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Kai Zhang, Xiao-Jia Chen
Raman scattering measurements are performed on crystalline biphenyl at low temperatures. The properties of the vibrational modes focused on the intra- and intermolecular terms are analyzed in detail. Nearly all of the vibration modes exhibit hardening and simultaneously sharpen with decreasing temperature, whereas the modes at around 250 cm-1 and 1280 cm-1 soften their energies as temperature is decreased. Moreover, all the internal modes have anomalous reversals at around 45 K on the frequencies, widths, and intensities, and below 45 K, several new internal modes appear...
August 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jie Yang, Wei Li, Lihua Luo, Mengshi Jiang, Chunqi Zhu, Bing Qin, Hang Yin, Xiaoling Yuan, Xiaoyi Yin, Junlei Zhang, Zhenyu Luo, Yongzhong Du, Jian You
Chemotherapy has become a critical treatment for many cancer types. However, its efficacy is hindered by chemoresistance and limited drug accumulation induced by the hypoxic tumor environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for useful strategies to alleviate tumor hypoxia and enhance chemotherapy response in solid tumors. Herein, we report the development of a multifunctional liposome simultaneously loading an oxygen carrier (hemoglobin, Hb) and an anti-tumor drug (doxorubicin, DOX) to enhance chemotherapeutic effects against hypoxic tumors...
August 11, 2018: Biomaterials
Yongliang Jiang, Xuanfen Zhou, Ruicheng Hu, Aiguo Dai
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which is characterized by increased proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells, increased expression of mesenchymal markers and reduced expression of endothelial markers, has been reported to be closely related to the pathogenesis of several diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. Resistin-like molecule-β (RELM-β), also known as "found in inflammatory zone 2" (FIIZ2), plays an essential role in airway remodeling and pulmonary fibrosis; however, its role and mechanism in EndMT remain unclear...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Tang Li, Haiyun Wang, Jinxin Wang, Yimeng Chen, Chenyi Yang, Mingshu Zhao, Guolin Wang, Zhuo Yang
Chemokines related neuroinflammation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) mediated nociceptive transmission are pivotal determinants in the pathogenesis of opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), but little is known about specific mechanism and treatment. Chemokine CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4 is implicated in different pathological pain, moreover, neurotoxicity of CXCL12 is associated with NMDAR activation. Recent studies recapitulate the anti-nociception of Annexin 1 (ANXA1) in inflammatory pain. This study examined whether ANXA1 prevented remifentanil-caused OIH through modulating CXCL12 and NMDAR pathway in rats...
August 15, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Taye Jemilat Lasisi, Shehu-Tijani Toyin Shittu, Akinola Rasak Alada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Cleetus Cherupanakkal, Daisy Mariya Samadanam, Krishna Raja Muthuraman, Surya Ramesh, Amrit Venkatesan, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna Pillai, Soundravally Rajendiran
Interplay between the apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress as a host response to dengue viral infections remains unclear. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 60 dengue infected patients, 20 patients with febrile illness other than dengue (OFI) and 10 non-febrile illness (NFI) patients. DNA damage in the PBMCs was assessed using single cell gel electrophoresis and stages of apoptosis underwent by the PBMCs were studied by Annexin-PI staining using flow cytometry. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde levels were estimated using thiobarbituric acid assay...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Alysia Mandato, Yuh-Cherng Chai
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of many strains of tuberculosis, as it is composed of an impenetrable, complex cell wall. The proteins active in the synthesis of the cell wall are mycolyl transferase antigens 85A, 85B, and 85C, encoded by genes fbpA, fbpB, and fbpC. Antigen 85C contains one cysteine residue. S-Glutathionylation is the formation of a mixed disulfide between a protein cysteine residue and glutathione (GSH), an abundant antioxidant molecule. It is a post-translational modification of cysteine residues which can occur under oxidative stress or physiological conditions...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Lindsey M Childs-Kean, Eric Egelund, Jacqueline Jourjy
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is indicated for adult patients with chronic HBV infection with compensated liver disease at a dose of 25mg orally daily. TAF is a more stable prodrug in the plasma than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), leading to decreased plasma exposure of tenofovir. Decreased exposure is thought to reduce the risk of long-term TDF toxicities, such as nephrotoxicity and decreased bone mineral density. TAF has the same mechanism of action as TDF: a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor...
August 18, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Pélagie Babakazo, Léopold Lubula, Wally Disasuani, Léonie Kitoko Manya, Edith Nkwembe, Naomi Mitongo, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Jean-Claude Changachanga, Saleh Muhemedi, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Joelle Kabamba-Tshilobo, Stefano Tempia
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated outpatient consultations and hospitalizations are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. METHODS: We conducted active prospective surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) at 5 healthcare facilities situated in Kinshasa Province during 2013-2015. We tested upper respiratory tract samples for influenza viruses using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay...
August 17, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
F Rosso, S Rodríguez, J A Cedano, B L Mora, P A Moncada, J D Velez
Chikungunya virus is a recent emerging arbovirus in Latin America, and the clinical manifestations can vary from fever and rash to severe chronic inflammatory arthritis. Few reports have been published regarding this infection in immunocompromised patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. We report a case series of solid organ transplant recipients with confirmed Chikungunya infection by positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), identified between January 2014 and December 2016...
