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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239596/genetic-diversity-of-atlantic-bluefin-tuna-in-the-mediterranean-sea-insights-from-genome-wide-snps-and-microsatellites
#1
Aglaia Antoniou, Panagiotis Kasapidis, Georgios Kotoulas, Constantinos C Mylonas, Antonios Magoulas
BACKGROUND: Elucidating the patterns of the Atlantic Bluefin tuna [ABFT, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758)] population structure constitutes a challenging task of great importance. Most of the unique challenges stem from its biology, as well as the attributes of the marine realm in which it disperses. Accurate information is urgently needed for stock assessment, and the identification of critical features to the persistence and adaptation of populations in order to formulate and adopt effective strategies for ABFT conservation and management...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239438/coupling-between-lower-tropospheric-convective-mixing-and-low-level-clouds-physical-mechanisms-and-dependence-on-convection-scheme
#2
Jessica Vial, Sandrine Bony, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Romain Roehrig
Several studies have pointed out the dependence of low-cloud feedbacks on the strength of the lower-tropospheric convective mixing. By analyzing a series of single-column model experiments run by a climate model using two different convective parametrizations, this study elucidates the physical mechanisms through which marine boundary-layer clouds depend on this mixing in the present-day climate and under surface warming. An increased lower-tropospheric convective mixing leads to a reduction of low-cloud fraction...
December 2016: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239259/diversity-and-distribution-patterns-of-the-oligocene-and-miocene-decapod-crustaceans-crustacea-malacostraca-of-the-western-and-central-paratethys
#3
Matúš Hyžný
Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats throughout the Cenozoic when the major diversification of the group occurred. In this respect, the circum-Mediterranean area is of particular interest due to its complex palaeogeographic history. During the Oligo-Miocene, it was divided in two major areas, Mediterranean and Paratethys. Decapod crustaceans from the Paratethys Sea have been reported in the literature since the 19(th) century, but only recent research advances allow evaluation of the diversity and distribution patterns of the group...
October 2016: Geologica Carpathica: the Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239224/ice-sheet-dynamics-through-the-quaternary-on-the-mid-norwegian-continental-margin-inferred-from-3d-seismic-data
#4
A Montelli, J A Dowdeswell, D Ottesen, S E Johansen
Reconstructing the evolution of ice sheets is critical to our understanding of the global environmental system, but most detailed palaeo-glaciological reconstructions have hitherto focused on the very recent history of ice sheets. Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the changing nature of ice-sheet derived sedimentary architecture through the Quaternary Ice Age of almost 3 Ma. An extensive geophysical record documents a marine-terminating, calving Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) margin present periodically on the mid-Norwegian shelf since the beginning of the Quaternary...
February 2017: Marine and Petroleum Geology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239148/amotl1-mediates-sequestration-of-the-hippo-effector-yap1-downstream-of-fat4-to-restrict-heart-growth
#5
Chiara V Ragni, Nicolas Diguet, Jean-François Le Garrec, Marta Novotova, Tatiana P Resende, Sorin Pop, Nicolas Charon, Laurent Guillemot, Lisa Kitasato, Caroline Badouel, Alexandre Dufour, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Alain Trouvé, Helen McNeill, Sigolène M Meilhac
Although in flies the atypical cadherin Fat is an upstream regulator of Hippo signalling, the closest mammalian homologue, Fat4, has been shown to regulate tissue polarity rather than growth. Here we show in the mouse heart that Fat4 modulates Hippo signalling to restrict growth. Fat4 mutant myocardium is thicker, with increased cardiomyocyte size and proliferation, and this is mediated by an upregulation of the transcriptional activity of Yap1, an effector of the Hippo pathway. Fat4 is not required for the canonical activation of Hippo kinases but it sequesters a partner of Yap1, Amotl1, out of the nucleus...
February 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239063/fatty-acid-and-lipid-class-composition-of-the-microalga-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#6
Yu-Hong Yang, