomass per unit respective mass (dry weight) basis contributing to methane production...
November 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ying Li, Yongming Sun, Lianhua Li, Zhenhong Yuan
The acid-tolerant methanogenic propionate degradation culture was acclimated in a propionate-fed semi-continuous bioreactor by daily adjusting the digestate pH. The performance of propionate fermentation, the respond of microbial community structure to the acidic environment, and the microbial network for propionate degradation in the acid-tolerant culture was investigated. The results demonstrated that after long term of acclimation to low pH, the digester could produce methane from propionate at pH 4.8-5...
November 13, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Manoj Kumar, Joseph S Francisco
Using theoretical calculations and Born Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown here that Criegee intermediate, which is principally produced in the olefin ozonolysis, can activate H-X (X = H, CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, and SiH3) under mild conditions, a reaction that has long been known for transition metals. The zwitter ionic electronic structure of Criegee intermediate makes it an interesting metal-free system for activating enthalpically strong small molecules such as H2, methane, silanes, and boranes...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Pengfei Liu, Bianca Pommerenke, Ralf Conrad
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and acetate is the most important intermediate (average 70%) of the carbon flow to CH4 in paddy fields. Sulfate (e.g., gypsum) application can reduce CH4 emissions up to 70%. However, the effect of gypsum application on acetate degradation and the microbial communities involved are unclear. Therefore, we studied acetate-dependent sulfate reduction in anoxic microcosms of Italian rice paddy soil, combining profiling of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrB) genes and transcripts and rRNA based stable isotope probing (SIP) analysis...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Ana L Arantes, Joana I Alves, Alfons J M Stams, M Madalena Alves, Diana Z Sousa
The substitution of natural gas by renewable biomethane is an interesting option to reduce global carbon footprint. Syngas fermentation has potential in this context, as a diverse range of low-biodegradable materials that can be used. In this study, anaerobic sludge acclimatized to syngas in a multi-orifice baffled bioreactor (MOBB) was used to start enrichments with CO. The main goals were to identify the key players in CO conversion and evaluate potential interspecies metabolic interactions conferring robustness to the process...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Ke Nie, Kun Wang, Deng-Feng Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Wu Yin, Da-Long Ren, Han Wang, Bing Hu
The circadian clock is an endogenous and entrainable time-keeping mechanism with a period of approximately 24 h, operated by transcription/translation feedback loops composed of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The visual system displays robust circadian changes. Relatively little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying visual circadian rhythmicity. Zebrafish period1b (per1b), as a canonical circadian clock gene, is involved in circadian regulation. Here, we observed that zebrafish per1b mutants exhibit visual defects including reduced behavioral contrast sensitivity and significant retinal dopaminergic deficiency...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
Aliasghar Ebrahimi, Hassan Hashemi, Hadi Eslami, Reza Ali Fallahzadeh, Rasoul Khosravi, Roohollah Askari, Esmail Ghahramani
In this study, laboratory anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) with four units was used to reduce and remove COD leachate of composting process; it was also used to determine the kinetic coefficients of COD removal and biogas and methane gas production in several different OLRs. The maximum concentration of organic matter entering the reactor was 100,000 mg/L and the reactor was under operation for 319 days. The results showed that the COD removal efficiency of AMBR in all concentrations of substrate entering the reactor was above 80%...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Sayantan Sarkar, Wei Hong Fan, Shiguo Jia, Donald R Blake, Jeffrey S Reid, Puji Lestari, Liya E Yu
This work reports the first ground-based atmospheric measurements of 26 halocarbons in Singapore, an urban-industrial city-state in Southeast (SE) Asia. A total of 166 whole air canister samples collected during two intensive 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) campaigns (August-October 2011 and 2012) were analyzed for C1-C2 halocarbons using gas chromatography-electron capture/mass spectrometric detection. The halocarbon dataset was supplemented with measurements of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, sulfur gases and carbon monoxide to better understand sources and atmospheric processes...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Souradeep Gupta, Harn Wei Kua, Hui Jun Koh
Landfilling of food waste due to its low recycling rate is raising serious concerns because of associated soil and water contamination, and emission of methane and other greenhouse gases during the degradation process. This paper explores feasibility of using biochar derived from mixed food waste (FWBC), rice waste (RWBC) and wood waste (mixed wood saw dust, MWBC) as carbon sequestering additive in mortar. RWBC is prepared from boiled plain rice, while FWBC is prepared from combination of rice, meat, and vegetables in fixed proportion...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Marina Aghayan, Dmitriy Potemkin, Fernando Rubio-Marcos, Sergey Uskov, P Snytnikov, Irina Hussainova
Efficient capture and recycling of CO2 enable not only preventing global warming but also to supplying useful low-carbon fuels. The catalytic conversion of CO2 into organic compound is a promising recycling approach which opens new concepts and opportunities for catalytic and industrial development. Here we report about template-assisted wet-combustion synthesis of one-dimensional nickel-based catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation and methane steam reforming. Due to a high temperature achieved in a short time during reaction and a large amount of gases evolved, the wet-combustion synthesis yields homogeneously precipitated nanoparticles of NiO with average particle size of 4 nm on alumina nanofibers covered with NiAl2O4 nano-layer...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juliana Valle, Michael Gonsior, Mourad Harir, Alex Enrich-Prast, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, David Bastviken, Ralf Conrad, Norbert Hertkorn
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contained in lake sediments is a carbon source for many microbial degradation processes, including aerobic and anaerobic mineralization. During anaerobic degradation, DOM is partially consumed and transformed into new molecules while the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are produced. In this study, we used ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to trace differences in the composition of solid-phase extractable (PPL resin) pore water DOM (SPE-DOM) isolated from surface sediments of three boreal lakes before and after 40 days of anoxic incubation, with concomitant determination of CH4 and CO2 evolution...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
Zisheng Zhao, Yang Li, Qilin Yu, Yaobin Zhang
ZVI was reported to enrich H2-utilizing methanogens that enhanced interspecies H2 transfer, while Fe(III) oxide served as a conductive material to promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET). However, the interaction of these two modes in anaerobic digestion has not been clarified yet. In this study, when adding Fe3O4 and ZVI simultaneously into an anaerobic digester, the abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens decreased drastically compared to ZVI-added digester and Fe-free digester. However, the methane production of ZVI + Fe3O4 added digester were 68...
