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Reversible process

Qianqian Zhang, Ringo van Wijk, Xavier Zarza, Muhammad Shahbaz, Max van Hooren, Aisha Guardia, Denise Scuffi, Carlos García-Mata, Wim Van den Ende, Susanne Hoffmann-Benning, Michel A Haring, Ana M Laxalt, Teun Munnik
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a well-known signaling enzyme in metazoans that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol as second messengers involved in mutiple processes. Plants contain PLC too, but relatively little is known about its function there. The model system Arabidopsis thaliana contains nine PLC genes. Reversed genetics have implicated several roles for PLCs in plant development and stress signaling. Here, PLC5 is functionally addressed...
August 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Emanuele Schiavon, Joshua L Smalley, Sherylanne Newton, Nigel H Greig, Ian D Forsythe
Hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) is caused by raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. When severe, susceptible brain regions including the cerebellum and auditory brainstem are damaged causing neurological sequelae such as ataxia, hearing loss and kernicterus. The mechanism(s) by which bilirubin exerts its toxic effect have not been completely understood to date. In this study we investigated the acute mechanisms by which bilirubin causes the neurotoxicity that contributes to hearing loss. We developed a novel mouse model that exhibits the neurological features seen in human Bilirubin-Induced Neurological Dysfunction (BIND) syndrome that we assessed with a behavioural score and auditory brainstem responses (ABR)...
2018: PloS One
Bo Wang, Jun-Fang Wu, Chao Li, Zhi-Yuan Li
Photonic devices based on a high-Q cavity are commonly constrained by narrow operation bandwidth, slow charging, and releasing speed. Here, we analytically and numerically demonstrate that this limitation can be broken via dynamically tuning the Q factors of a single nanocavity and driving controllable photonic transitions between a low-Q cavity mode and an ultrahigh-Q mode by temporal refractive index modulations inside a multimode cavity. During this dynamic process, the bandwidth of signal light is also reversibly compressed...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Sven Tobisch
A detailed computational probe of the rare earth metal-mediated intramolecular amidination of aminoalkenes with nitriles by an archetypical [Y{N(SiMe3)2}3] precatalyst is presented. The mechanistic picture derived from smooth energy profiles, acquired by employing a reliable computational protocol applied to a realistic catalyst model, conforms to available experimental data that includes a significant primary KIE. Sequential Y-N silylamide aminolysis transforms the precatalyst into a multitude of silylamide/amide compounds, of which the bis-amine coordinated [Y{N(SiMe3)2}(NRR')2] is the most abundant, capable of promoting cycloamidination...
August 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Wenhu Zhang, Shaozhuang Liu, Hanxiang Zhan, Zhibo Yan, Guangyong Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the key pathways and genes associated with gastric adenocarcinoma via transcriptome sequencing. Five pairs of gastric adenocarcinoma tissue and normal tumor‑adjacent tissue were harvested. After sequencing, raw data were processed and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tumor and control groups were screened, followed by functional enrichment analysis and gene clustering analysis. The effect of DEGs on patient prognosis was analyzed on the basis of the survival data from gastric adenocarcinoma patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas database...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yang Li, Xiaoni Sui, Xueqing Hu, Zhao Hu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common microvascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus (DM); the incidence has been predicted to reach 7.7% by 2030 on a global scale. Krüppel‑like factor 5 (KLF5) is involved in numerous important biological processes; however, the potential effects of KLF5 on podocytes in patients with diabetic nephrotic (DN) have not yet been investigated. In the present study, synaptopodin expression in podocytes was investigated using an immunofluorescence assay...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yan Feng, Xing Guo, Xinping Huang, Manya Wu, Xin Li, Shushu Wu, Xiaoling Luo
