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Therapeutic effect

Marcin Padzik, Wanda Baltaza, Jacek P. Szaflik, Edyta Hendiger, Monika Dybicz, Lidia Chomicz
Small amoebae belonging to the Acanthamoeba genus complete their life cycles in different environmental niches as free-living protists however some of them are facultative parasites that can cause severe disease in humans. The sight-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis develops in immune-competent persons, mainly in contact lens wearers; it is detected with increasing frequency along with the spread of contact lens use. The high abundance of the amoebae in the environment is important for dispersion and transmission of the infections among humans...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Luping Sha, Qinfu Zhao, Da Wang, Xian Li, Xiudan Wang, Xinyao Guan, Siling Wang
"Gate" engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) have been extensively applied in cancer theranostics. Due to the complexity of tumor development and progression, with chemotherapy alone, it has often been difficult to achieve a good therapeutic effect. Currently, it has been shown that the combination with photothermal therapy overcomes the shortcoming of chemotherapy. In most studies, the photothermal effect has proven to accelerate drug release from nanocarriers and ablate malignant cells directly, but the influence on the intracellular fate of nanocarriers remains unknown...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chelsea A O'Driscoll, Leah A Owens, Erica J Hoffmann, Madeline E Gallo, Amin Afrazi, Mei Han, John H Fechner, James J Schauer, Christopher A Bradfield, Joshua D Mezrich
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune diseases have increased in incidence and prevalence worldwide. While genetic predispositions play a role, environmental factors are a major contributor. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture composed of metals, nitrates, sulfates and diverse adsorbed organic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Exposure to atmospheric PM aggravates autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus, among others...
October 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Zhe Zhang, Na Niu, Xi Gao, Fuqin Han, Zhijun Chen, Shujun Li, Jian Li
Hypoxia is the main characteristic of tumor microenvironment, and the one of the key factors that cause the drug resistance of cancer cells for chemotherapy. Anticancer drug such as DOX cannot react with sufficient oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hypoxic environment, which affects the therapeutic efficiency of the drug. In this work, we constructed a multi-functional nano-carrier (named as FeSiAuO) containing Fe3 O4 , mesoporous SiO2 and Au2 O3 with magnetic, large surface ratio and light induced oxygen production properties...
October 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yuxin Zhang, Zhi Wang, Xiaona Xie, Jing Wang, Yingjian Wang, Qi-Sheng Peng, Maolin Zhang, Donglin Wu, Ning Liu, Hong-Bing Wang, Wan-Chun Sun
Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that originate from hemopoietic stem cells. Targeting over activated osteoclasts is thought to be an effective therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. In a previous study, we reported that Tatarinan O, a lignin-like compound, suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we further examined the effects on osteoclast formation of three lignin-like compounds including Tatarinan N (TN), Tatarinan U (TU) and Tatarinan V (TV), all containing a common structure of asarone...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Hossein Azizian, Mohammad Khaksari, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Gholamreza Sepehri, Hamid Najafipour
In postmenopausal women, the risk of diabetic cardiovascular disease drastically increases compared with that of premenopausal women. In the present study we surveyed the effects of Tamoxifen (TAM) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) on diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction. Female wistar rats were divided into six groups: sham-control, Diabetes, Ovariectomized (OVX) + Diabetes, OVX + Diabetes + Vehicle, OVX + Diabetes + E2, OVX + Diabetes + TAM. Type 2 diabetes was induced by High Fat Diet and low doses of STZ...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Letícia Vieira, Aline Aparecida Saldanha, Andreza Marinho Moraes, Flávio Martins de Oliveira, Débora Oliveira Lopes, Leandro Augusto de Oliveira Barbosa, Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro, Ralph Gruppi Thomé, Hélio Batista Dos Santos, José Augusto Ferreira Perez Villar, Adriana Cristina Soares
Recent findings have demonstrated new therapeutic functions of cardiotonic steroids, a process that is termed drug repositioning. Despite the confirmed anti-inflammatory effects of cardiotonic steroids, their clinical use has been discouraged due to toxicity related to inhibition of the Na+ /K+ ATPase. A novel synthetic compound derived from digoxin, 21‑benzylidene digoxin (21‑BD), does not inhibit this enzyme. Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects and acute toxicity of 21‑BD...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Weifeng Yuan, Shaohua Hou, Hong Jia, Zhizhao Qiu, Tao Liu, Xinsheng Chen, Hongjun Li, Yanchen Sun, Lin Liang, Xiukun Sui, Xinghui Zhao, Zhanzhong Zhao
