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Reversible process

Yoko Sakata, Ryoichi Yamamoto, Daiki Saito, Yuko Tamura, Keisuke Maruyama, Tomoki Ogoshi, Shigehisa Akine
A triptycene-based shape-persistent belt-shaped macrocycle, metallonanobelt, was synthesized by the self-assembly of 2,3,6,7-tetraaminotriptycene L and square planar Pd2+ . The pentamer was selectively formed by the complexation of L with Pd2+ in the presence of the pillar[6]arene derivative P6 having triethylene glycol pendant as a template, whereas a mixture of a trimer, tetramer, and pentamer was obtained in the absence of the template. The pentamer was successfully isolated based on the solubility difference between the metallonanobelt and the template...
December 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Xiaoxiao Jiang, Yanhong Cheng, Chaojie Hu, Aimei Zhang, Yingli Ren, Xiucai Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in various processes from the development to drug resistance of tumors, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study, we examined the STAT5-related miRNA-expression profile in CML cell lines (K562 and imatinib-resistant K562/G) by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. MiR-221 expression was markedly decreased in K562/G cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with treatment failure, when compared to imatinib-sensitive CML cells and patients with optimal responses respectively...
December 5, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Fei Liu, Ying Chen, Honglie Song, Fan Zhang, Zhichao Fan, Yuan Liu, Xue Feng, John A Rogers, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang
To address demands for increased data transmission rates, electrically small antennas (ESAs) that simultaneously offer large frequency bandwidths and small physical sizes are of growing interest. 3D layouts are particularly important in this context and among various 3D ESAs, systems that adopt hemispherical shapes are very promising, because they can occupy the entire Chu-sphere and offer outstanding electrical performance. Researchers have developed a few different approaches to fabricate high-quality hemispherical ESAs, but most have static layouts and fixed operating frequencies...
December 5, 2018: Small
Qing Gao, Lin Xu, Qian Yang, Tian-Jun Guan
Peritoneal fibrosis remains to be one of the most severe causes of failure in continuous peritoneal dialysis. The current study cultured peritoneal mesothelial cells in high glucose to stimulate the environment of peritoneal fibrosis model in rats, and investigate whether microRNA-21 (miR-21) targeting Sprouty-1 affects high glucose-induced fibrosis in peritoneal mesothelial cells via the rennin angiotensin system (Ras)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, as well as potential mechanisms...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Tim Kampowski, Sven Demandt, Simon Poppinga, Thomas Speck
Resurrection plants have fascinated scientists since centuries as they can fully recover from cellular water contents below 10%, concomitantly showing remarkable leaf folding motions. While physiological adaptations have been meticulously investigated, the understanding of structural and mechanical adaptations of this phenomenon is scarce. Using imaging and bending techniques during dehydration-rehydration experiments, morphological, anatomical, and biomechanical properties of desiccation-tolerant Ramonda myconi are examined, and selected structural adaptations are compared to those of homoiohydrous Monophyllaea horsfieldii (both Gesneriaceae)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dmitry V Matyushov, Marshall D Newton
We present a thermodynamic analysis of the activation barrier for reactions which can be monitored through the difference in the energies of reactants and products defined as the reaction coordinate (electron and atom transfer, enzyme catalysis, etc). The free-energy surfaces along the reaction coordinate are separated into the enthalpy and entropy surfaces. For the Gaussian statistics of the reaction coordinate, the free-energy surfaces are parabolas, and the entropy surface is an inverted parabola. Its maximum coincides with the transition state for reactions with zero value of the reaction free energy...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Daniela Greco, Simone Battista, Laura Mele, Antonio Piemontese, Bianca Papotti, Stefania Cavazzini, Francesco Potì, Giulia Di Rocco, Andrea Poli, Franco Bernini, Ilaria Zanotti
It has been well established that moderate alcohol consumption inversely correlates with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, whereas binge alcohol drinking increases cardiovascular disease risk. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo the impact of different drinking patterns on reverse cholesterol transport (RCT); the atheroprotective process leading to the removal of excess cholesterol from the body. RCT was measured with a standardized, radioisotope-based technique in three groups of atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knock out mice: Placebo group, receiving water, which would mimic the abstainers; moderate group, receiving 0...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Gaël Varoquaux, Russell A Poldrack
Understanding the organization of complex behavior as it relates to the brain requires modeling the behavior, the relevant mental processes, and the corresponding neural activity. Experiments in cognitive neuroscience typically study a psychological process via controlled manipulations, reducing behavior to one of its components. Such reductionism can easily lead to paradigm-bound theories. Predictive models can generalize brain-mind associations to arbitrary new tasks and stimuli. We argue that they are needed to broaden theories beyond specific paradigms...