November 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Liansun Wu, Peter W G Groot Koerkamp, Nico Ogink
The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure and rank cows' methane production. A range of controlled methane fluxes from a so-called artificial reference cow were dosed in a feed bin, and its exhaled air was sampled by a tube inside the feeder and analyzed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Nikhilesh S Trivedi, Sachin A Mandavgane, Ashish Chaurasia
Organic matter derived from living, or recently living plant and animal, which can be used as fuel is called as biomass. It includes wood and agricultural waste such as dead plant etc. In India, majority of population depends largely upon agriculture as their primary source of income. Following every harvest, a huge amount of biomass is generated. It is mostly discarded as "agro waste"; however, recently, several uses of biomass and its derivatives have been reported. Thermochemical processing of biomass in absence of oxygen produces biomass char and flue gases which are of economic importance...
November 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hyunjin Park, Jineun Kim, Hansu Im, Tae Ho Kim
The reaction of copper(I) iodide with 1-[2-(cyclo-hexyl-sulfan-yl)eth-yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one (L, C13H19NOS) in aceto-nitrile/di-chloro-methane results in a crystalline coordination polymer, namely poly[bis-{μ2-1-[2-(cyclo-hexyl-sulfan-yl)eth-yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one}tetra-μ3-iodido-tetra-copper(I)], [Cu4I4L2] n . The asymmetric unit comprises two ligand mol-ecules, four copper(I) ions and four iodide ions. Inter-estingly, the O atoms are bound to the soft copper(I) ions. The stair-step clusters of Cu and I atoms in the asymmetric unit are linked repeatedly, giving rise to infinite chains along [100]...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Wayland E Noland, Janel L Rieger, Zoe H Tu, Kenneth J Tritch
The title co-crystal, C8H3Br2NO2·0.5C14H10, was self-assembled from a 2:1 mixture of the components in slowly evaporating di-chloro-methane. The mol-ecules adopt a sheet structure parallel to (1-12) in which carb-oxy hydrogen-bonded dimers and anthracene mol-ecules stagger in both dimensions. Within the sheets, six individual cyano acid mol-ecules surround each anthracene mol-ecule. Cyano acid mol-ecules form one of the two possible R2(2)(10) rings between neighboring cyano and bromo groups. Compared to the di-chloro analog [Britton (2012 ▸)...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Eric Bosch, Emily N McClain
The title compounds were obtained by deprotonation of 1,2,4-tri-hydroxy-anthra-quinone (purpurin) using sodium hydride followed by reaction with either 1-bromo-propane or 1-bromo-butane. 1,4-Dihy-droxy-2-propoxyanthra-quinone crystallizes as a 1:1 solvate from aceto-nitrile, C17H14O5·CH3CN. The anthra-quinone core of the mol-ecule is essentially planar and both hy-droxy groups participate in intra-molecular O-H⋯O (carbon-yl) hydrogen bonds. The propyl chain is angled slightly above the plane of the anthra-quinone moiety with a maximum deviation of 0...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Christopher S Frampton, Joseph J McKendrick, David D MacNicol
The title compound, C22H22OS [systematic name: 4-(1,3,3-trimethyl-2,3-di-hydro-1H-4-thia-phenanthren-1-yl)phenol], crystallizes unsolvated from nitro-methane as colourless prisms (m.p. 425-427 K) in the polar monoclinic space group Ia with Z' = 2 (mol-ecules A and B). Both independent mol-ecules possess a very similar proximal conformation, this referring to the juxtaposition of the 4-hy-droxy-phenyl substituent with respect to the syn-related methyl group. In the crystal, mol-ecule A is linked to mol-ecule B by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Michał Gaworski, Sławomir Jabłoński, Izabela Pawlaczyk-Graja, Rafał Ziewiecki, Piotr Rutkowski, Anna Wieczyńska, Roman Gancarz, Marcin Łukaszewicz
Background: Pig manure utilization and valorization is an important topic with tightening regulations focused on ecological and safety issues. By itself pig manure is a poor substrate for biogas production because of its excessive nitrogen content relative to available organic carbon. Such substrate is alkaline, and methanogenesis can be suppressed, and so additional substrates with high organic carbon must be added. The most promising is straw, which is available from adjacent biogas plant cultures...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
G A Broderick
Ruminant livestock have the ability to produce high-quality human food from feedstuffs of little or no value for humans. Balanced essential amino acid composition of meat and milk from ruminants makes those protein sources valuable adjuncts to human diets. It is anticipated that there will be increasing demand for ruminant proteins in the future. Increasing productivity per animal dilutes out the nutritional and environmental costs of maintenance and rearing dairy animals up to production. A number of nutritional strategies improve production per animal such as ration balancing in smallholder operations and small grain supplements to ruminants fed high-forage diets...
November 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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