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Reversible process

Alfredo I Sagredo, Eduardo A Sagredo, Victor Pola, César Echeverría, Rodrigo Andaur, Luis Michea, Andrés Stutzin, Felipe Simon, Katherine Marcelain, Ricardo Armisén
Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is a Ca2+ -activated and voltage-dependent monovalent cation channel, which depolarizes the plasma cell membrane, thereby modulating Ca2+ influx across Ca2+ -permeable pathways. TRPM4 is involved in different physiological processes such as T cell activation and the migration of endothelial and certain immune cells. Overexpression of this channel has been reported in various types of tumors including prostate cancer. In this study, a significant overexpression of TRPM4 was found only in samples from cancer with a Gleason score higher than 7, which are more likely to spread...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nayanendu Saha, Dorothea Robev, Emilia Mason, Juha P Himanen, Dimitar B Nikolov
The Eph-ephrin signaling pathway mediates developmental processes and the proper functioning of the adult human body. This distinctive bidirectional signaling pathway includes a canonical downstream signal cascade inside the Eph-bearing cells, as well as a reverse signaling in the ephrin-bearing cells. The signaling is terminated by ADAM metalloproteinase cleavage, internalization, and degradation of the Eph/ephrin complexes. Consequently, the Eph-ephrin-ADAM signaling cascade has emerged as a key target with immense therapeutic potential particularly in the context of cancer...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
You Fu, Runze Lu, Jian Cui, Hao Sun, Hongbao Yang, Qingtao Meng, Shenshen Wu, Michael Aschner, Xiaobo Li, Rui Chen
Epidemiological studies have associated ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure with lung cancer, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an initial process. Thus, it is important to identify the key molecule or pathway involved in the PM2.5 induced EMT. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were exposed to PM2.5 (100 or 500 μg/ml) for 30 passages and analyzed by metabolomics to identify the alteration of metabolites related to PM2.5 exposure. The expression levels of EMT markers were evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays in HBE cells and murine lung tissues...
October 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Eric Stokes, Tian Shuang, Yanjie Zhang, Yanxi Pei, Ming Fu, Baoqing Guo, Amadeo Parissenti, Lingyun Wu, Rui Wang, Guangdong Yang
AIMS: Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), an important gasotransmitter, is involved in a variety of cellular functions and pathophysiologic processes. Drug resistance due to alterations in drug trafficking and metabolism severely limits the effectiveness of cancer therapy. This study examined the role of H2 S in drug resistance in liver cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human primary hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant cells were used in this study...
October 18, 2018: Life Sciences
Martina Faraldi, Marta Gomarasca, Giuseppe Banfi, Giovanni Lombardi
Circulating molecules that are released into the circulation in response to specific stimuli are considered potential biomarkers for physiological or pathological processes. Their effective usefulness as biomarkers resides in their stability and high availability in all the biological fluids, combined with the limited invasiveness of intervention. Among the circulating molecules, miRNAs represent a novel class of biomarkers as they possess all the required characteristics such as sensitivity, predictivity, specificity, robustness, translatability, and noninvasiveness...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Wejdan S Felmban, Paul A Klaczynski
Developmental reversals are counterintuitive age trends wherein age is negatively related to optimal responding. We addressed the claims that reversals in judgments and decisions are unlikely between late childhood and adolescence. Children and adolescents indicated the extent to which they endorsed stereotypes salient to adolescents, responded to problems in which base rate evidence conflicted with evidence based on anecdotal evidence (i.e., anecdotal problems) or stereotype-relevant evidence (i.e., stereotypical problems), and indicated the basis for their responses...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Giacomo Stanzani, Michael R Duchen, Mervyn Singer
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Myocardial dysfunction, often termed sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy, is a frequent complication and is associated with worse outcomes. Numerous mechanisms contribute to sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy and a growing body of evidence suggests that bioenergetic and metabolic derangements play a central role in its development; however, there are significant discrepancies in the literature, perhaps reflecting variability in the experimental models employed or in the host response to sepsis...
October 17, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Diana Silva, Hermínio C de Sousa, Maria Helena Gil, Luís F Santos, Guilhermina Martins Moutinho, Ana Paula Serro, Benilde Saramago
In this study we investigated the possibility of using polyelectrolytes with antibacterial properties to form layer-by-layer (LbL) coatings on contact lens materials with the objective of controlling the release of ophthalmic drugs, while minimizing bacterial growth. A silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group was chosen as a drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and three drugs were tested: moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MXF), chlorhexidine diacetate monohydrate (CHX), and diclofenac sodium salt (DIC)...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Brian M Bird, Shawn N Geniole, Tanya L Procyshyn, Triana L Ortiz, Justin M Carré, Neil V Watson
The social heuristic hypothesis posits that human cooperation is an intuitive response that is expressed especially under conditions of time-constraint. Conversely, it proposes that for individuals given an opportunity for reflection, cooperation is more likely to be curtailed by an optimizing process calibrated to maximize individual benefit in a given situation. Notably, the steroid hormone testosterone has also been implicated in intuitive decision-making, including both prosocial and anti-social behaviors, with effects strongest in men with particular dispositional characteristics...
