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Food additive

Senbagam Duraisamy, Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, Jayasudha Jayachandran, Fazal Husain, Anbarasu Kumarasamy
Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial proteins/peptides. They are of great interest in the food processing industries as potential natural preservative agent to control food-borne pathogens. Bacillus spp. are one among the potential probiotics receiving more attention since they produce a broad spectrum of antimicrobial bioactive peptides. In this study, a small-scale medium composition and bioprocessing parameters were statistically optimized to increase the yield of bacteriocin namely cerein from Bacillus cereus NS02 showing antagonism against a wide range of food-borne pathogens...
August 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Giuseppe Strazzera, Federico Battista, Natalia Herrero Garcia, Nicola Frison, David Bolzonella
Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are a class of largely used compounds in the chemical industry, serving as starting molecules for bioenergy production and for the synthesis of a variety of products, such as biopolymers, reduced chemicals and derivatives. Because of the huge amounts of food waste generated from household and processing industry, 47 and 17 million tons per year respectively only in the EU-28 Countries, food wastes can be the right candidate for volatile fatty acids production. This review investigates all the major topics involved in the optimization of VFAs production from food wastes...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Balázs Bobály, Valentina D'Atri, Matthew Lauber, Alain Beck, Davy Guillarme, Szabolcs Fekete
Reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is often performed at elevated temperatures (80-90 °C) and in the presence of relatively high concentrations of TFA (0.1%). Under such conditions, it is possible to achieve suitable performance in terms of peak shapes and recoveries. Yet, it is also possible, to cause on-column hydrolysis and the generation of artefact peaks. Interestingly, a wide-pore silica-based superficially porous (SPP) material with a high coverage phenyl bonding was recently introduced, and may offer a chance to perform protein RPLC with milder conditions (lower temperatures and lower TFA concentrations)...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Hong Zhang, Lian Xue, Bingyan Li, Hailin Tian, Zengli Zhang, Shasha Tao
Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) is a well-known air pollutant threatening public health. Studies has confirmed that long-term exposure to the particles could reduce the pulmonary function, cause exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary desease, and increase incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Bixin is a natural compound that is widely used as a food additive. Our previous studies demonstrated that bixin i.p. administration could protect against particles intratracheal exposure (56 days)-induced lung injury in an Nrf2-dependent manner...
August 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Xiaozhe Qi, Liye Zhu, Bo Yang, Haoshu Luo, Wentao Xu, Xiaoyun He, Kunlun Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary metabolite of fungi such as Aspergillus ochraceus, A. niger and A. carbonarius, Penicillium verrucosum, and various other Penicillium, Petromyces, and Neopetromyces species. Various foods can be contaminated with OTA, potentially causing several toxic effects such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Typically, OTA is excreted by organic anion transporters (OATs). There is no research indicating organic cation transporters (OCTs) are involved in OTA nephrotoxicity...
August 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sneha S Pillai, S Mini
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals possess wide range of pharmacological properties, with remarkable nutritional values. Diabetes is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the world today. A few side effects associated with the use of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents prompted us to search new bioactive principles from antidiabetic plants used in traditional medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The anti-diabetic therapeutic potential of the flavonoids rich ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) was evaluated...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hamidreza Hajfarajollah, Parisa Eslami, Babak Mokhtarani, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi
Among microorganisms, bacteria are the main group of biosurfactant-producing organisms. Different types of bacteria including Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp. and Arthrobacter sp. are among the most commonly studied bacteria in the realm of scientific researches. However, due to the pathogenic nature of the producing organisms, the application of these compounds is restricted, therefore, not suitable for using in food-related industries. Given that probiotic bacteria impact human health, applying probiotics as non-pathogenic and safe organisms have gained much attention for the production of biosurfactants in recent years...
August 18, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Bing Li, Lan Yang, Chang Quan Wang, Shun Qiang Zheng, Rui Xiao, Yong Guo
Cadmium (Cd) stress is a serious concern in agricultural soils worldwide, and increasing accumulation and subsequent transfer to humans via the food chain can have potentially harmful effects. In this study, field experiments were conducted to examine the uptake and translocation of Cd in rice, changes in the soil Cd speciation, and the subsequent effect on Cd accumulation in rice under combined organic (farmyard manure and crop straw) and inorganic (sepiolite, lime, and calcium-magnesium phosphate) soil amendments...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jonathan K Fernand, Haleh Amanieh, David J Cox, Nicole R Dorey
The reverse-reward contingency (RRC) task involves presenting subjects with a choice between one plate containing a large amount of food and a second plate containing a small amount of food. Subjects are then required to select the smaller of the two options in order to receive the larger-magnitude reward. The RRC task is a commonly used paradigm for assessing complex cognition, such as inhibitory control, in subjects. To date, the RRC task has not been tested with pet dogs as subjects, and it may provide insights to their ability to perceive quantities of differing magnitudes...
August 17, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Alexandre S Lawrenson, David L Cooper, Paul M O'Neill, Neil G Berry
This study is concerned with identifying features of 4-aminoquinoline scaffolds that can help pinpoint characteristics that enhance activity against chloroquine-resistant parasites. Statistically valid predictive models are reported for a series of 4-aminoquinoline analogues that are active against chloroquine-sensitive (NF54) and chloroquine-resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Quantitative structure activity relationship techniques, based on statistical and machine learning methods such as multiple linear regression and partial least squares, were used with a novel pruning method for the selection of descriptors to develop robust models for both strains...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Richard M Nowak, Chaun M Gandolfo, Gordon Jacobsen, Robert H Christenson, Michele Moyer, Michael Hudson, James McCord
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine how well a new Food and Drug Administration-approved single cardiac troponin T (cTnT) Generation 5 baseline measurement below the level of quantification (6 ng/L) and a novel study-derived baseline and 30-minute cTnT Generation 5 algorithm might adequately exclude acute myocardial infarction in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome in a US emergency department (ED). METHODS: Patients presenting with any symptoms suspicious for acute coronary syndrome were enrolled at a single US ED...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Eugenio Demartini, Elisa De Marchi, Alessia Cavaliere, Simone Mattavelli, Anna Gaviglio, Alessandro Banterle, Juliette Richetin, Marco Perugini
Individual attitudes, both implicit and explicit, have been identified as one of the multiple drivers of consumer behaviors, including food-related ones. Building on such evidence, in this contribution we seek at increasing implicit and explicit consumer attitudes towards a healthy food, comparing the effectiveness of two different treatments. The former is based on a self-association task, that aims at inducing changes in the evaluation of an object thanks to its positive association with the self. The latter is based on information provision...