December 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Jun-Hye Shin, Isabelle Mila, Mingchun Liu, Maria Aurineide Rodrigues, Teva Vernoux, Julien Pirrello, Mondher Bouzayen
Ethylene is the main hormone controlling climacteric fruit ripening; however, the mechanisms underlying the developmental transition leading to initiation of the ripening process remain elusive although the presumed role of active hormone interplay has been often postulated. To unravel the putative role of auxin in the unripe-to-ripe transition, we investigated the dynamics of auxin activity in tomato fruit and addressed the physiological significance of Sl-SAUR69, previously identified as RIN target gene, using reverse genetics approaches...
December 3, 2018: New Phytologist
Karen Hakobyan, Thomas Gegenhuber, Christopher S P McErlean, Markus Muellner
The continuous amalgamation of photocatalysis into existing reversible deactivation radical polymerisation processes has initiated a rapidly propagating area of polymer research in recent years. We introduce bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) as a heterogeneous photocatalyst for polymerisations, operating at room temperature with visible light. We demonstrate formidable control over degenerative chain-transfer polymerisations, such as macromolecular design by interchange of xanthate (MADIX) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerisation...
December 3, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Aswathy Joseph, Marylin Mary Xavier, Jacek Fal, Gaweł Żyła, Soorya Sasi, P Radhakrishnan Nair, A S Padmanabhan, Suresh Mathew
An iron oxide based-electroactive IoNanofluid with a high dielectric constant, high stability and low viscosity was synthesized from ferrous sulphate heptahydrate via a facile microwave assisted one-step route in 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride. The IoNanofluid exhibited CE coupled faradaic redox reactions involving reversible chemical reaction and reversible electron transfer steps. A transition from diffusion controlled to surface controlled capacitive processes was observed at varying scan rates. The efficiency of the charge-discharge process was greater than 94% even after 100 cycles...
December 4, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Valeriia Gulaia, Vadim Kumeiko, Nikita Shved, Eduardas Cicinskas, Stanislav Rybtsov, Alexey Ruzov, Alexander Kagansky
Cellular quiescence is a reversible, non-cycling state controlled by epigenetic, transcriptional and niche-associated molecular factors. Quiescence is a condition where molecular signaling pathways maintain the poised cell-cycle state whilst enabling rapid cell cycle re-entry. To achieve therapeutic breakthroughs in oncology it is crucial to decipher these molecular mechanisms employed by the cancerous milieu to control, maintain and gear stem cells towards re-activation. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been extensively studied in most malignancies, including glioma...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Da Zhou, Yuan-Wen Chen, Ze-Hua Zhao, Rui-Xu Yang, Feng-Zhi Xin, Xiao-Lin Liu, Qin Pan, Huiping Zhou, Jian-Gao Fan
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has a broad spectrum of biological activity by regulating metabolic processes via both the direct activation of the class B family of G protein-coupled receptors and indirect nonreceptor-mediated pathways. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have significant therapeutic effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) in animal models. However, clinical studies indicated that GLP-1 treatment had little effect on hepatic steatosis in some NAFLD patients, suggesting that GLP-1 resistance may occur in these patients...
December 3, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Nobuhiko Hosono, Aya Terashima, Shinpei Kusaka, Ryotaro Matsuda, Susumu Kitagawa
The ability of porous coordination polymers to undergo reversible structural transformations in response to the presence of guest molecules has been intensively investigated for applications such as molecular separation, storage, sensing and signalling processes. Here we report on the direct observation of the highly guest-responsive nature of the surface of a single-crystalline porous coordination polymer, which consists of paddlewheel zinc clusters and two types of ligand, by in situ liquid-phase atomic force microscopy...
