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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527116/genome-editing-in-drosophila-melanogaster-from-basic-genome-engineering-to-the-multipurpose-crispr-cas9-system
#1
REVIEW
Xingjie Ren, Kristof Holsteens, Haiyi Li, Jin Sun, Yifan Zhang, Lu-Ping Liu, Qingfei Liu, Jian-Quan Ni
Nowadays, genome editing tools are indispensable for studying gene function in order to increase our knowledge of biochemical processes and disease mechanisms. The extensive availability of mutagenesis and transgenesis tools make Drosophila melanogaster an excellent model organism for geneticists. Early mutagenesis tools relied on chemical or physical methods, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and X-rays respectively, to randomly alter DNA at a nucleotide or chromosomal level. Since the discovery of transposable elements and the availability of the complete fly genome, specific genome editing tools, such as P-elements, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have undergone rapid development...
May 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526787/development-of-multi-well-plate-methods-using-pure-cultures-of-methanogens-to-identify-new-inhibitors-for-suppressing-ruminant-methane-emissions
#2
M R Weimar, J Cheung, D Dey, C McSweeney, M Morrison, Y Kobayashi, W B Whitman, V Carbone, L R Schofield, R S Ronimus, G M Cook
Hydrogenotrophic methanogens typically require strictly anaerobic culturing conditions in glass tubes with overpressures of H2 and CO2 that are both time-consuming and costly. To increase the throughput for screening chemical compound libraries, 96-well microtiter plate methods for the growth of a marine (environmental) methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis strain S2 and the rumen methanogen Methanobrevibacter species AbM4 were developed. A number of key parameters (inoculum size, reducing agents for media preparation, duration of assay, inhibitor solvents and culture volume) were optimised to achieve robust and reproducible growth in a high-throughput microtiter plate format...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526272/enhancement-of-waste-activated-sludge-was-anaerobic-digestion-by-means-of-pre-and-intermediate-treatments-technical-and-economic-analysis-at-a-full-scale-wwtp
#3
Giuseppe Campo, Alberto Cerutti, Mariachiara Zanetti, Gerardo Scibilia, Eugenio Lorenzi, Barbara Ruffino
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly applied end-treatment for the excess of waste activated sludge (WAS) generated in biological wastewater treatment processes. The efficacy of different typologies of pre-treatments in liberating intra-cellular organic substances and make them more usable for AD was demonstrated in several studies. However, the production of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) that occur during an AD process, due to microbial metabolism, self-protective reactions and cell lysis, partially neutralizes the benefit of pre-treatments...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526189/potential-impact-of-salinity-on-methane-production-from-food-waste-anaerobic-digestion
#4
Jianwei Zhao, Yiwen Liu, Dongbo Wang, Fei Chen, Xiaoming Li, Guangming Zeng, Qi Yang
Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) inhibited the production of methane from food waste anaerobic digestion. However, the details of how NaCl affects methane production from food waste remain unknown by now and the efficient approach to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was seldom reported. In this paper, the details of how NaCl affects methane production was first investigated via a series of batch experiments. Experimental results showed the effect of NaCl on methane production was dosage dependent...
May 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525868/biotransformation-of-natural-gas-and-oil-compounds-associated-with-marine-oil-discharges
#5
Odd Gunnar Brakstad, Inger K Almås, Daniel Franklin Krause
Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases...