August 14, 2018: Appetite
Ying Tang, Dianyong Tang, Jin Zhang, Dianping Tang
A simple and sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensing platform was designed for the high-efficient detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in foodstuff. Initially, phenoxy-derived dextran molecule was immobilized on the surface of QCM gold substrate by using thiolated β-cyclodextrin based on the supramolecular host-guest chemistry between phenoxy group and cyclodextrin. Then, AFB1 -bovine serum albumin (AFB1 -BSA)-conjugated concanavalin A (Con A) was assembled onto the QCM probe through the dextran-Con A interaction...
November 15, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Shuai Feng, Shuyi Yang, Wei Xiao, Xue Wang, Kun Yang, Tianlong Wang
BACKGROUND: Past studies have demonstrated that goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) may be more marginal than previously believed. However, beneficial effects of alpha-1 adrenergic agonists combined with appropriate fluid administration is getting more and more attention. This study aimed to systematically review the effects of goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) combined with the application of alpha-1 adrenergic agonists on postoperative outcomes following noncardiac surgery. METHODS: This meta-analysis included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on GDFT combined with the application of alpha-1 adrenergic agonists in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery...
August 17, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
R PranavKumar Shadamarshan, Harini Balaji, Harsha Shrihari Rao, K Balagangadharan, S Viji Chandran, N Selvamurugan
Trans-anethole (TA) is a phenolic phytocompound widely used in the food and health sector because of its diverse biological properties. However, its role in the promotion of bone formation is not known. With the enhanced bioavailability of TA, we aimed to determine its effect on osteogenesis; TA at different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μM) was loaded onto polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) fibers by the electrospinning technique. The synthesized PCL/PVP + TA fibers were subjected to physiochemical and material characterization...
August 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Liran Christine Shan, Claire McCafferty, Mimi Tatlow-Golden, Claire O'Rourke, Robert Mooney, Barbara Livingstone, Kirsty Pourshahidi, Clare Corish, John Kearney, Patrick Wall, Celine Murrin
Consumption of high-energy foods in the absence of hunger has been identified as a key target to address in the area of obesity. For children, such foods are often provided by adults as treats. There is limited understating of adults' treat giving. The present study aimed to understand adults' provision of treats to children on the Island of Ireland. A total of 1039 participants, including parents, grandparents, child minders and education practitioners completed a face-to-face survey in their home. Participants defined their treats for children primarily as 'something nice', 'deserved/earned' and 'something special'...
August 14, 2018: Appetite
Hajer Dahmani, Kaouthar Louati, Adel Hajri, Senda Bahri, Fathi Safta
Several studies have highlighted that nutritional supplements may contain undeclared anabolic steroids that are banned by the International Olympic Committee/World Anti-Doping Agency. Any kind of abuse with these drugs is extremely dangerous because of their side effects. Thus, the control of food additives in order to protect the best consumer health and to limit fraudulent practices in the field of sports is essential. This paper describes a simple and effective qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): androsterone, nandrolene, dehydroepiandrosterone, 5ɑ-androstane-3β, 17β-diol, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, methenolone acetate, methandienone, boldenone and fluoxymesterone, in food supplements...
August 14, 2018: Steroids
Laura J den Hartigh, Leela Goodspeed, Shari A Wang, Heidi L Kenerson, Mohamed Omer, Kevin D O'Brien, Warren Ladiges, Raymond Yeung, Savitha Subramanian
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether chronic oral rapamycin promotes beneficial effects on glucose/lipid metabolism and energy balance when administered to mice with an obesogenic diet rich in saturated fat and sucrose has not been explored. What is the main finding and its importance? Chronic oral rapamycin reduces body weight and fat gain, improves insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic steatosis when administered to mice with a high fat high sucrose diet...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Harald John, Michael Rychlik, Horst Thiermann, Christian Schmidt
RATIONALE: Atropine (Atr) and scopolamine (Scp) are toxic secondary plant metabolites of species within the Solanaceae genus that can accidentally or intentionally reach the food store chain by inaccurate harvesting of any plant material e.g. for herbal tea infusions. Ingestion may cause severe anticholinergic poisoning thus requiring risk-oriented determination in food and beverages. The suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF MS(/MS), should be characterized for simultaneous analysis...
August 16, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Andisheh Yazdanpanah, Dara S M Ghasimi, Min Gu Kim, George Nakhla, Hisham Hafez, Michele Keleman
Trace elements (TEs) play an indispensable role in enhancing the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW). Significant research on AD of FW with TE supplementation has been conducted with low Fe content inoculum. However, the use of Fe-rich inoculum is inevitable due to chemical phosphorous removal from wastewater in North America. We conducted comprehensive mesophilic batch tests to investigate the effect of TEs (Fe, Ni, Co, Se, and Mo) on FW digestion inoculated with Fe-rich sludge (≥ 1000 mg Fe L-1 )...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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