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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335125/statistical-challenges-posed-by-uncontrolled-master-protocols-sensitivity-analysis-of-the-vemurafenib-study
#1
B P Hobbs, M J Kane, D S Hong, R Landin
Within the evidentiary hierarchy of experimental inquiry, randomized trials are the gold standard. Oncology patients enter clinical studies with diverse lifestyles, treatment pathways, host tissue environments, and competing co-morbidities. Randomization attempts to balance prognostic characteristics among study arms, thereby enabling statistical inference of "average benefit" and attribution to the studied therapies. In contrast, interpretations of uncontrolled trials require additional scrutiny to attempt to place the findings in the context of external evidence...
October 18, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335105/potential-of-iturins-as-functional-agents-safe-probiotic-and-cytotoxic-to-cancer-cells
#2
Haobin Zhao, Junjun Li, Yawen Zhang, Shuzhen Lei, Xixi Zhao, Dongyan Shao, Chunmei Jiang, Junling Shi, Hui Sun
The iturin produced by Bacillus subtilis was previously found to exhibit significant antifungal activities, showing potential for application to food to protect it from spoilage and decay. However, its safe level must be evaluated before it can be used in foods consumed by mammals. Therefore, we carried out acute toxicity (7 days) and subacute toxicity (28 days) evaluations by intragastric administration of the iturin at 5000 mg per kg (bw) and 2000 mg per kg (bw) to Kunming mice. At the end of the subacute toxicity evaluation, the blood parameters of the mice were evaluated, and the visceral organs and intestinal flora were examined...
October 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334301/improving-the-nutritional-intake-of-hospital-patients-how-far-have-we-come-a-re-audit
#3
S Beavan, R Baker, H Sadler, A Collinson
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition affects up to 33.6% of hospitalised patients, with consequences that are detrimental for both patients and healthcare providers. In 2015, an audit demonstrated inadequate nutritional provision and consumption by hospitalised patients, comprising a major risk factor for malnutrition. This re-audit evaluates whether patients are meeting recommended energy and protein standards and estimated individual requirements, subsequent to food service improvements since 2015...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334268/conjugated-linoleic-acid-regulates-body-composition-and-locomotor-activity-in-a-sex-dependent-manner-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Phoebe B Chen, Ju Hyeon Kim, Daeyoung Kim, John M Clark, Yeonhwa Park
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to be a bioactive food component. However, there is limited knowledge on the sex-dependent effects of CLA on energy metabolism. In the present study, Drosophila melanogaster was used to investigate the sex-dependent effects of CLA with respect to body fat, muscle, locomotion, and a key metabolic regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα). Adult flies were fed a cornmeal-based fly food with 0.5% of CLA oil (50:50 of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers in triacylglycerol (TAG) form), 0...
October 17, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334251/fruit-bagasse-phytochemicals-from-malpighia-emarginata-rich-in-enzymatic-inhibitor-with-modulatory-action-on-hemostatic-processes
#5
Tamara R Marques, Pedro Henrique S Cesar, Mariana A Braga, Silvana Marcussi, Angelita D Corrêa
Agro-industrial wastes are promising sources of phytochemicals for the development of products to be used in health promotion and maintenance. In this study, extracts from acerola bagasse (AB) were characterized by HPLC, and evaluated according to its modulatory action on phospholipases A2 and proteases involved in processes such as inflammation and blood clotting. Snake venoms were used as biological tools once they have high functional and structural homology between their enzymes and human enzymes. Two types of extracts were prepared from AB: aqueous and methanolic...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333847/effects-of-plastic-mulching-and-basal-nitrogen-application-depth-on-nitrogen-use-efficiency-and-yield-in-maize
#6
Xiukang Wang, Ning Wang, Yingying Xing, Jia Yun, Huihui Zhang
The demand for increased grain production to support population and consumption growth has led to increased interest in field management approaches that incorporate plastic mulching and fertilization management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of plastic mulching and basal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer application depth on N balance estimations, N use efficiency (NUE) and maize yield. The experiment was conducted in 2014 and 2015 with six treatments: no N fertilizer and no mulching (CK), traditional broadcast N fertilizer with mulching (T0), basal N-fertilizer application at a depth of 6 cm with no mulching (T1), basal N-fertilizer application at a depth of 6 cm with plastic mulching (T2), basal N-fertilizer application at a depth of 12 cm with no mulching (T3) and basal N-fertilizer application at a depth of 12 cm with plastic mulching (T4)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333665/evaluation-of-mineral-bioavailability-and-heavy-metal-content-in-indigenous-food-plant-wild-yams-dioscorea-spp-from-koraput-india
#7
Bandana Padhan, Meghali Biswas, Nabin Kumar Dhal, Debabrata Panda