May 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522200/biological-disintegration-of-microalgae-for-biomethane-recovery-prediction-of-biodegradability-and-computation-of-energy-balance
#6
S Kavitha, R Yukesh Kannah, J Rajesh Banu, S Kaliappan, M Johnson
The present study investigates the synergistic effect of combined bacterial disintegration on mixed microalgal biomass for energy efficient biomethane generation. The rate of microalgal biomass lysis, enhanced biodegradability, and methane generation were used as indices to assess efficiency of the disintegration. A maximal dissolvable organics release and algal biomass lysis rate of about 1100, 950 and 800mg/L and 26, 23 and 18% was achieved in PA+C (protease, amylase+cellulase secreting bacteria), C (cellulase alone) and PA (protease, amylase) microalgal disintegration...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521232/aerated-biofilters-with-multiple-level-air-injection-configurations-to-enhance-biological-treatment-of-methane-emissions
#7
Hasti Farrokhzadeh, J Patrick A Hettiaratchi, Poornima Jayasinghe, Sunil Kumar
Aiming to improve conventional methane biofilter performance, a multiple-level aeration biofilter design is proposed. Laboratory flow-through column experiments were conducted to evaluate three actively-aerated methane biofilter configurations. Columns were aerated at one, two, and three levels of the bed depth, with air introduced at flow rates calculated from methane oxidation reaction stoichiometry. Inlet methane loading rates were increased in five stages between 6 and 18mL/min. The effects of methane feeding rate, levels of aeration, and residence time on methane oxidation rates were determined...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521159/distribution-and-genetic-diversity-of-microbial-populations-in-the-pilot-scale-biofilter-for-simultaneous-removal-of-ammonia-iron-and-manganese-from-real-groundwater
#8
Qingfeng Cheng, Lichao Nengzi, Linlin Bao, Yang Huang, Shengyu Liu, Xiuwen Cheng, Bo Li, Jie Zhang
A pilot-scale biofilter treating real groundwater was developed in this study, which showed that ammonia, iron and manganese were mainly removed at 0.4, 0.4 and 0.8 m of the filter bed, respectively, and the corresponding removal efficiencies were 90.82%, 95.48% and 95.90% in steady phase, respectively. The variation of microbial populations in the biofilter during start-up process was also investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing (HTP). Results indicated that the main functional microbes for ammonia, iron and manganese removal were Nitrosomonas, Crenothrix and Crenothrix, respectively, which was mainly distributed at 0...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516177/insight-into-the-phase-evolution-of-a-nimgal-catalyst-from-the-reduction-stage-to-the-post-reaction-stage-during-the-dry-reforming-of-methane
#9
Zhenghong Bao, Yiqiu Zhan, Jason Street, Wenqian Xu, Filip To, Fei Yu
Herein, phase evolution of a NiMgAl oxide catalyst at the reduction stage was qualitatively analysed and quantitatively determined by employing the continuous changes in its XRD intensity and TPR information. The stable crystallite size of both the active metal and spinel support was responsible for the long stability of the NiMgAl catalyst without carbon deposition during the DRM reaction.
May 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514902/performance-of-modified-anaerobic-inclining-baffled-reactor-treating-recycled-paper-mill-effluent-effects-of-influent-chemical-oxygen-demand-concentration-and-hydraulic-retention-time
#10
Haider M Zwain, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Irvan Dahlan
The performance of modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) treating recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) was investigated by varying the influent chemical oxygen demand concentration (CODin) from 1,000 to 4,000 mg/L, and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 3 to 1 days, corresponding to organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.33 to 4 g COD/L day. Throughout 126 days of operation, a maximum removal efficiencies up to 96% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 99% of biological oxygen demand (BOD), methane (CH4) yield of 0...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514452/isotopic-evidence-of-multiple-controls-on-atmospheric-oxidants-over-climate-transitions
#11
Lei Geng, Lee T Murray, Loretta J Mickley, Pu Lin, Qiang Fu, Andrew J Schauer, Becky Alexander
The abundance of tropospheric oxidants, such as ozone (O3) and hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2), determines the lifetimes of reduced trace gases such as methane and the production of particulate matter important for climate and human health. The response of tropospheric oxidants to climate change is poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in the degree to which processes that influence oxidants may change with climate and owing to a lack of palaeo-records with which to constrain levels of atmospheric oxidants during past climate transitions...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514136/highly-selective-voc-breath-analysis-using-a-broadly-tunable-vecsel
#12
Béla Tuzson, Jana Jágerská, Herbert Looser, Manuel Graf, Ferdinand Felder, Matthias Fill, Luc Tappy, Lukas Emmenegger
A broadly tunable mid-infrared VECSEL is employed in a direct absorption laser spectroscopic setup to measure acetone in breath-like gas matrix. The large wavelength coverage of more than 30 cm(-1) at 3.38 µm allows, besides acetone, the simultaneous measurement of isoprene, ethanol, methanol, methane, and water. Despite the severe spectral interferences from water and alcohols, an unambiguous determination of acetone is realized with a precision of 13 ppbv that is routinely achieved after 5 minutes averaging at typical breath mean acetone levels without any sample preparation...
