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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778074/how-does-free-ammonia-based-sludge-pretreatment-improve-methane-production-from-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge
#1
Dongbo Wang, Bowen Liu, Xuran Liu, Qiuxiang Xu, Qi Yang, Yiwen Liu, Guangming Zeng, Xiaoming Li, Bing-Jie Ni
Previous studies reported that free ammonia (FA) pretreatment could improve methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) effectively. However, details of how FA pretreatment improves methane production are poorly understood. This study therefore aims to reveal the underlying mechanisms of FA pretreatment affecting anaerobic digestion of WAS through a series of batch tests using either real sludge or synthetic media as the digestion substrates at different pH values. At pH 8.5 level, with an increase of FA level from 18...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778026/impacts-of-initial-temperature-and-cylindrical-obstacles-on-the-dispersing-flammable-limits-of-accidental-methane-releases-in-an-lng-bunkering-terminal
#2
Byung Chul Choi, Kweon-Ha Park, Deog-Hee Doh
This paper presents a numerical study on the dispersing flammable limits with respect to the initial methane releases at TCH4,0  = -50 and -150 °C in the crosswind of ambient air according to the arrangement of (a) No Tank, (b) Tank I, (c) Tank II, and (d) Tank I and II on the ground. To provide a better physical insight on the dispersion behaviors of the methane releases, the spatial distributions of the quasi-averaged methane concentration and flow fields were mainly analyzed using 3-D large eddy simulations...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778022/low-cost-composited-accelerants-for-anaerobic-digestion-of-dairy-manure-focusing-on-methane-yield-digestate-utilization-and-energy-evaluation
#3
Chen Zhang, Sining Yun, Xue Li, Ziqi Wang, Hongfei Xu, Tingting Du
To improve the methane yield and digestate utilization of anaerobic digestion (AD), low-cost composited accelerants consisting of urea (0.2-0.5%), bentonite (0.5-0.8%), active carbon (0.6-0.9%), and plant ash (0.01-0.3%) were designed and tested in batch experiments. Total biogas yield (485.7-681.9 mL/g VS) and methane content (63.0-66.6%) were remarkably enhanced in AD systems by adding accelerants compared to those of control group (361.9 mL/g VS, 59.4%). Composited accelerant addition led to the highest methane yield (454...
May 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776729/effect-of-enhancing-nutrient-balance-in-anaerobic-digester-feedstock-by-co-substrate-addition-on-the-microbial-diversity-and-energy-production-from-municipal-sewage-sludge
#4
Amel Farhat, Imène Manai, Maher Gtari, Hassib Bouallagui
Enhancement of methane production during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) could improve the energy self sufficiency of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Therefore, mixing WAS with organic wastes improved process performance and stability. In this work, the anaerobic co-digestion of WAS combined with the olive processing wastewater (OPW) was investigated and associated with the energetic benefits and microbial populations shifts. The bio-methane potential (BMP) of various WAS and OPW mixtures corresponding to increased phenols concentrations were tested...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776722/flammulina-velutipes-treatment-of-non-sterile-tall-wheat-grass-for-enhancing-biodegradability-and-methane-production
#5
Agnieszka Kasprzycka, Justyna Lalak-Kańczugowska, Jerzy Tys
In this study fungal pretreatment of non-sterile tall wheat grass via the white rot fungi Flammulina velutipes was studied and the effect on biodegradability of lignocellulosic biomass and methane production, was evaluated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in non-sterile tall wheat grass during 28 days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum ratio (0%-50%) and moisture content (MC) (45% MC, 65% MC, and 75% MC) were assessed via comparison to untreated biomass. Pretreatment with F...
May 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775905/kinetic-modelling-of-methane-production-during-bio-electrolysis-from-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-sewage-sludge-and-food-waste
#6
Kalp Bhusan Prajapati, Rajesh Singh
In present study batch tests were performed to investigate the enhancement in methane production under bio-electrolysis anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste. The bio-electrolysis reactor system (B-EL) yield more methane 148.5 ml/g COD in comparison to reactor system without bio-electrolysis (B-CONT) 125.1 ml/g COD. Whereas bio-electrolysis reactor system (C-EL) Iron Scraps amended yield lesser methane (51.2 ml/g COD) in comparison to control bio-electrolysis reactor system without Iron scraps (C-CONT - 114...
May 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774508/the-bacterial-and-archaeal-community-structures-and-methanogenic-potential-of-the-cecal-microbiota-of-goats-fed-with-hay-and-high-grain-diets
#7
Wei Jin, Yin Li, Yanfen Cheng, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu
The cecum plays an important role in the feed fermentation of ruminants. However, information is very limited regarding the cecal microbiota and their methane production. In the present study, the cecal content from twelve local Chinese goats, fed with either a hay diet (0% grain) or a high-grain diet (71.5% grain), were used to investigate the bacterial and archaeal community and their methanogenic potential. Microbial community analysis was determined using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and real-time PCR, and the methanogenesis potential was assessed by in vitro fermentation with ground corn or hay as substrates...
