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Gan Luo, Jun Li, Yan Li, Zhu Wang, Wen-Tao Li, Ai-Min Li
Performance of internal circulation anaerobic reactor (IC) treating wastewater at high organic loading rate (OLR) and role of external hydraulic circulation were evaluated. When the OLR was increased from 2.50 to 18.94kgCOD/m(3)/d, COD removal decreased to 85% slightly and methane production increased to 4.49L/L/d with the upflow velocity of 1.0m/h resulted from the additional hydraulic circulation. Withdrawal of external hydraulic circulation led to decrease of COD removal to lower than 60% drastically and methane production by 81%...
October 13, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Antoine Prandota Trzcinski, Lily Ganda, Chinagarn Kunacheva, Dong Qing Zhang, Li Leonard Lin, Guihe Tao, Yingjie Lee, Wun Jern Ng
In light of global warming mitigation efforts, increasing sludge disposal costs, and need for reduction in the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants, innovation in treatment technology has been tailored towards energy self-sufficiency. The AB process is a promising technology for achieving maximal energy recovery from wastewaters with minimum energy expenditure and therefore inherently reducing excess sludge production. Characterization of this novel sludge and its comparison with the more conventional B-stage sludge are necessary for a deeper understanding of AB treatment process design...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jing Chen, Richard Dick, Jih-Gaw Lin, Ji-Dong Gu
Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) process uniquely links microbial nitrogen and carbon cycles. Research on n-damo bacteria progresses quickly with experimental evidences through enrichment cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detecting them in various natural ecosystems and engineered systems play a very important role in the discovery of their distribution, abundance, and biodiversity in the ecosystems. Important characteristics of n-damo enrichments were obtained and their key significance in microbial nitrogen and carbon cycles was investigated...
October 20, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Clemens Glombitza, Rishi R Adhikari, Natascha Riedinger, William P Gilhooly, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Fumio Inagaki
Sulfate reduction is the predominant anaerobic microbial process of organic matter mineralization in marine sediments, with recent studies revealing that sulfate reduction not only occurs in sulfate-rich sediments, but even extends to deeper, methanogenic sediments at very low background concentrations of sulfate. Using samples retrieved off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 337, we measured potential sulfate reduction rates by slurry incubations with (35)S-labeled sulfate in deep methanogenic sediments between 1276...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Janine Kamke, Sandra Kittelmann, Priya Soni, Yang Li, Michael Tavendale, Siva Ganesh, Peter H Janssen, Weibing Shi, Jeff Froula, Edward M Rubin, Graeme T Attwood
BACKGROUND: Enteric fermentation by farmed ruminant animals is a major source of methane and constitutes the second largest anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Reducing methane emissions from ruminants is needed to ensure sustainable animal production in the future. Methane yield varies naturally in sheep and is a heritable trait that can be used to select animals that yield less methane per unit of feed eaten. We previously demonstrated elevated expression of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway genes of methanogenic archaea in the rumens of high methane yield (HMY) sheep compared to their low methane yield (LMY) counterparts...
October 19, 2016: Microbiome
Vahid Sokhanvaran, Saeid Yeganegi
The quantum mechanics (QM) method and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed to study the effect of lithium cation doping on the adsorption and separation of CO2, CH4 and H2 on 2-fold interwoven metal-organic framework (MOF) Zn2(NDC)2(diPyNI). The second order Moller-Plesset (MP2) calculations on the (Li+-diPyNI) cluster model showed that the energetically most favorable lithium binding site is above the pyridine ring side and at a distance of 1.817 Å from the oxygen atom. The results revealed that the adsorption capacity of Zn2(NDC)2(diPyNI) for carbon dioxide is higher than that of hydrogen and methane at room temperature...