Wild yam ( Dioscorea spp.) tubers, an indigenous food makes a significant contribution to the diets of tribal people of Koraput, India. However, there is dearth of documented information of their mineral bioavailability and heavy metal content. To know their quality and safety concerns about their use, minerals and heavy metal concentrations were evaluated in eight wild and one cultivated yam species from Koraput. The samples were further investigated for their antinutrients to determine bioavailability of minerals...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333649/rheological-studies-on-the-effect-of-different-thickeners-in-texture-modified-chicken-rendang-for-individuals-with-dysphagia
#8
Nuraihan Abu Zarim, Syahariza Zainul Abidin, Fazilah Ariffin
Texture-modified food has become an important strategy in managing dysphagia. Pureed food is proven to be the safest texture due to its high viscosity which can slow down the rate of the food bolus during swallowing. In this study, texture-modified chicken rendang was developed according to Texture C (smooth puree) as described by the Australian standard for texture-modified food. Samples were added with five different thickeners (sago starch, tapioca starch, modified corn starch, xanthan gum and carboxymethyl cellulose gum) at three different concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w)...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333648/protective-effects-of-dietary-kaempferol-glycoside-components-from-unripe-soybean-edamame-glycine-max-l-merrill-jindai-leaves-and-their-serous-metabolite-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-mice
#9
Yanqing Zang, Shoko Hashimoto, Changqing Yu, Kiharu Igarashi
The study investigated the protective effects of kaempferol galactoside (KG) components in mice, which were separated from Jindai soybean leaves (JDL) and mainly composed by two kaempferol galactosides. Further, KG-related metabolites in serum of mice were identified by Tof-MS. Results showed that both JDL and KG prevented the CCl4 -induced increases in serum aspartate aminotransferase and serum alanine aminotransferase. Additionally, mice treated with KG had significantly decreased TBARS and TNF-alpha levels, compared to CCl4 -treated mice...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333637/antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-agave-angustifolia-extract-on-overall-quality-and-shelf-life-of-pork-patties-stored-under-refrigeration
#10
Julio Cesar López-Romero, Jesús Fernando Ayala-Zavala, Etna Aida Peña-Ramos, Javier Hernández, Humberto González-Ríos
Agave plants contain different bioactive compounds that are related to different biological activities; however, the application of Agave as a food additive has rarely been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Agave angustifolia extract (AAE) on pork patties stored at 4 °C during 10 days. According to the spectrophotometric analysis, AAE contained phenolic compounds and saponins. In addition, AAE exhibited antioxidant activity based on DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays (94...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333633/composite-edible-films-and-coatings-from-food-grade-biopolymers
#11
REVIEW
Chanda Vilas Dhumal, Preetam Sarkar
The development of edible films and coatings from food-grade biopolymers has advanced significantly during the past decade. The current state-of-the-art lies in the formulation of composite edible films and coatings from such biomolecules. Composite films and coatings refer to systems where multiple biopolymers have been combined to achieve beneficial properties. Carbohydrate, protein, and lipids have been preferred for developing such systems. Binary films and coatings have been prepared from multiple combinations including protein-protein, carbohydrate-carbohydrate and protein-carbohydrate...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332827/basal-levels-of-salivary-alpha-amylase-are-associated-with-preference-for-foods-high-in-sugar-and-anthropometric-markers-of-cardiovascular-risk
#12
Ernesto Tarragon, Jakob Stein, Jobst Meyer
Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) influences the perception of taste and texture, features both relevant in acquiring food liking and, with time, food preference. However, no studies have yet investigated the relationship between basal activity levels of sAA and food preference. We collected saliva from 57 volunteers (63% women) who we assessed in terms of their preference for different food items. These items were grouped into four categories according to their nutritional properties: high in starch, high in sugar, high glycaemic index, and high glycaemic load...
October 16, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332760/spatial-disparity-in-food-environment-and-household-economic-resources-related-to-food-insecurity-in-rural-korean-households-with-older-adults
#13
Jae Eun Shim, Seo-Jin Kim, Kirang Kim, Ji-Yun Hwang
Different contextual factors of a household and a community, such as access to resources and transportation, may influence the level of food insecurity. The objective of this study was to identify how food environmental factors and economic resources were related to food insecurity in Korean older adults residing in different contexts of rural areas. Face-to-face interviews with 248 older adults residing in land ( n = 149) and mountain ( n = 99) rural areas were performed. In both areas, risk of food insecurity was increased for households with limited community food accessibility measured by having difficulties in food purchasing due to food stores far from home...
