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Priyanka A Shah, Pranav S Shrivastav, Jaivik V Shah, Archana George
A single LC-MS/MS assay is developed and validated for simultaneous determination of metformin and dapagliflozin in human plasma using ion-pair solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation of the analytes and their internal standards was carried out on a reversed-phase ACE 5CN (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile-15 mM ammonium acetate, pH 4.5 (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. To achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity for the analytes, mass spectrometric analysis was performed using polarity switching approach...
December 5, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Dongyang Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Zengjun Li, Jianjun Han, Yongsheng Gao, Ming Chen, Yanqing Li
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) promotes tumor growth in various types of cancer, but its function has not been investigated in the context of colorectal adenoma. Here, we report that FGF19 expression was greater in colorectal adenoma than in normal tissues, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry. FGF19 expression was also elevated in a subset of human colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4), the cognate receptor for FGF19, was upregulated in colorectal adenoma tissues...
December 5, 2018: Digestive Diseases
Farideh Jalali Mashayekhi, Mozhgan Rasti, Zahra Khoshdel, Ali Akbar Owji
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications may be involved in the structural and behavioral changes associated with addiction. We studied whether morphine-induced changes in mRNA levels of the catecholamine biosynthesis enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), are associated with histone modifications around the promoter of this gene in the locus coeruleus (LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats. METHODS: Dependence was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injections of morphine for 11 days...
December 5, 2018: European Addiction Research
Guillaume Bompard, Juliette van Dijk, Julien Cau, Yoann Lannay, Guillaume Marcellin, Aleksandra Lawera, Siem van der Laan, Krzysztof Rogowski
Tubulin glutamylation is a reversible posttranslational modification that accumulates on stable microtubules (MTs). While abnormally high levels of this modification lead to a number of disorders such as male sterility, retinal degeneration, and neurodegeneration, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of glutamylase activity. Here, we found that CSAP forms a complex with TTLL5, and we demonstrate that the two proteins regulate their reciprocal abundance. Moreover, we show that CSAP increases TTLL5-mediated glutamylation and identify the TTLL5-interacting domain...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Kim G Harley, Kimberly P Berger, Katherine Kogut, Kimberly Parra, Robert H Lustig, Louise C Greenspan, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Brenda Eskenazi
STUDY QUESTION: Are in-utero or peripubertal exposures to phthalates, parabens and other phenols found in personal care products associated with timing of pubertal onset in boys and girls? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found some associations of altered pubertal timing in girls, but little evidence in boys. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Certain chemicals in personal care and consumer products, including low molecular weight phthalates, parabens and phenols, or their precursors, are associated with altered pubertal timing in animal studies...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Takafumi Kawamura, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Katsunori Suzuki, Yuhi Suzuki, Megumu Kamishima, Mayu Sakata, Kiyotaka Kurachi, Mitsutoshi Setoh, Hiroyuki Konno, Hiroya Takeuchi
Background: Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is one of the prognostic factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and prevention of CAC is a critical concern for patients with IBD. Component cells of the microenvironment, especially myofibroblasts, are known to affect tumor development, but the role of intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs) in CAC has not been clarified. Here, we explored the role of IMFs in CAC and sought to identify candidate genes as novel therapeutic targets for the prevention of CAC...