May 17, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774014/oral-microbiota-community-dynamics-associated-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-staging
#8
Chia-Yu Yang, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Hai-Ying Yu, Chia-Yin Chin, Chia-Wei Hsu, Hsuan Liu, Po-Jung Huang, Song-Nian Hu, Chun-Ta Liao, Kai-Ping Chang, Yu-Liang Chang
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a highly aggressive cancer and the fourth leading malignancy among males in Taiwan. Some pathogenic bacteria are associated with periodontitis and oral cancer. However, the comprehensive profile of the oral microbiome during the cancer's progression from the early stage to the late stage is still unclear. We profiled the oral microbiota and identified bacteria biomarkers associated with OSCC. The microbiota of an oral rinse from 51 healthy individuals and 197 OSCC patients at different stages were investigated using 16S rRNA V3V4 amplicon sequencing, followed by bioinformatics and statistical analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773905/establishing-anaerobic-hydrocarbon-degrading-enrichment-cultures-of-microorganisms-under-strictly-anoxic-conditions
#9
Rafael Laso-Pérez, Viola Krukenberg, Florin Musat, Gunter Wegener
Traditionally, the description of microorganisms starts with their isolation from an environmental sample. Many environmentally relevant anaerobic microorganisms grow very slowly, and often they rely on syntrophic interactions with other microorganisms. This impedes their isolation and characterization by classic microbiological techniques. We developed and applied an approach for the successive enrichment of syntrophic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms from environmental samples. We collected samples from microbial mat-covered hydrothermally heated hydrocarbon-rich sediments of the Guaymas Basin and mixed them with synthetic mineral medium to obtain sediment slurries...
June 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772842/fe-based-nano-materials-in-catalysis
#10
REVIEW
Stavros Alexandros Theofanidis, Vladimir V Galvita, Christos Konstantopoulos, Hilde Poelman, Guy B Marin
The role of iron in view of its further utilization in chemical processes is presented, based on current knowledge of its properties. The addition of iron to a catalyst provides redox functionality, enhancing its resistance to carbon deposition. FeOx species can be formed in the presence of an oxidizing agent, such as CO₂, H₂O or O₂, during reaction, which can further react via a redox mechanism with the carbon deposits. This can be exploited in the synthesis of active and stable catalysts for several processes, such as syngas and chemicals production, catalytic oxidation in exhaust converters, etc...
May 17, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772671/quantification-of-methane-and-ammonia-emissions-in-a-naturally-ventilated-barn-by-using-defined-criteria-to-calculate-emission-rates
#11
Alexander J Schmithausen, Inga Schiefler, Manfred Trimborn, Katrin Gerlach, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Martin Pries, Wolfgang Büscher
Extensive experimentation on individual animals in respiration chambers has already been carried out to evaluate the potential of dietary changes and opportunities to mitigate CH₄ emissions from ruminants. Although it is difficult to determine the air exchange rate of open barn spaces, measurements at the herd level should provide similarly reliable and robust results. The primary objective of this study was (1) to define a validity range (data classification criteria (DCC)) for the variables of wind velocity and wind direction during long-term measurements at barn level; and (2) to apply this validity range to a feeding trial in a naturally cross-flow ventilated dairy barn...
May 16, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772502/effect-of-temperature-on-kinetics-of-biogas-production-from-macroalgae
#12
Edward Membere, Paul Sallis
An assessment was carried out on the effect of temperature on the anaerobic digestion of Laminaria digitata biomass, in batch reactors (25, 35, 45 and 55 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 40 days. The first order, modified Gompertz and logistics models were used to obtain the kinetic parameters of the biogas production process. Results indicate the chemical composition of the algae substrate could be written as C316 H613 O289 N13 S1 , with a theoretical methane yield of 336 ± 0.86 L CH4  kg VS-1 ...