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to be associated with the recurrence and drug resistance of liver cancer. In the present study, stem cell‑like HepG2 cell spheres were enriched using stem cell conditioned culture medium. As expected, stem‑like HepG2 cell spheres exhibited increased resistance to sorafenib. Metformin, a common drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduced the diameters and numbers of stem‑like HepG2 spheres, and increased their sensitivity to sorafenib. Western blotting confirmed that low doses of metformin reversed the epithelial‑mesenchymal transformation (EMT) process of HepG2 spheres...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jun Lei, Yong Chai, Juhua Xiao, Huakun Hu, Zhiqiang Liu, Yu Xiao, Lijun Yi, Jinshi Huang, Tianxin Xiang, Shouhua Zhang
Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare and severe disease that affects infants where a fibroinflammatory process destroys the bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and biliary cirrhosis, and mortality if untreated. Bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) have been considered as a promising therapy in fibrotic diseases. The aim of the present was to investigate the anti‑fibrotic roles of BMMSC transplantation in a BA mouse model. Mouse BA models were established by Rhesus rotavirus administration to neonatal mice...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yao Xu, Ying Luo, Chen Liang, Weibing Xing, Tongcun Zhang
As a strong transactivator of promoters containing CarG boxes, myocardin‑related transcription factor A (MRTF‑A) is critical for the process of metastasis in tumor cells. Nuclear factor erythroid 2‑like 1 (Nrf1) is well known as an important regulator of oxidative stress, which exists in multiple splicing forms with many unknown functions. The present study demonstrated a novel regulation loop between Nrf1α (the longest splicing form of Nrf1) and MRTF‑A that regulated the migration and invasion of breast cancer MDA‑MB‑231 cells...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Huan Yan, Maria A Silva, Hong Li, Linlin Zhu, Pengyun Li, Xia Li, Xiaofang Wang, Junjun Gao, Ping Wang, Zhan Zhang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be abnormally expressed in several cancers and associated with the proliferation of cancer cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the role and the underlying mechanisms of DQ786243 in ovarian cancer. In the current study, DQ786243 was specifically upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of DQ786243 inhibited the ability of cell migration, invasion, proliferation, colony formation and wound healing, whereas promoted cell apoptosis and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arresting...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nor Aqilah Binti Mohd Yusuf Yeo, Sangu Muthuraju, Jia Hui Wong, Faruque Reza Mohammed, Mohd Harizal Senik, Jingli Zhang, Siti Rafidah Yusof, Hasnan Jaafar, Mohd Llham Adenan, Habsah Mohamad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad, Jafri Malin Abdullah
INTRODUCTION: Centella asiatica is an herbal plant that contains phytochemicals that are widely believed to have positive effects on cognitive function. The adolescent stage is a critical development period for the maturation of brain processes that encompass changes in physical and psychological systems. However, the effect of C. asiatica has not been extensively studied in adolescents. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a C. asiatica extract on the enhancement of learning and memory in adolescent rats...
August 14, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Dorota Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Adam Antczak, Jacek Kordiak, Paweł Górski, Karolina H Czarnecka, Monika Migdalska-Sęk, Ewa Nawrot, Justyna M Kiszałkiewicz, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota
BACKGROUND: The interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 signaling pathway and the SOCS3 gene, one of its main regulators, constitute an important link between the inflammation process in the epithelial cells and inflammatory-related tumorigenesis. The present study is the first to evaluate IL-4, IL-13, STAT6, and SOCS3 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) histopathological subtypes. METHODS: Gene expression levels were assessed using TaqMan® probes by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in lung tumor samples and unchanged lung tissue samples...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Aiping Zhang, Zhepei Gu, Weiming Chen, Qibin Li, Guobin Jiang
A microwave-Fenton technology was applied to dispose of the reverse-osmosis concentrated leachate. Influential factors on the treatment of concentrated leachate with the pure Fenton and microwave-Fenton method were investigated. For the conventional Fenton process, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr ), UV254 , and the color number (CN) reached 84%, 87%, and 96%, respectively, with the biodegradability (BOD5 /CODCr ) increased from 0.13 to 0.51 at an initial pH of 5.0, Fe2+ of 0.04 mol/L, a n(H2 O2 )/n(Fe2+ ) ratio of 8 after a reaction time of 3 h...
