keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Methane

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732056/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-hog-waste
#1
Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, An-Chi Liu, Chieh-Yin Weng, Chu-Yang Chou, Daryi Wang
Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a microbiological process that converts organic waste materials into biogas. Because of its high methane content, biogas is a combustible energy source and serves as an important environmental technology commonly used in the management of animal waste generated on large animal farms. Much work has been done on hardware design and process engineering for the generation of biogas. However, little is known about the complexity of the microbiology in this process. In particular, how microbes interact in the digester and eventually breakdown and convert organic matter into biogas is still regarded as a "black box...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731742/semiclassical-divide-and-conquer-method-for-spectroscopic-calculations-of-high-dimensional-molecular-systems
#2
Michele Ceotto, Giovanni Di Liberto, Riccardo Conte
A new semiclassical "divide-and-conquer" method is presented with the aim of demonstrating that quantum dynamics simulations of high dimensional molecular systems are doable. The method is first tested by calculating the quantum vibrational power spectra of water, methane, and benzene-three molecules of increasing dimensionality for which benchmark quantum results are available-and then applied to C_{60}, a system characterized by 174 vibrational degrees of freedom. Results show that the approach can accurately account for quantum anharmonicities, purely quantum features like overtones, and the removal of degeneracy when the molecular symmetry is broken...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730409/iron-oxides-alter-methanogenic-pathways-of-acetate-in-production-water-of-high-temperature-petroleum-reservoir
#3
Pan Pan, Bo Hong, Serge Maurice Mbadinga, Li-Ying Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Shi-Zhong Yang, Ji-Dong Gu, Bo-Zhong Mu
Acetate is a key intermediate in anaerobic crude oil biodegradation and also a precursor for methanogenesis in petroleum reservoirs. The impact of iron oxides, viz. β-FeOOH (akaganéite) and magnetite (Fe3O4), on the methanogenic acetate metabolism in production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated. Methane production was observed in all the treatments amended with acetate. In the microcosms amended with acetate solely about 30% of the acetate utilized was converted to methane, whereas methane production was stimulated in the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) resulting in a 48...
July 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729072/recycling-of-food-waste-for-fuel-precursors-using-an-integrated-bio-refinery-approach
#4
O P Karthikeyan, H T Nguyen Hao, Ali Razaghi, Kirsten Heimann
The main aim was to integrate FW-recycling with cultivation of Rhodotorula glutinis and anaerobic digestion (AD) for bio-energy and -fuel recovery. Mixed FW was mechanically macerated (Pcon) and hydrolysed (at 250gL(-1) water) via chemical (Ch), thermal (Th) and TCh (combined Ch and Th) treatments. Cleared hydrolysates from individual pre-treatment processes were used as culture medium for cultivation of R. glutinis, while the residual solids (RS) were subjected to AD. Pcon cultivation yielded maximal R. glutinis dry weight biomass (5...
June 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728399/fermentation-quality-and-in-vitro-methane-production-of-sorghum-silage-prepared-with-cellulase-and-lactic-acid-bacteria
#5
Waroon Khota, Suradej Pholsen, David Higgs, Cai Yimin
Objective: The effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase enzyme on fermentation quality, microorganism population, chemical composition and in vitro gas production of sorghum silages were studied. Methods: Commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), local selected strain L. casei TH 14 and Acremonium cellulase (AC) were used as additives in sorghum silage preparation. Results: Prior to ensiling Sorghum contained 104 LAB and 106 cfu/g fresh matter coliform bacteria...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728376/effect-of-condensed-tannins-containing-ficus-infectoria-and-psidium-guajava-leaf-meal-mixture-supplementation-on-nutrient-metabolism-methane-emission-and-performance-of-lambs
#6
A K Pathak, Narayan Dutta, A K Pattanaik, V B Chaturvedi, K Sharma
Objective: The study was conducted to examine the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture (LMM) supplementation on nutrient metabolism, methane emission and performance of lambs. Methods: Twenty four lambs of ~ 6 months age (average body weight 10.1±0.60 kg) were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments (CT-0, CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2 containing 0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 percent CT through LMM, respectively) consisting of 6 lambs each in a completely randomized design...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728308/methane-uptake-in-global-forest-and-grassland-soils-from-1981-to-2010
#7
Lijun Yu, Yao Huang, Wen Zhang, Tingting Li, Wenjuan Sun
Methane (CH4) is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Although forest and grassland soils generally consume atmospheric CH4, the quantities and spatiotemporal changes in CH4 uptake remain largely uncertain for these ecosystems at the global scale. In this study, we developed an empirical model to estimate the CH4 uptake in global forest and grassland soils during the period 1981-2010. We estimated that the mean values of CH4 uptake were 9.16 (± 3.84) Tg yr(-1) in forest soils and 3.73 (± 1.41) Tg yr(-1) in grassland soils during the study period...