December 3, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Rhiannon M Evans, Stephen E Beaton
The recent novel overproduction system for the membrane-bound oxygen-sensitive [NiFe]-hydrogenase-2 (Hyd-2) from Escherichia coli is detailed. Hyd-2 is an efficient and reversible catalyst for the interconversion of H2 and 2H+ . Produced at low levels during anaerobic respiration, Hyd-2 is instrumental in the generation of proton-motive force (PMF), and likewise uses PMF to generate H2 . The structure of the Hyd-2 complex could yield immense information on the mechanism of proton pumping in this group of enzymes, which are of energetic and pathogenic importance...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Rodney Burton, Mehmet Can, Daniel Esckilsen, Seth Wiley, Stephen W Ragsdale
The chapter focuses on the methods involved in producing and characterizing two key nickel-iron-sulfur enzymes in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) of anaerobic conversion of carbon dioxide fixation into acetyl-CoA: carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS). The WLP is used for biosynthesis of cell material and energy conservation by anaerobic bacteria and archaea, and it is central to several industrial biotechnology processes aimed at using syngas and waste gases for the production of fuels and chemicals...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Ashley Untereiner, Shaaban Abdo, Alpana Bhattacharjee, Himaben Gohil, Farzaneh Pourasgari, Neke Ibeh, Mi Lai, Battsetseg Batchuluun, Anthony Wong, Nicholas Khuu, Ying Liu, Dana Al Rijjal, Neil Winegarden, Carl Virtanen, Beverley A Orser, Over Cabrera, Gabor Varga, Jonathan Rocheleau, Feihan F Dai, Michael B Wheeler
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration has been shown to increase β-cell mass, leading to a reversal of type 1 diabetes in mice. Whether GABA has any effect on β cells of healthy and prediabetic/glucose-intolerant obese mice remains unknown. In the present study, we show that oral GABA administration ( ad libitum) to mice indeed increased pancreatic β-cell mass, which led to a modest enhancement in insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. However, GABA treatment did not further increase insulin-positive islet area in high fat diet-fed mice and was unable to prevent or reverse glucose intolerance and insulin resistance...
December 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sindhuja Sen, Yasaswini Oruganti, Anjan Chattopadhyay
A comparative study of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline 1-oxide (DMPO) and its 2-methyl-substituted analogue (2-Me-DMPO) has revealed their contrasting reaction pathways of oxaziridine and lactam (pyrrolidone) formation. The initial photo-excitation populates the second excited singlet states (S2) in both the systems with S0-S2 transition moment value of 3 Debye (oscillator strength 0.4); this subsequently undergoes (S0/S1) conical intersection through a structure having a CNO-kink and situated around 35-40 kcal / mol below the vertically excited geometry of the first excited singlet state (S1)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Joseph Saragusty, Pasqualino Loi
Biobanking is a rapidly growing industry, covering diverse fields such as human medicine, farm animal production, laboratory animals record keeping, and wildlife conservation. Presently, biobanking is done almost exclusively by cryopreservation, followed by maintenance of the samples under liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation has satisfactory efficiency but it comes with a host of problems, and the process is highly species-specific. Like in many other walks of life, we turn to Nature in search for better alternatives...
November 26, 2018: Theriogenology
Maayan Kaiser, Ryan Arvidson, Raz Zarivach, Michael E Adams, Frederic Libersat
Envenomation of cockroach cerebral ganglia by the parasitoid Jewel wasp, Ampulex compressa, induces specific, long-lasting behavioural changes. We hypothesized that this prolonged action results from venom-induced changes in brain neurochemistry. Here, we address this issue by first identifying molecular targets of the venom, i.e., proteins to which venom components bind and interact with to mediate altered behaviour. Our results show that venom components bind to synaptic proteins and likely interfere with both pre- and postsynaptic processes...
November 30, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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