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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331462/genetic-background-of-methane-emission-by-dutch-holstein-friesian-cows-measured-with-infrared-sensors-in-automatic-milking-systems
#1
S van Engelen, H Bovenhuis, P P J van der Tol, M H P W Visker
International environmental agreements have led to the need to reduce methane emission by dairy cows. Reduction could be achieved through selective breeding. The aim of this study was to quantify the genetic variation of methane emission by Dutch Holstein Friesian cows measured using infrared sensors installed in automatic milking systems (AMS). Measurements of CH4 and CO2 on 1508 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows located on 11 commercial dairy farms were available. Phenotypes per AMS visit were the mean of CH4, mean of CO2, mean of CH4 divided by mean of CO2, and their log10-transformations...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331459/garlic-allium-sativum-l-fed-to-dairy-cows-does-not-modify-the-cheese-making-properties-of-milk-but-affects-the-color-texture-and-flavor-of-ripened-cheese
#2
Giulia Rossi, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanna Lomolino, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alberto Simonetto, Giovanni Bittante, Franco Tagliapietra
Garlic and garlic components have recently been proposed as ruminal activity modulators to reduce the enteric methane emissions of ruminants, but little is known of their influence on milk coagulation properties, nutrient recovery, cheese yield, and sensorial and rheological characteristics of milk and cheese. The present study assessed the effects of garlic and diallyl sulfide supplements on dry matter intake (DMI), productive performance, milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, milk and cheese sensory profiles, and rheological characteristics...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331458/genetic-correlations-between-methane-production-and-fertility-health-and-body-type-traits-in-danish-holstein-cows
#3
L Zetouni, M Kargo, E Norberg, J Lassen
Our aim was to investigate the genetic correlations between CH4 production and body conformation, fertility, and health traits in dairy cows. Data were collected from 10 commercial Holstein herds in Denmark, including 5,758 cows with records for body conformation traits, 7,390 for fertility traits, 7,439 for health traits, and 1,397 with individual CH4 measurements. Methane production was measured during milking in automatic milking systems, using a sniffer approach. Correlations between CH4 and several different traits were estimated...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330191/thermophilic-alkaline-fermentation-followed-by-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-for-efficient-hydrogen-and-methane-production-from-waste-activated-sludge-focusing-on-dynamics-of-bacterial-pathogens-as-revealed-by-the-combination-of-metagenomic-and-qpcr-analysis
#4
Jingjing Wan, Yuhang Jing, Yue Rao, Shicheng Zhang, Gang Luo
Thermophilic alkaline fermentation followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (TM) for hydrogen and methane production from waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. TM process was also compared to mesophilic alkaline fermentation followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MM) process and one-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion (M) process. The results showed that both hydrogen yield (74.5 mLH2/gVS) and methane yield (150.7 mLCH4/gVS) in TM process were higher than those (6.7 mLH2/gVS and 127.8 mLCH4/gVS) in MM process...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329657/the-development-and-trial-of-an-unmanned-aerial-system-for-the-measurement-of-methane-flux-from-landfill-and-greenhouse-gas-emission-hotspots
#5
Grant Allen, Peter Hollingsworth, Khristopher Kabbabe, Joseph R Pitt, Mohammed I Mead, Samuel Illingworth, Gareth Roberts, Mark Bourn, Dudley E Shallcross, Carl J Percival
This paper describes the development of a new sampling and measurement method to infer methane flux using proxy measurements of CO2 concentration and wind data recorded by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The flux method described and trialed here is appropriate to the spatial scale of landfill sites and analogous greenhouse gas emission hotspots, making it an important new method for low-cost and rapid case study quantification of fluxes from currently uncertain (but highly important) greenhouse gas sources...
January 9, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328986/post-anaerobic-digestion-thermal-hydrolysis-of-sewage-sludge-and-food-waste-effect-on-methane-yields-dewaterability-and-solids-reduction
#6
Kine Svensson, Oda Kjørlaug, Matthew J Higgins, Roar Linjordet, Svein J Horn
Post-anaerobic digestion (PAD) treatment technologies have been suggested for anaerobic digestion (AD) to improve process efficiency and assure hygenization of organic waste. Because AD reduces the amount of organic waste, PAD can be applied to a much smaller volume of waste compared to pre-digestion treatment, thereby improving efficiency. In this study, dewatered digestate cakes from two different AD plants were thermally hydrolyzed and dewatered, and the liquid fraction was recirculated to a semi-continuous AD reactor...
January 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328934/anaerobic-co-digestion-of-coffee-husks-and-microalgal-biomass-after-thermal-hydrolysis
#7
Fabiana Passos, Paulo Henrique Miranda Cordeiro, Bruno Eduardo Lobo Baeta, Sergio Francisco de Aquino, Sara Isabel Perez-Elvira
Residual coffee husks after seed processing may be better profited if bioconverted into energy through anaerobic digestion. This process may be improved by implementing a pretreatment step and by co-digesting the coffee husks with a more liquid biomass. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the anaerobic co-digestion of coffee husks with microalgal biomass. For this, both substrates were pretreated separately and in a mixture for attaining 15% of total solids (TS), which was demonstrated to be the minimum solid content for pretreatment of coffee husks...