May 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514080/methane-emission-from-feather-moss-stands
#13
Dheeraj Kanaparthi, Andreas Reim, Guntars O Martinson, Bianca Pommerenke, Ralf Conrad
Data from remote sensing and Eddy towers indicate that forests are not always net sinks for atmospheric CH4 . However, studies describing specific sources within forests and functional analysis of microorganisms on sites with CH4 turnover are scarce. Feather moss stands were considered to be net sinks for carbon dioxide, but received little attention to their role in CH4 cycling. Therefore, we investigated methanogenic rates and pathways together with the methanogenic microbial community composition in feather moss stands from temperate and boreal forests...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514059/-11-c-fluoroform-a-breakthrough-for-versatile-labeling-of-pet-radiotracer-trifluoromethyl-groups-in-high-molar-activity
#14
Mohammad B Haskali, Victor W Pike
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is an immensely important imaging modality in biomedical research and drug development but must use selective radiotracers to achieve biochemical specificity. Such radiotracers are usually labeled with carbon-11 (t1/2 =20 min) or fluorine-18 (t1/2 =110 min), but these are only available from cyclotrons in a few simple chemical forms. [(18) F]Fluoroform has emerged for labeling tracers in trifluoromethyl groups but is severely limited in utility by low radioactivity per mass (low molar activity)...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513579/electricity-from-methane-by-reversing-methanogenesis
#15
Michael J McAnulty, Venkata G Poosarla, Kyoung-Yeol Kim, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Bruce E Logan, Thomas K Wood
Given our vast methane reserves and the difficulty in transporting methane without substantial leaks, the conversion of methane directly into electricity would be beneficial. Microbial fuel cells harness electrical power from a wide variety of substrates through biological means; however, the greenhouse gas methane has not been used with much success previously as a substrate in microbial fuel cells to generate electrical current. Here we construct a synthetic consortium consisting of: (i) an engineered archaeal strain to produce methyl-coenzyme M reductase from unculturable anaerobic methanotrophs for capturing methane and secreting acetate; (ii) micro-organisms from methane-acclimated sludge (including Paracoccus denitrificans) to facilitate electron transfer by providing electron shuttles (confirmed by replacing the sludge with humic acids), and (iii) Geobacter sulfurreducens to produce electrons from acetate, to create a microbial fuel cell that converts methane directly into significant electrical current...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507686/gas-confinement-in-compartmentalized-coordination-polymers-for-highly-selective-sorption
#16
Mónica Giménez-Marqués, Néstor Calvo Galve, Miguel Palomino, Susana Valencia, Fernando Rey, Germán Sastre, Iñigo J Vitórica-Yrezábal, Mónica Jiménez-Ruiz, J Alberto Rodríguez-Velamazán, Miguel A González, José L Jordá, Eugenio Coronado, Guillermo Mínguez Espallargas
Discrimination between different gases is an essential aspect for industrial and environmental applications involving sensing and separation. Several classes of porous materials have been used in this context, including zeolites and more recently MOFs. However, to reach high selectivities for the separation of gas mixtures is a challenging task that often requires the understanding of the specific interactions established between the porous framework and the gases. Here we propose an approach to obtain an enhanced selectivity based on the use of compartmentalized coordination polymers, named CCP-1 and CCP-2, which are crystalline materials comprising isolated discrete cavities...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507153/overexplaining-or-underexplaining-methane-s-role-in-climate-change
#17
Michael J Prather, Christopher D Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507013/mechanisms-of-action-of-probiotics-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-on-gut-motility-and-constipation
#18
REVIEW
Eirini Dimidi, Stephanos Christodoulides, S Mark Scott, Kevin Whelan
Constipation is a common and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder that may result from altered gastrointestinal motility. The effect of probiotics on constipation has been increasingly investigated in both animal and human studies, showing promising results. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the mechanisms of action of probiotics on gut motility and constipation. Several factors are vital to normal gut motility, including immune and nervous system function, bile acid metabolism and mucus secretion, and the gastrointestinal microbiota and fermentation; an imbalance or dysfunction in any of these components may contribute to aberrant gut motility and, consequently, symptoms of constipation...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506668/characterization-of-selected-municipal-solid-waste-components-to-estimate-their-biodegradability
#19
R Bayard, H Benbelkacem, R Gourdon, P Buffière
Biological treatments of Residual Municipal Solid Waste (RMSW) allow to divert biodegradable materials from landfilling and recover valuable alternative resources. The biodegradability of the waste components needs however to be assessed in order to design the bioprocesses properly. The present study investigated complementary approaches to aerobic and anaerobic biotests for a more rapid evaluation. A representative sample of residual MSW was collected from a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plant and sorted out into 13 fractions according to the French standard procedure MODECOM™...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505887/emission-and-distribution-of-phosphine-in-paddy-fields-and-its-relationship-with-greenhouse-gases
#20
Weiyi Chen, Xiaojun Niu, Shaorong An, Hong Sheng, Zhenghua Tang, Zhiquan Yang, Xiaohong Gu
Phosphine (PH3), as a gaseous phosphide, plays an important role in the phosphorus cycle in ecosystems. In this study, the emission and distribution of phosphine, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in paddy fields were investigated to speculate the future potential impacts of enhanced greenhouse effect on phosphorus cycle involved in phosphine by the method of Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. During the whole period of rice growth, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 emission flux and PH3 emission flux (r=0...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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