May 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771967/photocatalytic-degradation-of-dimethoate-in-bok-choy-using-cerium-doped-nano-titanium-dioxide
#13
Xiangying Liu, Yu Li, Xuguo Zhou, Kun Luo, Lifeng Hu, Kailin Liu, Lianyang Bai
Dimethoate, a systemic insecticide, has been used extensively in vegetable production. Insecticide residues in treated vegetables, however, pose a potential risk to consumers. Photocatalytic degradation is a new alternative to managing pesticide residues. In this study, the degradation of dimethoate in Bok choy was investigated under the field conditions using cerium-doped nano titanium dioxide (TiO2/Ce) hydrosol as a photocatalyst. The results show that TiO2/Ce hydrosol can accelerate the degradation of dimethoate in Bok choy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771631/need-for-a-marginal-methodology-in-assessing-natural-gas-system-methane-emissions-in-response-to-incremental-consumption
#14
Michael Mac Kinnon, Zahra Heydarzadeh, Quy Doan, Cuong Ngo, Jeff Reed, Jacob Brouwer
Accurate quantification of methane emissions from the natural gas system is important for establishing greenhouse gas inventories and understanding cause and effect for reducing emissions. Current carbon intensity methods generally assume methane emissions are proportional to gas throughput so that increases in gas consumption yield linear increases in emitted methane. However, emissions sources are diverse and many are not proportional to throughput. Insights into the causal drivers of system methane emissions, and how system-wide changes affect such drivers are required...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769540/different-clusters-of-candidatus-methanoperedens-nitroreducens-like-archaea-as-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing-with-new-primers
#15
Sai Xu, Chen Cai, Jianhua Guo, Wenjing Lu, Zhiguo Yuan, Shihu Hu
The newly discovered Candidatus 'Methanoperedens nitroreducens' (M. nitroreducens), mediating nitrate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane, is an important microorganism in linking carbon and nitrogen cycles. In order to explore the diversity of M. nitroreducens-like archaea in various environmental niches with advanced high-throughput sequencing, new primers based on alpha subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase gene were designed. The PCR results demonstrated that the new primers could effectively detect M...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768825/role-of-copper-and-cerium-on-core-shell-al-mcm-41-in-no-reduction-via-a-scr-ch%C3%A2
#16
Tanasan Intana, Karin Föttinger, Günther Rupprechter, Paisan Kongkachuichay
Copper species in the structure of Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalysts prepared by different techniques of Cu loading-substitution (S), ion-exchange (E), and impregnation (I) methods-were tested for NO reduction via a selective catalytic reaction with methane. Cerium was added to enhance the performance of copper. It was found that the 1.5%Ce-SEI-Cu/Al-MCM-41, in which Cu was loaded by all three techniques gave the highest NO conversion of 85% at 500 °C. Based on the results from FT-IR in-situ experiment, the mechanism of SCR-CH4 reaction is proposed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767724/fluctuations-in-populations-of-subsurface-methane-oxidizers-in-coordination-with-changes-in-electron-acceptor-availability
#17
C Magnabosco, P H A Timmers, M C Y Lau, G Borgonie, B Linage-Alvarez, O Kuloyo, R Alleva, T L Kieft, G F Slater, E van Heerden, B Sherwood Lollar, T C Onstott
The concentrations of electron donors and acceptors in the terrestrial subsurface biosphere fluctuate due to migration and mixing of subsurface fluids, but the mechanisms and rates at which microbial communities respond to these changes are largely unknown. Subsurface microbial communities exhibit long cellular turnover times and are often considered relatively static-generating just enough ATP for cellular maintenance. Here, we investigated how subsurface populations of CH4 oxidizers respond to changes in electron acceptor availability by monitoring the biological and geochemical composition in a 1,339 meters-below-land-surface (mbls) fluid-filled fracture over the course of both longer (2...
May 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767103/comparative-methane-estimation-from-cattle-based-on-total-co-2-production-using-different-techniques
#18
Md N Haque, Hanne H Hansen, Ida M L D Storm, Jørgen Madsen
The objective of this study was to compare the precision of CH4 estimates using calculated CO2 (HP) by the CO2 method (CO2 T) and measured CO2 in the respiration chamber (CO2 R). The CO2 R and CO2 T study was conducted as a 3 × 3 Latin square design where 3 Dexter heifers were allocated to metabolic cages for 3 periods. Each period consisted of 2 weeks of adaptation followed by 1 week of measurement with the CO2 R and CO2 T. The average body weight of the heifer was 226 ± 11 kg (means ± SD). They were fed a total mixed ration, twice daily, with 1 of 3 supplements: wheat (W), molasses (M), or molasses mixed with sodium bicarbonate (Mbic)...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766608/effects-of-supplementary-desalted-mother-liquor-as-replacement-of-commercial-salt-in-diet-for-thai-native-cattle-on-digestibility-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-and-rumen-conditions
#19
Yoshiaki Sato, Wanna Angthong, Patima Butcha, Motoharu Takeda, Kazato Oishi, Hiroyuki Hirooka, Hajime Kumagai
Four Thai native cattle were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the availability of desalted mother liquor (DML) as replacement of salt in concentrate. Each cattle was assigned to one of the following concentrate feeding treatments: C1, 1% NaCl was added as salt; C2, 2% NaCl was added as salt; D1, 1% NaCl was replaced by DML; D2, 2% NaCl was replaced by DML, on a dry matter (DM) basis. The animals were fed rice straw and experimental concentrates (40:60) at 1.9% of body weight on a DM basis, daily...
May 16, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766603/characterization-of-aerosol-nitroaromatic-compounds-validation-of-an-experimental-method
#20
Mohammed Jaoui, Michael Lewandowski, John H Offenberg, Maribel Colon, Kenneth S Docherty, Tadeusz E Kleindienst
The analytical capabilities associated with the use of silylation reactions have been extended to a new class of organic molecules, nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). These compounds are a possible contributor to urban particulate matter of secondary origin which would make them important analytes due to their (1) detrimental health effects, (2) potential to affect aerosol optical properties, (3) and usefulness for identifying PM2.5 from biomass burning. The technique is based on derivatization of the parent NACs using N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoro acetamide, one of the most prevalent derivatization reagent for analyzing hydroxylated molecules, followed by GC-MS using electron ionization (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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