December 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328931/biostimulation-and-bioaugmentation-of-native-microbial-community-accelerated-bioremediation-of-oil-refinery-sludge
#8
Ajoy Roy, Avishek Dutta, Siddhartha Pal, Abhishek Gupta, Jayeeta Sarkar, Ananya Chatterjee, Anumeha Saha, Poulomi Sarkar, Pinaki Sar, Sufia K Kazy
Scope for developing an engineered bioremediation strategy for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich petroleum refinery waste was investigated through biostimulation and bioaugmentation approaches. Enhanced (46-55%) total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) attenuation was achieved through phosphate, nitrate or nitrate+phosphate amendment in the sludge with increased (upto 12%) abundance of fermentative, hydrocarbon degrading, sulfate-reducing, CO2-assimilating and methanogenic microorganisms (Bacillus, Coprothermobacter, Rhodobacter, Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Desulfitobacter, Desulfosporosinus, T78, Methanobacterium, Methanosaeta, etc)...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328535/an-exceptionally-close-non-bonded-hydrogen-hydrogen-contact-with-strong-through-space-spin-spin-coupling
#9
Yonglong Xiao, Joel T Mague, Robert A Pascal
Condensation of 1,8,13-tris(mercaptomethyl)triptycene and tris(bromomethyl)methane yields an in,in-cyclophane with two inwardly directed methine groups. Based on X-ray analysis and DFT and MP2 calculations, the hydrogen-hydrogen non-bonded contact distance is estimated to be 1.50-1.53 Å. In addition, the two in-hydrogen atoms show obvious spin-spin coupling with J = 2.0 Hz.
January 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327072/naproxen-is-transformed-via-acetogenesis-and-syntrophic-acetate-oxidation-by-a-methanogenic-wastewater-consortium
#10
Sarah J Wolfson, Abigail W Porter, Julia K Campbell, Lily Y Young
Over-the-counter pharmaceutical compounds can serve as microbial substrates in wastewater treatment processes as well as in the environment. The metabolic pathways and intermediates produced during their degradation, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate an anaerobic wastewater community that metabolizes naproxen via demethylation. Enriched cultures, established from anaerobic digester inocula receiving naproxen as the sole carbon source, transformed naproxen to 6-O-desmethylnaproxen (DMN) within 22 days...
January 11, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327003/carbon-dots-as-absorbance-promoter-probes-for-detection-of-cu-ii-ions-in-aqueous-solution-central-composite-design-approach
#11
S A R Shahamirifard, M Ghaedi, M Montazerozohori, A Masoudiasl
In this work, the use of carbon dots (CDs) as a complexing agent and sensitizer in a polymeric matrix for determination of copper(ii) by UV-vis spectroscopy is reported for the first time. A new and highly selective Schiff base, namely, (N',N'''E,N',N'''E)-N',N'''-((((2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(oxy))bis(2,1-phenylene))bis(methan-ylylidene))di(isonicotinohydrazide) (NHBMDI), was also incorporated in the polymeric matrix. For the first time, the membrane composition of the proposed optical sensor including NHBMDI as the ionophore, tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as the anionic additive, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as the plasticizer and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as the immobilizer was optimized through central composite design combined with the desirability function approach (DFA) because this method saves material and time consumption and is therefore cost effective...
January 12, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324293/biofilms-active-substrata-and-me
#12
REVIEW
Bruce E Rittmann
Having worked with biofilms since the 1970s, I know that they are ubiquitous in nature, of great value in water technology, and scientifically fascinating. Biofilms are naturally able to remove BOD, transform N, generate methane, and biodegrade micropollutants. What I also discovered is that biofilms can do a lot more for us in terms of providing environmental services if we give them a bit of help. Here, I explore how we can use active substrata to enable our biofilm partners to provide particularly challenging environmental services...
December 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323701/positive-diversity-functioning-relationships-in-model-communities-of-methanotrophic-bacteria
#13
Elvira Schnyder, Paul L E Bodelier, Martin Hartmann, Ruth Henneberger, Pascal A Niklaus
Biodiversity enhances ecosystem functions such as biomass production and nutrient cycling. Although the majority of the terrestrial biodiversity is hidden in soils, very little is known about the importance of the diversity of microbial communities for soil functioning. Here, we tested effects of biodiversity on the functioning of methanotrophs, a specialized group of soil bacteria that plays a key role in mediating greenhouse gas emissions from soils. Using pure strains of methanotrophic bacteria, we assembled artificial communities of different diversity levels, with which we inoculated sterile soil microcosms...
