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Food additive

Daniel Knowles, Kyle Brown, Silvio Aldrovandi
OBJECTIVE: One method of influencing an individual's food consumption involves placing unhealthy snacks further away from individuals, known as the "proximity effect". However, only one laboratory study has explored the effect while both an unhealthy and a healthy option are presented simultaneously. Further, little is known about the potential underpinning mechanisms of the effect. The current study aims to replicate the proximity effect in a competitive environment, and to explore the role of visual salience and effort in the proximity effect...
December 11, 2018: Appetite
Bryan L Love
Chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation are commonly encountered in ambulatory patients, but limited options exist for patients with persistent or severe symptoms following treatment with non-prescription products. Plecanatide (Trulance, Synergy Pharmaceuticals) is a 16-amino acid peptide analogue of uroguanylin that stimulates guanylate cyclase-C receptors to increase chloride and bicarbonate secretion into the intestine and prevents the absorption of sodium ions, thereby increasing the secretion of water into the lumen...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Heather L Flores, Azita Amiri
A review of risk factors, health effects, screening, and resources. ABSTRACT: Food insecurity affects people of all ages, in every area in which nurses work or volunteer. The U.S. Department of Agriculture describes food insecurity as the lack of "consistent, dependable access to adequate food for active, healthy living." The health effects of food insecurity include, but are not limited to, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, low birth weight, depression, and anxiety. Food insecurity is associated with single parenthood, low socioeconomic status, having three or more children, having low educational attainment, being a member of a racial or ethnic minority, renting a home, living in a city, and having a disabled household member...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, M Arantxa Colchero, Luz María Sánchez-Romero, Carolina Batis, Juan Rivera-Dommarco
In 2014 the Mexican government implemented taxes to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy-dense foods. In this manuscript, we analyze the scientific evidence linking the consumption of these products to chronic diseases, and summarize the studies that have evaluated the observed and expected impact of food taxes in Mexico. The implementation of taxes to unhealthy foods has reduced purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in 7.6% and nonessential energy-dense foods in 7.4%...
September 2018: Salud Pública de México
Savas Aslan, Mustafa Altindis, Recep Kara, Tayfur Demiray, Mehmet Koroglu
<i>Background:</i> Screening of transmission routes and routine control of the food for foodborne-pathogens are vital in terms of public health. In this study, we aimed to investigate and evaluate the presence of E. coli O157:H7 strains and toxins in the cattle meat samples collected from different markets and butchers. <i>Methods:</i> We collected 116 raw minced cattle beef samples from the supermarkets and the butcher stores. We used bacterial culture-based conventional isolation methods as recommended by the CDC and FDA determination of STEC in the minced cattle beef samples...
October 31, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Sophia Jihey Chung, Anne L Ersig, Ann Marie McCarthy
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the diet and physical activity behaviors of female adolescents and their friends within classroom-based peer networks in Korea. DESIGN: Complete social network analysis was used to examine the influence of classroom-based peers on adolescents' diets and physical activity. Data were collected by self-report from 99 female adolescents in three classrooms. METHODS: Diet and physical activity behaviors were measured using the Adolescent Food Habit Checklist, food frequency questions, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
N David Rodríguez-Marin, Aylin A Figueroa-Chaverra, Mayerly A Sánchez-Jiménez, Vanessa Orozco-Orrego, Constanza Bohórquez-Orozco, Omar R García, Magda I Pinzón, Leidy T Sánchez, Cristian C Villa
Growing interest in processed frozen products with similar characteristics to natural products has generated the study of new products in the food industry field. The characteristics of each matrix, the process of elaboration, composition, and structure of the additives and the interactions amongst these modify the food's texture, structure, physical and sensory properties and, hence, interfere directly with consumer acceptance. This research studied the effect of adding cryoprotectors during frozen storage on the rheological, physicochemical, structural, and microbiological properties in a Mafafa-quinoa-olive oil puree...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
Zhong Zhang, Xin Ma, Mengfan Jia, Bowei Li, Jianhui Rong, Xingbin Yang
Rapid detection of pesticides in fruits is an ongoing challenge. The objective of the present study was to develop novel fluorescent microfluidic paper chips for specific recognition and sensitive detection of the pesticide 2,4-D through the electron-transfer-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto cellulose paper (base material) to yield imprinted paper chips (paper@QDs@MIPs). This method allows the transferability of the molecularly imprinted fluorescence sensor from the liquid phase to the solid phase (paper base) for rapid and portable analysis...
December 14, 2018: Analyst
Rie Tanaka, Mayumi Tsuji, Koichi Kusuhara, Toshihiro Kawamoto
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association of workhours and shift work (referred to here as "time-related work factors") with dietary behaviors. We aimed to investigate this association, as well as the dietary behaviors among individuals with occupations characterized by time-related work factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. The study included 39,315 working men. Dietary behaviors (i...
December 14, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Francisco Botella Romero
days of hospitalization, a greater number of complementary tests, the need for artificial nutritional support and / or drugs to treat complications, which is a very important economic burden. Most patients who are malnourished, or at risk, can benefit from oral nutritional support, which includes dietary modifications (fortification, extra snacks, etc.), prescription of a personalized diet by a registered dietitian and the use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS). The use of ONS has shown benefits, in several meta-analysis, in weight recovery, reduction in the number of complications or hospital readmissions and functional improvement, without a reduction in the usual food intake...