July 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728003/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-low-energetic-microwave-irradiation-on-anaerobic-digestion
#8
Bert Bastiaens, Rob Van den Broeck, Lise Appels, Raf Dewil
The present study investigates the effects of microwave irradiation on the performance of anaerobic digestion processes. A first set of experiments is performed to distinguish the upper limit of the applied energy levels. Secondly, the effects of these treatments on the performance of the digestion process are evaluated in 3 experimental setups: (i) monitoring the acetic acid degradation, (ii) performing a biological methane potential (BMP) assay and (iii) conducting a specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727932/laboratory-studies-of-methane-and-its-relationship-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#9
Kensei Kobayashi, Wolf D Geppert, Nathalie Carrasco, Nils G Holm, Olivier Mousis, Maria Elisabetta Palumbo, J Hunter Waite, Naoki Watanabe, Lucy M Ziurys
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role...
July 20, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727427/high-throughput-synthesis-and-structure-of-zeolite-zsm-43-with-two-directional-8-ring-channels
#10
Tom Willhammar, Jie Su, Yifeng Yun, Xiaodong Zou, Mobae Afeworki, Simon C Weston, Hilda B Vroman, William W Lonergan, Karl G Strohmaier
The aluminosilicate zeolite ZSM-43 (where ZSM = Zeolite Socony Mobil) was first synthesized more than 3 decades ago, but its chemical structure remained unsolved because of its poor crystallinity and small crystal size. Here we present optimization of the ZSM-43 synthesis using a high-throughput approach and subsequent structure determination by the combination of electron crystallographic methods and powder X-ray diffraction. The synthesis required the use of a combination of both inorganic (Cs(+) and K(+)) and organic (choline) structure-directing agents...
July 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727114/rapid-communication-ranking-dairy-cows-for-methane-emissions-measured-using-respiration-chamber-or-greenfeed-techniques-during-early-peak-and-late-lactation
#11
J Rischewski, A Bielak, G Nürnberg, M Derno, B Kuhla
Our objective was to compare the ranking of dairy cows according to their methane (CH) emissions as measured by a respiration chamber (RC) technique and the GreenFeed (GF) technique during 3 periods in second lactation. Two-day CH measurements in a RC performed in wk 3, 14, and 42 of lactation were flanked by GF measurements for 20 (period 1 [P1]), 35 (period 2 [P2]), and 35 (period 3 [P3]) days, respectively, before and after RC measurement. This gave the total duration of CH measurements using the GF system of 40, 70, and 70 d for P1, P2, and P3, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727087/effects-of-zilpaterol-hydrochloride-on-methane-production-total-body-oxygen-consumption-and-blood-metabolites-in-finishing-beef-steers
#12
K E Hales, A P Foote, D W Brake, T M Brown-Brandl, V M Artegoitia, H C Freetly
An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) were individually fed at ad libitum intake and used in a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, day, and treatment × day. Dry matter intake did not differ between the treatments ( = 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727073/technical-note-valuation-of-an-enteric-methane-emissions-measurement-system-for-cattle
#13
E M Andreini, M S Calvo-Lorenzo, C J Richards, J E White, S E Place
Through the process of enteric fermentation, cattle produce methane (CH), a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Growing public concern about climate change has increased the need for accurate methods of measuring CH emissions from cattle directly to improve emission inventories and evaluate emissions mitigation techniques. The present study evaluated a ventilated head box system capable of measuring CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions, and oxygen (O) consumption from cattle. Six Holstein heifers were used to measure CH and CO emissions and O consumption from 2 ad libitum intake measurement periods (ADAPT and ADLIB) and 1 measurement period (RESTRICT) with intake restricted to 2% of BW on a DM basis...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727067/compositional-mixed-modeling-of-methane-emissions-and-ruminal-volatile-fatty-acids-from-individual-cattle-and-multiple-experiments
#14
J Palarea-Albaladejo, J A Rooke, I M Nevison, R J Dewhurst
The aim of the study was to investigate the association of methane (CH) yields (g/kg DMI) with rumen VFA molar proportions and animal and diet-related covariates from individual animals and multiple experiments. The dataset available consisted of 284 measurements of CH yields for beef cattle from 6 experiments measured in indirect respiration chambers. A compositional modeling approach was employed where VFA measurements were considered as a whole, instead of in isolation, emphasizing their multivariate relative scale...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727009/effects-of-energy-supplementation-on-energy-losses-and-nitrogen-balance-of-steers-fed-green-chopped-wheat-pasture-i-calorimetry