Gingivitis is evidenced by inflammation of the free gingiva, and still reversible. If left untreated, it may then progress to periodontitis. In the present study, the therapeutical effect of ketotifen fumarate on gingivitis was explored. Domestic cats with varying degrees of gingivitis naturally were enrolled in this study. Subgroups of animals were treated twice daily for one week with or without ketotifen fumarate (5 mg/kg). Effects of ketotifen fumarate were measured on gingival index, cells accumulation, mediators release, receptor-ligand interaction, oxidative stress, MAPK and NF-κB pathways, epithelial barrier and apoptosis...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Terézia Mačák Kubašková, Dagmar Mudroňová, Samuel Velebný, Gabriela Hrčková
Metacestode (larval) stages of zoonotic cestodes of medical and veterinary importance cause chronic infections associated with immunosuppression. During mouse model of cestode infection induced by larvae of Mesocestoides (M.) vogae, we investigated the effects of dialyzable leukocyte extract (DLE) containing low-molecular weight substances (under 10 kDa) prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy human donors (available under commercial name IMMODIN). In the experiment, the effects of DLE as adjuvant to anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) as well ABZ mono-therapy were also investigated...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Xufeng Zhu, Hui Zhou, Yanan Liu, Yayu Wen, Chunfang Wei, Qianqian Yu, Jie Liu
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and low targeting are major obstacles for the treatment of gliomas. Accordingly, overcoming the BBB and enhancing the targeting of drugs to the glioma area are key to achieving a good therapeutic effect. Here, we have developed the mesoporous ruthenium nanosystem RBT@MRN-SS-Tf/Apt with dual targeting function. Transferrin (Tf) and aptamer AS1411(Apt) are grafted on the surfaces of mesoporous ruthenium nanoparticles (MRN) with high loading capacity. This is achieved via redox-cleavable disulfide bonds, serving as both a capping agent and a targeting ligand, enabling the effective penetration of the blood-brain barrier and targeting the glioma...
October 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Lisa E Cole, Tracie L McGinnity, Lisa E Irimata, Tracy Vargo-Gogola, Ryan K Roeder
A preclinical murine model of hydroxyapatite (HA) breast microcalcifications (µcals), which are an important clinical biomarker for breast cancer detection, was used to investigate the independent effects of high affinity bisphosphonate (BP) ligands and a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer on targeted delivery of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for contrast-enhanced radiographic detection. The addition of BP ligands to PEGylated Au NPs (BP-PEG-Au NPs) resulted in five-fold greater binding affinity for targeting HA µcals, as expected, due to the strong binding affinity of BP ligands for calcium...
October 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Radha Yadav, Debpriyo Kumar Dey, Rishika Vij, Sunita Meena, Rajeev Kapila, Suman Kapila
Interest in probiotics has grown significantly in the last decades due to their reported nutritional and health promoting effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic potential of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) prepared using three different probiotic strains i.e. Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC: 5957, Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC: 5897 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC: 5898; independently or in combination, for treating streptozotocin induced type-1 diabetes in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were fed with PFM preparations for 6 weeks and then analyzed for the various biochemical parameters associated...
October 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Suresh Mandava, Ramachandran Chellia, Elango Jeevithan, Ravi Shankar Babu Yelamanchi, Deepthi Mandava, Wu Wen-Hui, Jong Kook Lee, Deog-Hwan Oh, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Myeong-Hyeon Wang
The present study aimed to purify and identify the metabolites from T. atroviride using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR) followed by analyzing their toxicological, antibacterial and anticancer properties. This work identified two metabolites - TM1 and TM2. TM1 was in two forms: (i) 1, 3-dione-5, 5-dimethylcyclohexane; and, (ii) 2-enone-3hydroxy -5,5-dimethylcylohex, while TM2 was 4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one-2,3,6-trimethyl. These metabolites did not exhibit any irritant or allergic reaction as revealed by HET- CAM test...