October 19, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Yiwen Liu, Yaobin Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhao, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Junliang Zhou, Lai Peng, Bing-Jie Ni
Recent studies have shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) plays an important part in contributing to methane production from anaerobic digestion. However, so far anaerobic digestion models that have been proposed only consider two pathways for methane production, namely, acetoclastic methanogenesis and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, via indirect interspecies hydrogen transfer, which lacks an effective way for incorporating DIET into this paradigm. In this work, a new mathematical model is specifically developed to describe DIET process in anaerobic digestion through introducing extracellular electron transfer as a new pathway for methane production, taking anaerobic transformation of ethanol to methane as an example...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Taiala Cristina de Jesus Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira, Jeruzia Vitória Moreira, José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo, Ronan Batista, Vanderlúcia Fonseca de Paula, Brena Santos Oliveira, Edileusa de Jesus Dos Santos
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alkaloid extracts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. pods obtained by two extraction methods as compared with sodium monensin on the gas production kinetic, mitigation of methane, and rumen fermentation products using wheat bran or Tifton 85 hay as substrates, by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. A completely randomized design was adopted, and two natural additives were tested made from mesquite pod (alkaloid extract I and alkaloid extract II) at three levels (3...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
U Ushani, S Kavitha, M Johnson, Ick Tae Yeom, J Rajesh Banu
In this study, surfactant dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate (DOSS)-mediated immobilized bacterial pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) was experimentally proved to be an efficient and economically feasible process for enhancing the biodegradability of WAS. The maximal floc disruption with negligible cell cleavage was achieved at surfactant dosage of 0.009 g/g SS. Results of the outcome of bacterial pretreatment of sludge biomass revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization for deflocculated (EPS removed-bacterially pretreated) sludge was 20 %, which was higher than that of flocculated (14 %) or control (5 %)...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
H Rostami-Ahmadvandi, D Kahrizi, K Cheghamirza, I Nosratti, J Zargooshi
Iran, especially its western provinces, is one of the most chickpea producing countries of the world with the yield about 500 kg/ ha in average. Narrow genetic variability for chickpea is one of the most limitations in conventional breeding approaches. In this study, derived genetic variation among 94 chickpea (Bivanij cultivar) mutant lines produced by Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) were assessed based on ISSR, RAPD markers in M4 and morpho-agronomic traits in M3 generation. The induced variation via EMS in field experiment, showed significant differences among mutant lines based on almost measured traits...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
John T Crawford, Emily H Stanley
Streams and rivers are active processors of carbon, leading to significant emissions of CO2 and possibly CH4 to the atmosphere. Patterns and controls of CH4 in fluvial ecosystems remain relatively poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known regarding how major human impacts to fluvial ecosystems may be transforming their role as CH4 producers and emitters. Here, we examine the consequences of two distinct ecosystem changes as a result of human land use: increased nutrient loading (primarily as nitrate), and increased sediment loading and deposition of fine particles in the benthic zone...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Katsunori Yanagawa, Akira Ijiri, Anja Breuker, Sanae Sakai, Youko Miyoshi, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Takuroh Noguchi, Miho Hirai, Axel Schippers, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Takaki, Michinari Sunamura, Tetsuro Urabe, Takuro Nunoura, Ken Takai
Subseafloor microbes beneath active hydrothermal vents are thought to live near the upper temperature limit for life on Earth. We drilled and cored the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, and examined the phylogenetic compositions and the products of metabolic functions of sub-vent microbial communities. We detected microbial cells, metabolic activities and molecular signatures only in the shallow sediments down to 15.8 m below the seafloor at a moderately distant drilling site from the active hydrothermal vents (450 m)...