December 4, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Caroline Solda, Fernando Branco Barletta, José Roberto Vanni, Paula Lambert, Marcus Vinícius Reis Só, Carlos Estrela
The present study assessed oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels before, during, and after at-home bleaching treatment in the pulps of healthy maxillary central incisors. SaO2 levels were measured in 136 healthy maxillary central incisors using a pulse oximeter. The bleaching protocol consisted of 10% carbamide peroxide gel placed in individual trays and used for four hours daily for 14 days. SaO2 levels were assessed before bleaching (T0), immediately after the first session (T1), on the 7th day of treatment (T2), on the 15th day (the day following the last session) (T3), and 30 days after completion of the bleaching protocol (T4)...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Otaviana Cardoso Chaves, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Dário Alves da Silva Costa, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between soft drink consumption and body mass index (BMI) in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. METHODS: We used data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar - PeNSE) of 2009. The dependent variable (outcome) was the tertiles of BMI score (zBMI), and the main independent variable (exposure) was the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The models included age, school type, home goods and services score, and maternal schooling as adjustment variables...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Luciane Geanini Pena Dos Santos, Luiz Alexandre Chisini, Camila Guerner Springmann, Beatriz Dulcineia Mendes de Souza, Fernanda Geraldo Pappen, Flávio Fernando Demarco, Mara Cristina Santos Felippe, Wilson Tadeu Felippe
This systematic review aimed to evaluate whether alternative materials to conventional triple antibiotic paste (TAP - metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) and grey mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) could avoid tooth discoloration in teeth submitted to Regenerative Endodontic Procedure (REP). It was also investigated if dental bleaching is able to reverse the color of darkened teeth due to REP. The search was conducted in four databases (Medline via PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and BVS - Virtual health library), following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Adriana Paula da Silva, Taciana Carla Maia Feilbelmann, Daniela Cristina Silva, Heloisa Marcelina Cunha Palhares, Lúcia Marina Scatena, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues de Resende, Maria de Fátima Borges
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children and adolescents in a medium-sized Brazilian city. METHODS: In total, 1,125 children and adolescents between the ages of 5.6 and 18 years from public and private schools participated in the study. The sample included 681 girls and 444 boys. Each subject's weight and height were obtained according to Brazilian guidelines (SISVAN). The triceps (TSF), subscapular (SSF), biceps, suprailiac, femoral and calf skinfolds were measured in triplicate...
November 29, 2018: Clinics
Frans Everson, Amanda Genis, Temitope Ogundipe, Patrick De Boever, Nandu Goswami, Amanda Lochner, Dee Blackhurst, Hans Strijdom
HIV-infection, certain antiretroviral drug classes, especially protease inhibitors (PI), and obesity are associated with increased ischaemic heart disease (IHD) risk. However, the effect of PI-free fixed dose combination (FDC) antiretroviral therapy (ART) on hearts exposed to ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) is unknown, particularly in obesity. This is becoming relevant as World Health Organisation guidelines recommend a FDC ART containing (non-) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC) and efavirenz (EFV)) as first-line HIV treatment...
2018: PloS One
Jessica Galloway-Peña, Sruti DebRoy, Chelcy Brumlow, Xiqi Li, Truc T Tran, Nicola Horstmann, Hui Yao, Ken Chen, Fang Wang, Bih-Fang Pan, David H Hawke, Erika J Thompson, Cesar A Arias, Vance G Fowler, Micah M Bhatti, Awdhesh Kalia, Anthony R Flores, Samuel A Shelburne
Inactivating mutations in the control of virulence two-component regulatory system (covRS) often account for the hypervirulent phenotype in severe, invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. As CovR represses production of the anti-phagocytic hyaluronic acid capsule, high level capsule production is generally considered critical to the hypervirulent phenotype induced by CovRS inactivation. There have recently been large outbreaks of GAS strains lacking capsule, but there are currently no data on the virulence of covRS-mutated, acapsular strains in vivo...
2018: PloS One
Arne Skerra, Mikhail Barkovskiy, Elena Ilyukhina, Martin Dauner, Andreas Eichinger
Colchicine is a toxic alkaloid prevalent in autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale) that binds to tubulin and inhibits polymerization of microtubules. Using combinatorial and rational protein design, we have developed an artificial binding protein based on the human lipocalin 2 that binds colchicine with a dissociation constant of 120 pM, i.e. 10 000-fold stronger than tubulin. Crystallographic analysis of the engineered lipocalin, dubbed Colchicalin, revealed major structural changes in the flexible loop region that forms the ligand pocket at one end of the eight-stranded β-barrel, resulting in a lid-like structure over the deeply buried colchicine...