April 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
C M McHugh, M Harron, A Kilcullen, P O’Connor, N Burns, A Toolan, E O’Mahony
Anorexia nervosa affects 0.5% of the population (90% female) with the highest mortality of any psychiatric illness, usually suicide, or cardiovascular or neurological sequelae of either malnutrition or refeeding syndrome. The latter two conditions occur in the inpatient setting, carry a high mortality and are thoroughly avoidable with careful informed clinical management. This paper provides an overview of the service and care of these patients in a general hospital setting in Ireland. In response to a number of acute presentations a cross discipline Pop-up Eating Disorder Unit (psychiatrist, physician, dietician, nurse) was established in Sligo University Hospital in 2014 and has experience of 20 people treated according to the MARSIPAN guideline (Management of Really Sick Inpatients with Anorexia Nervosa)...
September 10, 2018: Irish Medical Journal
Tim Kornfeld, Peter M Vogt, Christine Radtke
Artificial and non-artificial nerve grafts are the gold standard in peripheral nerve reconstruction in cases with extensive loss of nerve tissue, particularly where a direct end-to-end suture or an autologous nerve graft is inauspicious. Different materials are marketed and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for peripheral nerve graft reconstruction. The most frequently used materials are collagen and poly(DL-lactide-ε-caprolactone). Only one human nerve allograft is listed for peripheral nerve reconstruction by the FDA...
December 13, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Theresa E Gildner, Nawi Ng, Fan Wu, Yanfei Guo, J Josh Snodgrass, Paul Kowal
Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern is evident in low-income countries. Nationally-representative data collected in China were drawn from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010; n = 11,295)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Nannan Yan, Jie Xu, Chuanxiang Zhao, Yi Wu, Fengwei Gao, Ci Li, Wenhui Zhou, Tengfei Xiao, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Food allergy prevalence has steadily increased worldwide over the past decades and immunotherapeutic treatment strategies are gaining attention. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) exhibit similar immune regulatory properties to bone marrow-derived MSCs. hUC-MCSs can be prepared with fewer ethical constraints and are potential candidates for allergic disorder therapies. The current study aimed to investigate potential antiallergic properties of hUC-MSCs in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Tao Yu, Xiaobing Jiang, Yige Zhang, Shengdong Ji, Wujun Gao, Lei Shi
Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen that can persist in food processing environments and thus contaminate food products. Benzalkonium chloride (BC) is a common disinfectant widely used in food industry. Selective pressure associated with exposure to BC may result in adaptation to this agent in L. monocytogenes . In this study, the effect of BC adaptation on susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and tolerance to environmental stresses, as well as the role of efflux pumps in BC adaptation were investigated in Listeria monocytogenes ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Axel Brockmann, Pallab Basu, Manal Shakeel, Satoshi Murata, Naomi Murashima, Ravi Kumar Boyapati, Nikhil G Prabhu, Jacob J Herman, Teiichi Tanimura
We present a comparison of the sugar-elicited search behavior in Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera . In both species, intake of sugar-water elicits a complex of searching responses. The most obvious response was an increase in turning frequency. However, we also found that flies and honey bees returned to the location of the sugar drop. They even returned to the food location when we prevented them from using visual and chemosensory cues. Analyses of the recorded trajectories indicated that flies and bees use two mechanisms, a locomotor pattern involving an increased turning frequency and path integration to increase the probability to stay close or even return to the sugar drop location...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Luis Molina, Felipe A Bustamante, Kanti D Bhoola, Carlos D Figueroa, Pamela Ehrenfeld
Estrogens generated within endocrine organs and the reproductive system act as ligands for at least three types of estrogen receptors. Estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) belong to the so-called classical family of estrogen receptors, whereas the G protein-coupled receptor GPR30, also known as GPER-1, has been described as a novel estrogen receptor sited in the cell membrane of target cells. Furthermore, these receptors are under stimulation of a family of exogenous estrogens, known as phytoestrogens, which are a diverse group of non-steroidal plant compounds derived from plant food consumed by humans and animals...
December 21, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Wanshui Yang, Yanan Ma, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Mingyang Song, Kana Wu, Molin Wang, Andrew T Chan, Shuji Ogino, Charles S Fuchs, Vitaliy Poylin, Kimmie Ng, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Edward L Giovannucci, Xuehong Zhang
PURPOSE: Although evidence suggests an inverse association between calcium intake and colorectal cancer incidence, the influence of calcium on survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We prospectively assessed the association of postdiagnostic calcium intake with colorectal cancer-specific and overall mortality among 1,660 non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
December 13, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Jeannette Y Wick
The use of medical marijuana-both the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol and its nonpsychoactive relative cannabidiol-is a growing practice in facilities served by senior care pharmacists. Currently, 30 states have approved its use under a variety of different regulations and for a number of conditions. Its use is bolstered by a growing number of Americans who support legalization of cannabis. Though oral synthetic cannabinoid compounds are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and appetite stimulation associated with AIDS, synthetic products differ from plant-derived products in several ways...
December 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Stefanie J Anderson, Joey S Lockhart, Mehrbod Estaki, Candice Quin, Simon A Hirota, Laurie Alston, Andre G Buret, Trina M Hancock, Björn Petri, Deanna L Gibson, Douglas W Morck
Here we characterized the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of acute colitis. Specifically, we evaluated azithromycinand metronidazole treatment regimens to assess their effects on animal wellbeing, pathologic changes, barrier function,cytokine and chemokine profiles, and neutrophil migration in colon tissue. Azithromycin treatment significantly reduced theseverity of colitis, as assessed through body weight change, water consumption, macroscopic lesions, and animal behaviors(activity level, climbing, and grooming), but did not alter food consumption or feeding behavior...
December 13, 2018: Comparative Medicine
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