October 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332539/use-of-chicken-eggshell-to-improve-dietary-calcium-intake-in-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Justin Bartter, Helena Diffey, Ying Hei Yeung, Fiona O'Leary, Barbara Häsler, Wende Maulaga, Robyn Alders
Undernutrition resulting from inadequate access to high-quality, nutritious food is a widespread issue in sub-Saharan Africa impacting the health and survival of mothers and their children. Inadequate dietary intake leads to a deficiency in nutrients including calcium, required for growth and physiological functioning. This study investigated the potential of increasing dietary calcium intake by the addition of heat-treated ground eggshell to locally prepared food. A mixed methods approach of literature review, Delphi expert survey and focus group discussions with women of childbearing age in rural Tanzania, were used to assess the practicality, safety, and acceptability of consumption of ground eggshell...
October 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329106/knowledge-and-awareness-of-added-sugar-in-cigarettes
#15
Andrew B Seidenberg, Catherine L Jo, Kurt M Ribisl
Introduction: Sugars naturally occur in tobacco leaf but are also commonly added to cigarettes by tobacco companies. Added sugar increases levels of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. Little is known about smokers' knowledge of added sugar in cigarettes and awareness of its effects. Methods: Adult cigarette smokers were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk to participate in an online experiment on electronic cigarette advertising. After completing the experiment, participants (N = 4351) answered two items assessing knowledge and awareness of added sugar in cigarettes...
October 17, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329068/development-of-a-bivalent-food-poisoning-vaccine-augmented-antigenicity-of-the-c-terminus-of-clostridium-perfringens-enterotoxin-by-fusion-with-the-b-subunit-of-escherichia-coli-shiga-toxin-2
#16
Koji Hosomi, Atsushi Hinenoya, Hidehiko Suzuki, Takahiro Nagatake, Tomomi Nishino, Yoko Tojima, So-Ichiro Hirata, Ayu Matsunaga, Masuo Kondoh, Shinji Yamasaki, Jun Kunisawa
Food poisonings caused by Clostridium perfringens and Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) occur frequently worldwide; however, no vaccine is currently available. Therefore, we aimed to develop a bivalent vaccine against C. perfringens and STEC infections. Although it has been considered that C-terminal region of C. perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) could be a good vaccine antigen to block the binding to its receptor, it was insufficient for induction of protective immune response due to the low antigenicity...
October 16, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327641/purification-and-partial-characterization-of-bacteriocin-lac-b23-a-novel-bacteriocin-production-by-lactobacillus-plantarum-j23-isolated-from-chinese-traditional-fermented-milk
#17
Jianming Zhang, Yanyan Yang, Hui Yang, Yushan Bu, Huaxi Yi, Lanwei Zhang, Xue Han, Lianzhong Ai
The exploration and evaluation of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been one of the powerful means to food preservation. A total of 300 strains were isolated from Chinese traditional fermented milk products. A bacteriocin-producing LAB, named Lactobacillus plantarum J23, was screened and identified. Bacteriocin Lac-B23 from L. plantarum J23 was purified by 80% ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Molecular weight of bacteriocin Lac-B23 was determined to be approximately 6...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327174/revision-of-the-mechanisms-behind-oil-water-o-w-emulsion-preparation-by-ultrasound-and-cavitation
#18
Tadej Stepišnik Perdih, Mojca Zupanc, Matevž Dular
Today emulsion preparation is receiving a lot of scientific attention, since emulsions are playing an essential role in many of the big industries, such as food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industry. One of the most promising techniques for emulsion preparation is ultrasound emulsification. The purpose of this study is to expand the knowledge on the ultrasonically assisted emulsification model, that has not been amended since 1978. The model explains that oil-in-water emulsion formation is a two-step process...
October 4, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327150/dietary-behaviors-mediate-the-association-between-food-insecurity-and-obesity-among-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-youth
#19
Chang-Han Wu, Chung-Ying Lin, Yi-Ping Hsieh, Carol Strong, Camilla Meshki, Yi-Ching Lin, Meng-Che Tsai
Across many Asian countries, the prevalence of obesity is increasing and is increasingly recognized as an emerging public health issue. Food insecurity, defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods, is major difficulty faced by many poor subpopulations despite national economic growth. Previous research has yielded inconsistent results about the association between food insecurity and obesity, with positive associations more consistently observed among women than men...
October 13, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327116/development-of-a-self-priming-pdms-paper-hybrid-microfluidic-chip-using-mixed-dye-loaded-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-multiplex-foodborne-pathogens-detection
#20
Bo Pang, Kaiyue Fu, Yushen Liu, Xiong Ding, Jiumei Hu, Wenshuai Wu, Kun Xu, Xiuling Song, Juan Wang, Ying Mu, Chao Zhao, Juan Li
Foodborne pathogen is the primary cause of foodborne disease outbreak. Given its great damage, a sensitive, simple and rapid detection method is demanded. Herein, we described a self-priming polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/paper hybrid microfluidic chip, termed SPH chip, with mixed-dye-loaded loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for multiplex foodborne pathogens detection. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) were chosen to verify the novel method. Compared to other similar detection devices, the SPH chip required easier fabrication process, less operation steps and lower cost...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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