January 11, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323216/characterization-of-isoprene-derived-secondary-organic-aerosols-at-a-rural-site-in-north-china-plain-with-implications-for-anthropogenic-pollution-effects
#14
Jianjun Li, Gehui Wang, Can Wu, Cong Cao, Yanqin Ren, Jiayuan Wang, Jin Li, Junji Cao, Limin Zeng, Tong Zhu
Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) and the largest contributor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden on a global scale. In order to examine the influence of high concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants on isoprene-derived SOA (SOA i ) formation, summertime PM2.5 filter samples were collected with a three-hour sampling interval at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP), and determined for SOA i tracers and other chemical species. RO2+NO pathway derived 2-methylglyceric acid presented a relatively higher contribution to the SOA i due to the high-NOx (~20 ppb) conditions in the NCP that suppressed the reactive uptake of RO2+HO2 reaction derived isoprene epoxydiols...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323168/variations-in-bacterial-and-archaeal-communities-along-depth-profiles-of-alaskan-soil-cores
#15
Binu Mani Tripathi, Mincheol Kim, Yongwon Kim, Eunji Byun, Ji-Woong Yang, Jinho Ahn, Yoo Kyung Lee
Understating the microbial communities and ecological processes that influence their structure in permafrost soils is crucial for predicting the consequences of climate change. In this study we investigated the bacterial and archaeal communities along depth profiles of four soil cores collected across Alaska. The bacterial and archaeal diversity (amplicon sequencing) overall decreased along the soil depth but the depth-wise pattern of their abundances (qPCR) varied by sites. The community structure of bacteria and archaea displayed site-specific pattern, with a greater role of soil geochemical characteristics rather than soil depth...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323116/impact-on-short-lived-climate-forcers-increases-projected-warming-due-to-deforestation
#16
C E Scott, S A Monks, D V Spracklen, S R Arnold, P M Forster, A Rap, M Äijälä, P Artaxo, K S Carslaw, M P Chipperfield, M Ehn, S Gilardoni, L Heikkinen, M Kulmala, T Petäjä, C L S Reddington, L V Rizzo, E Swietlicki, E Vignati, C Wilson
The climate impact of deforestation depends on the relative strength of several biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects. In addition to affecting the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture with the atmosphere and surface albedo, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that alter the formation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which include aerosol, ozone and methane. Here we show that a scenario of complete global deforestation results in a net positive radiative forcing (RF; 0...
January 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322776/altered-serum-metabolite-profiling-and-relevant-pathways-analysis-in-rats-stimulated-by-honeybee-venom-a-new-insight-into-allergy-to-honeybee-venom
#17
Yazhou Zhao, Jianmei Zhang, Yanping Chen, Zhiguo Li, Hongyi Nie, Wenjun Peng, Songkun Su
To improve our understanding of the disturbed metabolic pathways and cellular responses triggered by honeybee venom stimulation, we compared the changes in serum metabolites rats, either stimulated or not by honeybee venom by performing 1H NMR spectrometry-based metabonomics to identify potential biomarkers. In this study, 65 metabolites were structurally confirmed and quantified and the following results were obtained. Firstly, by pattern recognition analysis, 14 metabolites were selected as potential biomarkers 3 hrs after venom stimulation...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319323/synthesis-of-alkenyl-boronates-from-epoxides-with-di-b-pin-methane-via-pd-catalyzed-dehydroboration
#18
Stephanie A Murray, Eugenia C M Luc, Simon J Meek
A practical and broadly applicable catalytic method for the synthesis of (E)-alkenylborons is presented. Reactions are promoted by [Pd(Cl)(η3-C3H5)]2 and proceed by the dehydroboration of cyclic borates. Through the use of epoxides and readily available di-B(pin)-methane (pin = pinacolato), a range of allylic alcohol-containing alkenyl boronates, including those that contain a tertiary alcohol, may be prepared in up to 75% yield and >20:1 E/Z.
January 10, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319305/smart-pd-catalyst-with-improved-thermal-stability-supported-on-high-surface-area-lafeo3-prepared-by-atomic-layer-deposition
#19
Tzia Ming Onn, Matteo Monai, Sheng Dai, Emiliano Fonda, Tiziano Montini, Xiaoqing Pan, George W Graham, Paolo Fornasiero, Raymond J Gorte
The concept of self-regenerating or "smart" catalysts, developed to mitigate the problem of supported metal particle coarsening in high-temperature applications, involves redispersing large metal particles by incorporating them into a perovskite-structured support under oxidizing conditions and then exsolving them as small metal particles under reducing conditions. Unfortunately, the redispersion process does not appear to work in practice because the surface areas of the perovskite supports are too low and the diffusion lengths for the metal ions within the bulk perovskite too short...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318248/flux-synthesis-of-regular-bi4tao8cl-square-nanoplates-exhibiting-dominant-exposure-surfaces-of-001-crystal-facets-for-photocatalytic-reduction-of-co2-to-methane
#20
Liang Li, Qiutong Han, Lanqin Tang, Yuan Zhang, Ping Li, Yong Zhou, Zhigang Zou
Herein, orthorhombic regular Bi4TaO8Cl square nanoplates with an edge length of about 500 nm and a thickness of about 100 nm were successfully synthesized using a facile molten salt route. The as-prepared square nanoplates have been proven to be of {001} crystal facets as two dominantly exposed surfaces. The density functional theory calculation and photo-deposition of noble metal experiment demonstrate the electron and hole separation on different crystal facets and reveal that {001} crystal facets are in favor of the reduction reaction...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
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