August 17, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Hyoil Kim, Duyeol Choi, Jihyeon Jung, Yonggyun Kim
An entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata (Ptt) infects insect hemocoel by the vectoring activity of its symbiotic nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis. The bacterium induces host immunosuppression by inhibiting eicosanoid biosynthesis. This study investigated the role of eicosanoids in immune responses of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in the early bacterial infection stage (first 3 hr postinfection [PI]). After infection with the nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (Ec), the bacterium maintained its population for the first 3 hr PI, then rapidly decreased in numbers...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Jonathan K Fernand, Haleh Amanieh, David J Cox, Nicole R Dorey
The reverse-reward contingency (RRC) task involves presenting subjects with a choice between one plate containing a large amount of food and a second plate containing a small amount of food. Subjects are then required to select the smaller of the two options in order to receive the larger-magnitude reward. The RRC task is a commonly used paradigm for assessing complex cognition, such as inhibitory control, in subjects. To date, the RRC task has not been tested with pet dogs as subjects, and it may provide insights to their ability to perceive quantities of differing magnitudes...
August 17, 2018: Learning & Behavior
S Florim, A Almeida, D Rocha, P Portugal
Acute mesenteric ischaemia (AMI) is an uncommon cause of acute hospital admission with high mortality rates (50-90%) that requires early diagnosis and treatment. With the increase in average life expectancy, AMI represents one of the most threatening abdominal conditions in elderly patients. Untreated, AMI will cause mesenteric infarction, intestinal necrosis, an overwhelming inflammatory response and death. Early intervention can reverse this process leading to a full recovery, but the diagnosis of AMI is difficult...
August 17, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Matthew D Morrison, Linda Jackson-Boeters, Zia A Khan, Michael S Shimizu, Jason H Franklin, Kevin Fung, John H J Yoo, Mark R Darling
Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign salivary gland tumor. Kallikrein-related peptidases have been identified as biomarkers in many human tumors and may influence tumor behavior. We investigated KLK1-15 messenger ribonucleic acid and proteins in PA specimens to determine a KLK expression profile for this tumor. Fresh frozen PA tissue specimens (n = 26) and matched controls were subjected to quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect KLK1-15 mRNA. Expression of KLK1, KLK12, KLK13, and KLK8 proteins were then evaluated via immunostaining techniques...
August 17, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Harold G Koenig, Nagy A Youssef, Rev John P Oliver, Donna Ames, Kerry Haynes, Fred Volk, Ellen J Teng
Religious involvement is associated with mental health and well-being in non-military populations. This study examines the relationship between religiosity and PTSD symptoms, and the mediating effects of anxiety and depression in Veterans and Active Duty Military (V/ADM). This was a cross-sectional multi-site study involving 585 V/ADM recruited from across the USA. Inclusion criteria were having served in a combat theater and PTSD symptoms. Demographics, military characteristics, and social factors were assessed, along with measurement of religiosity, PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Veronica Raco, Tania Ahuja, David Green
Idarucizumab, a fully humanized Fab antibody fragment, is indicated for reversal of dabigatran's anticoagulant activity. Idarucizumab neutralizes the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran by binding to dabigatran and its metabolite. In the full analysis of 503 patients, idarucizumab fully reversed the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran in more than 98% of patients. Real-world clinical experience with idarucizumab for dabigatran reversal remains limited. We report 11 real-world clinical cases in which idarucizumab was administered for dabigatran reversal in the setting of bleed (bleeding cohort n = 5) or emergent procedure (emergent procedure cohort, n = 6)...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Marco M Schneider, Felix Toft, Christoph Kolling, Barbara Wirth, Robert Vachenauer, Nils Horn, Quinten T M Felsch, Laurent Audigé
INTRODUCTION: Incidences of scapular notching (SN) in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) range between 0% and 96%, and controversy remain as to its relevance for patient outcome. We assessed the reliability of scapular notching (SN) grading based on the Sirveaux classification system using anteroposterior radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 206 RSA procedures with 5-year postoperative anteroposterior shoulder radiographs were classified independently by seven assessors according to Sirveaux (session 1)...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Daniel Fink, Itamar Nitzan, Alona Bin-Nun, Francis Mimouni, Cathy Hammerman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The hemodynamically insignificant (hisPDA) ductus arteriosus often progresses to hemodynamic significance. In this review, we sought risk factors predictive of progression. METHODS: Early hisPDAs were subdivided into those that closed spontaneously vs. those that progressed to hsPDA. RESULTS: Sixty percent of early hisPDAs subsequently progressed to hsPDAs. In all but one, the ductus never closed, but rather became progressively more significant over time...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Megan E Fox, Ramesh Chandra, Miriam S Menken, Emily J Larkin, Hyungwoo Nam, Michel Engeln, T Chase Francis, Mary Kay Lobo
Depression alters the structure and function of brain reward circuitry. Preclinical evidence suggests that medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) undergo structural plasticity; however, the molecular mechanism and behavioral significance is poorly understood. Here we report that atrophy of D1, but not D2 receptor containing MSNs is strongly associated with social avoidance in mice subject to social defeat stress. D1-MSN atrophy is caused by cell-type specific upregulation of the GTPase RhoA and its effector Rho-kinase...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Elena Y Demireva, Deepika Suri, Emanuela Morelli, Darshini Mahadevia, Nao Chuhma, Catia M Teixeira, Annette Ziolkowski, Marc Hersh, James Fifer, Sneha Bagchi, Alexei Chemiakine, Holly Moore, Jay A Gingrich, Peter Balsam, Stephen Rayport, Mark S Ansorge
Serotonin (5-HT) selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders, but responsiveness is uncertain and side effects often lead to discontinuation. Side effect profiles suggest that SSRIs reduce dopaminergic (DAergic) activity, but specific mechanistic insight is missing. Here we show in mice that SSRIs impair motor function by acting on 5-HT2C receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which in turn inhibits nigra pars compacta (SNc) DAergic neurons...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
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