#15
A L Shreck, P J Ebert, E A Bailey, J S Jennings, K D Casey, B E Meyer, N A Cole
Cattle grazing wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains are sometimes fed an energy supplement; however, the benefits of supplementation on nutrient balance, energy metabolism, and greenhouse gas emissions have not been elucidated. Therefore, we used 10 British crossbred steers (206 ± 10.7 kg initial BW) in a respiration calorimetry study to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation on energy losses, N balance, and nutrient digestibility of steers fed green-chopped wheat forage. The study design was an incomplete replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727002/hourly-methane-production-in-finishing-steers-fed-at-different-levels-of-dry-matter-intake
#16
K E Hales, N A Cole
Methane (CH) loss from finishing cattle is important as it represents an energy loss that could be used for maintenance and growth, and CH is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 21 to 25 times that of CO. Our objectives were to determine hourly CH production from growing cattle fed diets differing in corn processing method (dry rolling or steam flaking) and wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) inclusion rate. Eight steers (195 kg ± 2.3 in Exp. 1 and 322 kg ± 3.7 in Exp. 2) were fed the following diets: 1) steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (SFC-0); 2) SFC-based diet with 15% WDGS (SFC-15); 3) SFC-based diet with 30% WDGS (SFC-30); 4) SFC-based diet with 45% WDGS (SFC-45); 5) Dry-rolled corn DRC)-based diet with 0% WDGS (DRC-0); and 6) DRC-based diet with 30% WDGS (DRC-30)...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726996/direct-multitrait-selection-realizes-the-highest-genetic-response-for-ratio-traits
#17
L Zetouni, M Henryon, M Kargo, J Lassen
For a number of traits the phenotype considered to be the goal trait is a combination of 2 or more traits, like methane (CH) emission (CH/kg of milk). Direct selection on CH4 emission defined as a ratio is problematic, because it is uncertain whether the improvement comes from an improvement in milk yield, a decrease in CH emission or both. The goal was to test different strategies on selecting for 2 antagonistic traits- improving milk yield while decreasing methane emissions. The hypothesis was that to maximize genetic gain for a ratio trait, the best approach is to select directly for the component traits rather than using a ratio trait or a trait where 1 trait is corrected for the other as the selection criteria...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726561/characteristics-of-the-microwave-pyrolysis-and-microwave-co2-assisted-gasification-of-a-dewatered-sewage-sludge
#18
Young Nam Chun, Byeo Ri Jeong
Microwave drying-pyrolysis or drying-gasification characteristics was examined to convert sewage sludge into energy and resources. The gasification was carried out with carbon dioxide as a gasifying agent. The examination results were compared with those of the conventional heating-type electric furnace to compare both product characteristics. Through the pyrolysis or gasification, gas, tar and char were generated as products. The produced gas was the largest component of each process followed by the sludge char and the tar...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726218/process-optimization-of-biogas-energy-production-from-cow-dung-with-alkali-pre-treated-coffee-pulp
#19
T Selvankumar, C Sudhakar, M Govindaraju, K Selvam, V Aroulmoji, N Sivakumar, M Govarthanan
Biogas production from cow dung with co-substrate agricultural waste is one of the most demanding technologies for generating energy in a sustainable approach considering eco-friendly. In the present study, coffee pulp (CP) was pre-treated with 1% NaOH and combined with various proportions of cow dung (CD) to explore its biogas producing potentiality. The optimization of the process was studied using Response surface methodology. Statistics based on 3-D plots were generated to evaluate the changes in the response surface and to understand the relationship between the biogas yield and other parameters...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725409/development-of-methane-conversion-factor-models-for-zebu-beef-cattle-fed-low-quality-crop-residues-and-by-products-in-tropical-regions
#20
Chatchai Kaewpila, Kritapon Sommart
The enteric methane conversion factor (Ym) is an important country-specific value for the provision of precise enteric methane emissions inventory reports. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to develop and evaluate the empirical Ym models for the national level and the farm level for tropical developing countries according to the IPCC's categorization. We used datasets derived from 18 in vivo feeding experiments from 1999 to 2015 of Zebu beef cattle breeds fed low-quality crop residues and by-products...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
keyword
keyword
17084
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"