December 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Huaiyong Gan, Qiong Zhang, Bo Zhu, Shiwu Wu, Damin Chai
Radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy are commonly used in treatment of brain tumors, but they may also result in behavioral impairments such as anxiety and cognitive deficit. The present study sought to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on the behavioral impairments caused by radiation and temozolomide treatment. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single cranial radiation followed by 6-week cyclic temozolomide administration, and then treated with chronic administration of fluoxetine...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Vigneshwaran Namasivayam, Murugesan Vanangamudi, Victor G Kramer, Sonali Kurup, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu, Jacob Kongsted, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is now pandemic. Targeting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) has been considered one of the most successful targets for the development of anti-HIV treatment. Among the HIV-1 RT inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have gained a definitive place due to their unique antiviral potency, high specificity and low toxicity in antiretroviral combination therapies used to treat HIV. Till now, >50 structurally diverse classes of compounds have been reported as NNRTIs...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Keyi Chen, Ye Zhang, Chilin Li
Metal-polysulfide batteries are attracting broad attentions as conversion reaction systems of high theoretical energy density and low cost. However, their further applications are hindered by low loading of active species, excess conductive additive and loose (nanostructured) electrode network. Herein, we propose that compact grain stacking and surface fluorination are two crucial factors for achieving high-rate and long-life pyrite (FeS2) cathode enabled by sulfurating ionic liquid wrapped open framework fluorides...
December 5, 2018: ACS Nano
Yoko Sakata, Ryoichi Yamamoto, Daiki Saito, Yuko Tamura, Keisuke Maruyama, Tomoki Ogoshi, Shigehisa Akine
A triptycene-based shape-persistent belt-shaped macrocycle, metallonanobelt, was synthesized by the self-assembly of 2,3,6,7-tetraaminotriptycene L and square planar Pd2+ . The pentamer was selectively formed by the complexation of L with Pd2+ in the presence of the pillar[6]arene derivative P6 having triethylene glycol pendant as a template, whereas a mixture of a trimer, tetramer, and pentamer was obtained in the absence of the template. The pentamer was successfully isolated based on the solubility difference between the metallonanobelt and the template...
December 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Anjeza Beharaj, Iriny Ekladious, Mark W Grinstaff
Polyacrylates are widely used in industry; however, their all aliphatic backbone leads to minimal degradability with challenges in recovery and recyclability. Insertion of CO2 into the backbone, forming poly(carbonate) analogues of poly(acrylate)s provides an environmentally friendly and biocompatible alternative polymer. The synthesis of five poly(carbonate) analogues of poly(methyl acrylate), poly(ethyl acrylate), and poly(butyl acrylate) is described. The polymers are prepared via the copolymerization of CO2 and an oxirane catalyzed by a salen cobalt complex...
December 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Sai Wang, Xin-Bo Zhang
Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are ideal candidates for solving the problem of large-scale energy storage, due to the worldwide sodium resource, but the efforts in exploring and synthesizing low-cost and eco-friendly anode materials with convenient technologies and low-cost raw materials are still insufficient. Herein, with the assistance of a simple calcination method and common raw materials, the environmentally friendly and nontoxic N-doped C@Zn3 B2 O6 composite is directly synthesized and proved to be a potential anode material for NIBs...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Cheuk-Ting Law, Lai Wei, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Cerise Yuen-Ki Chan, Iris Ming-Jing Xu, Robin Kit-Ho Lai, Daniel Wai-Hung Ho, Joyce Man-Fong Lee, Carmen Chak-Lui Wong, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Chun-Ming Wong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third lethal cancer worldwide. Increasing evidence showed that epigenetic alterations play an important role in human carcinogenesis. Deregulation of DNA methylation and histone modifications have recently been characterized in HCC, but the significance of chromatin remodeling in liver carcinogenesis remains to be explored. In this study, by systematically analyzing the expression of chromatin remodeling genes in human HCCs, we found that HELicase, Lymphoid-Specific (HELLS), a SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling enzyme, was remarkably overexpressed in HCC...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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