October 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Baranya Murugan, Uma Maheswari Krishnan
Nanotechnology-based interventions have gained popularity in the past decade for cancer therapy owing to their ability to overcome several shortcomings encountered in conventional therapy. Among the various nanoparticles that have been explored as drug carriers, mesoporous silica possesses certain desirable properties such as regulated pore size, high surface area, chemical and thermal stability, amenability for surface modification and biocompatibility. These systems have been widely investigated for site-specific delivery of single and multiple therapeutic agents as well as for imaging and theranostic applications...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sihle E Mabhida, Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Rabia Johnson, Musawenkosi Ndlovu, Johan Louw, Andy R Opoku, Rebamang A Mosa
Accumulative evidence shows that chronic hyperglycaemia is a major factor implicated in the development of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in diabetic patients. Furthermore, most of these patients display impaired insulin signalling that is responsible for accelerated pancreatic β-cell damage. Indeed, prominent pathways involved in glucose metabolism such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ protein kinase B (PI3-K/AKT) and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are impaired in an insulin resistant state. The impairment of this pathway is associated with over production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory factors that supersede pancreatic β-cell damage...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Xufeng Tao, Lianhong Yin, Lina Xu, Jinyong Peng
Currently, the numbers of patients with cancer, fibrosis, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, stroke and osteoporosis are increasing fast and fast. It's critical necessary to discovery lead compounds for new drug development. Dioscin, one active compound in some medicinal plants, has anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, hypolipidemic, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-allergic effects. In recent years, dioscin has reached more and more attention with its potent effects to treat liver, kidney, brain, stomach and intestine damages, and metabolic diseases including diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, hyperuricemia as well as its anti-cancer activities through adjusting multiple targets and multiple signals...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Afsane Bahrami, Stephen L Atkin, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that consists of two subunits, the HIF-1α and HIF-1β (ARNT). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1 is an adaptive system that regulates the transcription of multiple genes associated with growth, angiogenesis, proliferation, glucose transport, metabolism, pH regulation and cell death. However, aberrant HIF-1 activation contributes to the pathophysiology of several human diseases such as cancer, ischemic cardiovascular disorders, and pulmonary and kidney diseases...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Chun-Hua Dai, Yang Shu, Ping Chen, Jian-Nong Wu, Li-Haun Zhu, Rong-Xia Yuan, Wei-Guo Long, Yu-Min Zhu, Jian Li
Resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as erlotinib and gefitinib, is a major clinical problem in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). YM155 is a survivin small molecule inhibitor and has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy. EGFR-TKIs have been known to induce cancer cell autophagy. In this study, we showed that YM155 markedly enhanced the sensitivity of erlotinib to EGFR-TKI resistant NSCLC cell lines H1650 (EGFR exon 19 deletion and PTEN loss) and A549 (EGFR wild type and KRAS mutation) through inducing autophagy-dependent apoptosis and autophagic cell death...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Yuzhe Huang, Jian Guo, Shuangying Gui
The current treatments used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy have significant side effects. Thus, it is very necessary to position and release TNF-α siRNA in inflamed tissues. Here, we demonstrate that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) can pack TNF-α siRNA efficiently into nanoparticles (NPs), and galactosylated chitosan (GC) can be grafted onto the NP surface, improving the RAW 264.7 macrophage-targeting kinetics of the NPs in vitro. Next, we orally administered GC-modified NPs loaded with TNF-α siRNA to C57BL/6 mice treated with 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to investigate their use in the treatment of colitis...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yufei Chen, Kenneth L Jones, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, Andrea Kranz, A Francis Stewart, Jolanta Grembecka, Matthew Meyerson, Patricia Ernst
Disrupting protein-protein interaction for molecularly targeted cancer therapeutics can be a challenging but promising strategy. Compounds that disrupt the interaction between Menin, a chromatin-binding protein, and oncogenic MLL fusion proteins (FPs) have shown significant promise in pre-clinical models of leukemia and show a high degree of selectivity for leukemia versus normal hematopoietic cells. Biochemical and structural studies demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting Menin-MLL-FP interaction, such compounds also inhibit Menin-MLL1, Menin-MLL2, and other Menin interacting proteins...
October 10, 2018: Experimental Hematology
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