August 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wen Mai Wong, Maximilian Nagel, Andres Hernandez-Clavijo, Simone Pifferi, Anna Menini, Marc Spehr, Julian P Meeks
Sensory adaptation is a source of experience-dependent feedback that impacts responses to environmental cues. In the mammalian main olfactory system (MOS), adaptation influences sensory coding at its earliest processing stages. Sensory adaptation in the accessory olfactory system (AOS) remains incompletely explored, leaving many aspects of the phenomenon unclear. We investigated sensory adaptation in vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) using a combination of in situ Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology. Parallel studies revealed prominent short-term sensory adaptation in VSNs upon repeated stimulation with mouse urine and monomolecular bile acid ligands at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) less than 30 s...
July 2018: ENeuro
Shelly Benjaminy, Cody Lo, Judy Illes, Anthony Traboulsee
Background: We sought to characterize the perspectives of participants in Canada's phase I/II chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) clinical trial prior to and after the disclosure of trial results. Methods: This was a researcher-administered survey of individuals who participated in Canada's CCSVI trial (, NCT01864941) about their (1) motivations for participating, (2) understanding of the trial process, and (3) perspectives on the social value of the trial...
June 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Caifei Liu, Jing Li
The addition and removal of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to and from the Ser and Thr residues of proteins is an emerging post-translational modification. Unlike phosphorylation, which requires a legion of kinases and phosphatases, O-GlcNAc is catalyzed by the sole enzyme in mammals, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), and reversed by the sole enzyme, O-GlcNAcase (OGA). With the advent of new technologies, identification of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, followed by pinpointing the modified residues and understanding the underlying molecular function of the modification has become the very heart of the O-GlcNAc biology...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Eun J Choi, Joo H Yeo, Sei M Yoon, Jinu Lee
Gap junctions (GJs) are intercellular channels composed of connexins. Cellular molecules smaller than 1 kDa can diffuse through GJs by a process termed gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which plays essential roles in various pathological and physiological conditions. Gambogic acid (GA), a major component of a natural yellow dye, has been used as traditional medicine and has been reported to have various therapeutic effects, including an anti-cancer effect. In this study, two different GJ assay methods showed that GA and its analogs inhibited GJIC...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Merrick C Strotton, Andrew J Bodey, Kazimir Wanelik, Michele C Darrow, Esau Medina, Carl Hobbs, Christoph Rau, Elizabeth J Bradbury
Synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRμCT) is a nominally non-destructive 3D imaging technique which can visualise the internal structures of whole soft tissues. As a multi-stage technique, the cumulative benefits of optimising sample preparation, scanning parameters and signal processing can improve SRμCT imaging efficiency, image quality, accuracy and ultimately, data utility. By evaluating different sample preparations (embedding media, tissue stains), imaging (projection number, propagation distance) and reconstruction (artefact correction, phase retrieval) parameters, a novel methodology (combining reversible iodine stain, wax embedding and inline phase contrast) was optimised for fast (~12 minutes), high-resolution (3...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Youfeng Yue, Yasuo Norikane, Reiko Azumi, Emiko Koyama
Energy conversion of light into mechanical work is of fundamental interest in applications. In particular, diligent molecular design on nanoscale, in order to achieve efficient photomechanical effects on macroscopic scale, has become one of the most interesting study topics. Here, by incorporating a "photomelting" azobenzene monomer crosslinked into liquid crystalline (LC) networks, we generate photoresponsive polymer films that exhibit reversible photoswitchable glass transition temperatures (Tg ) at room temperature (~20 °C) and photomechanical actuations under the stimulus of UV/visible light...
August 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Junnan Ma, Seok Yong Kang, Xianglong Meng, An Na Kang, Jong Hun Park, Yong-Ki Park, Hyo Won Jung
With the aging process, a loss of skeletal muscle mass and dysfunction related to metabolic syndrome is observed in older people. Yams are commonly use in functional foods and medications with various effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rhizome extract of Dioscorea batatas (Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Chinese yam) and its bioactive compound, allantoin, on myoblast differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells. Yams were extracted in water and allantoin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
August 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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