October 18, 2016: ISME Journal
Cornelia U Welte, Olivia Rasigraf, Annika Vaksmaa, Wouter Versantvoort, Arslan Arshad, Huub J M Op den Camp, Mike S M Jetten, Claudia Lüke, Joachim Reimann
Microbial methane oxidation is an important process to reduce the emission of the greenhouse gas methane. Anaerobic microorganisms couple the oxidation of methane to the reduction of sulfate, nitrate and nitrite, and possibly oxidized iron and manganese minerals. In this article, we review the recent finding of the intriguing nitrate- and nitrite-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Nitrate-dependent AOM is catalyzed by anaerobic archaea belonging to the ANME-2d clade closely related to Methanosarcina methanogens...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Bram Vekeman, Charles Dumolin, Paul De Vos, Kim Heylen
Cultivation of microbial representatives of specific functional guilds from environmental samples depends largely on the suitability of the applied growth conditions. Especially the cultivation of marine methanotrophs has received little attention, resulting in only a limited number of ex situ cultures available. In this study we investigated the effect of adhesion material and headspace composition on the methane oxidation activity in methanotrophic enrichments obtained from marine sediment. Addition of sterilized natural sediment or alternatively the addition of acid-washed silicon dioxide significantly increased methane oxidation...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Jaai Kim, Hakchan Kim, Gahyun Baek, Changsoo Lee
Proper management of spent coffee grounds has become a challenging problem as the production of this waste residue has increased rapidly worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee ground with various organic wastes, i.e., food waste, Ulva, waste activated sludge, and whey, for biomethanation. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated for each tested co-substrate in batch biochemical methane potential tests by varying the substrate mixing ratio. Co-digestion with waste activated sludge had an apparent negative effect on both the yield and production rate of methane...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Zisheng Zhao, Yaobin Zhang, Yang Li, Huimin Zhao, Xie Quan
Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to useful chemicals is an attractive strategy to cut its emission in atmosphere. However, high overpotential and energy consumption required in the electrochemical reduction are the major barriers of this process. In this study, a new CO2 reduction technique for production of formic acid was proposed from waste activated sludge digestion in a microbial electrosynthesis system (MES) with iron plate and carbon pillar as the electrodes. Compared with other reactors, methane production of the Fe-C MES reactor was slightly lower and CO2 was undetectable...
October 8, 2016: Water Research
Rafael Laso-Pérez, Gunter Wegener, Katrin Knittel, Friedrich Widdel, Katie J Harding, Viola Krukenberg, Dimitri V Meier, Michael Richter, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Hans-Hermann Richnow, Lorenz Adrian, Thorsten Reemtsma, Oliver Lechtenfeld, Florin Musat
The anaerobic formation and oxidation of methane involve unique enzymatic mechanisms and cofactors that are believed to be all specific for C1-compounds. Here we found that an anaerobic thermophilic enrichment culture composed of dense consortia of archaea and bacteria apparently uses partly similar pathways to oxidize the C4-hydrocarbon butane. The archaea, proposed genus Candidatus Syntrophoarchaeum, showed the characteristic autofluorescence of methanogens, and contained highly expressed genes encoding enzymes similar to methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR)...
October 17, 2016: Nature
Thomas K Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
G Klop, S van Laar-van Schuppen, W F Pellikaan, W H Hendriks, A Bannink, J Dijkstra
The adaptation of dairy cows to methane (CH4)-mitigating feed additives was evaluated using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Nine rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were grouped into three blocks and within blocks randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: Control (CON; no feed additive), Agolin Ruminant® (AR; 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM)) or lauric acid (LA; 30 g/kg DM). Total mixed rations composed of maize silage, grass silage and concentrate were fed in a 40 : 30 : 30 ratio on DM basis...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Miguel Pinto, Indranil Chakraborty, Pradip Mascharak
The title compound, [Ag(qPyr)2]CF3SO3 where qPyr = 1-(quinoline-2-yl-methyl-ene)amino-pyrene, C26H16N2, was synthesized from a reaction of silver tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate and qPyr in di-chloro-methane-methanol mixed media. In this design, the qPyr ligand was chosen for its characteristic excitation and emission profiles, which could enable the tracking of the silver complex within biological targets. The Ag(I) atom resides in a distorted tetra-hedral N4 coordination sphere. Analysis of the packing pattern revealed significant intra- and inter-molecular π-π stacking inter-actions between the [Ag(qPyr)2](+) cations...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
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