September 19, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hari Leontiadou, Ioannis Galdadas, Christina Athanasiou, Zoe Cournia
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha (PI3Kα) is involved in fundamental cellular processes including cell proliferation and differentiation and is frequently mutated in human malignancies. One of the most common mutations is E545K, which results in an amino acid substitution of opposite charge. It has been recently proposed that in this oncogenic charge-reversal mutation, the interactions between the protein catalytic and regulatory subunits are abrogated, resulting in loss of regulation and constitutive PI3Kα activity, which can lead to oncogenesis...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sheng Chen, Jian Wu, Kai Jiao, Qiong Wu, Jiaojiao Ma, Di Chen, Jianqin Kang, Guodong Zhao, Yongquan Shi, Daiming Fan, Guohong Zhao
Multidrug resistance (MDR) accounts for poor prognosis in gastric cancer (GC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of MDR via modulation of the target genes. The present study revealed that miR-495-3p could act via a target gene, GRP78, to regulate the process of autophagy and inhibit MDR. Based on the in vitro and in vivo gain-of-function or loss-of-function experiments, overexpression of miR-495-3p was sufficient to reverse the MDR to four chemotherapeutics in vitro and inhibit the tumor growth in vivo...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Baohua Feng, Caixia Zhang, Tingting Chen, Xiufu Zhang, Longxing Tao, Guanfu Fu
BACKGROUND: Extremely high temperatures are becoming an increasingly severe threat to crop yields. It is well documented that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance the stress tolerance of plants; however, its effect on the reproductive organs of rice plants has not been described before. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SA-mediated alleviation of the heat stress damage to rice pollen viability, a susceptible cultivar (Changyou1) was treated with SA at the pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis stage and then subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for 10 d until 1d before flowering...
October 19, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Paulo A Augusto, Teresa Castelo-Grande, Leticia Merchan, Angel M Estevez, Xavier Quintero, Domingos Barbosa
Leachates are still an open issue in environmental protection. Many of the applied methods for their treatment present low efficiency and thus need to be used collectively. In practice reverse osmosis is mostly used, as it is the most effective option, regardless of its cost. Magnetic methods to treat effluents have been used for water and wastewater treatment by the use of magnetic particles together with magnetic separation for the removal of contaminants. However, large-scale applications are few or even non-existent when we deal with complex contaminated media such as landfill leachates, for which not even research studies at laboratorial scale with real samples have been done yet...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ronald J van der Sluis, Robin A F Verwilligen, Zsuzsanna Lendvai, Robbert Wever, Menno Hoekstra, Miranda Van Eck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although studies in mice have suggested that lesion regression is feasible, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we determined the impact of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on atherosclerosis regression outcome. METHODS: Atherosclerotic lesion dynamics were studied upon bone marrow transplantation-mediated re-introduction of apolipoprotein E (Apoe) in Apoe knockout mice. Probucol was used to pharmacologically deplete HDL. RESULTS: Restoration of Apoe function was associated with an initial growth of atherosclerotic lesions and parallel decrease in lesional macrophage foam cell content (47 ± 4% at 4 weeks versus 72 ± 2% at baseline: p < 0...
October 4, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Mahesh Lokesh, Seul Ki Youn, Hyung Gyu Park
Osmosis plays a central role in many chemical separation processes. Among various biological and artificial channels, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) stand out due to their exceptional water transport efficiency and variability of pore-size, down to molecular dimensions, thereby approaching ideal semipermeability. We report osmotically driven water and salt transport across a membrane of vertically aligned CNTs in a titania matrix whose surface is functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecylphosphonic acid...
October 15, 2018: Nano Letters
Shixiong Jiang, Dazhuang Miao, Muhong Wang, Jiachen Lv, Yihui Wang, Jinxue Tong
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains both common and fatal, and its successful treatment is greatly limited by the development of stem cell-like characteristics (stemness) and chemoresistance. MiR-30-5p has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor by targeting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, but its activity in CRC has never been assessed. We hypothesized that miR-30-5p exerts anti-oncogenic effects in CRC by regulating the USP22/Wnt/β-catenin signaling axis. In the present study, we demonstrate that tissues from CRC patients and human CRC cell lines show significantly decreased miR-30-5p family expression...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Anna Sangregorio, Nathanael Guigo, Jan Cornelius van der Waal, Nicolas Sbirrazzuoli
Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass often brings along the formation of several side products. Among these, the formation of a black and viscous co-product so-called humins is observed due to acidic treatment of polysaccharides. To improve the efficiency of this process from an economical and environmental prospective, new solutions for humins valorisation are urgently needed. This work focuses on the comprehensive understanding of humins with special emphasis on their struture/properties relations. Humins were subjected to different thermal treatments and were investigated by means of structural, thermoanalytical and rheological characterisations...
October 19, 2018: ChemSusChem
J Shang, Q-Z Li, J-Y Zhang, H-J Yuan
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the role of FAL1 in the occurrence and progression of diabetic arteriosclerosis and its underlying mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: FAL1 expression in coronary artery disease (CAD) tissues, normal artery tissues, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced endothelial cells was detected by quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). The regulatory effects of FAL1 on cell proliferation, migration, and cell cycle were examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry, respectively...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Y-T Zhang, B-P Li, B Zhang, P Ma, Q-L Wu, L Ming, L-M Xie
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have furthered our understanding of the function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in numerous biological processes, including cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of lncRNA SBF2-AS1 (SBF2-AS1) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to investigate its effect on HCC cells. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we detected SBF2-AS1 expression in HCC cell lines and primary tumor tissues...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
You-Ming Zhang, Yong-Fu Li, Hu Fang, Jun-Xia He, Bi-Rong Yong, Hong Yao, Tai-Bao Wei, Qi Lin
Here, a novel pseudorotaxanes-type crosslinker of a supramolecular polymer network (WP5-PN) has been constructed from a host water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP5) and a guest naphthalene dimethylamine derivative (PN) via a stepwise process involving multiple non-covalent interactions. The obtained supramolecular polymers were able to transform into a supramolecular polymer gel (WP5-PN-G) and show AIE properties in DMSO-H2O binary solution. Interestingly, due to the dynamic and reversible nature of non-covalent interactions, the resultant supramolecular polymer gels exhibited external stimuli-responsiveness to different parameters, such as temperature, acid-base, competitive guest and mechanical stress...
October 19, 2018: Soft Matter
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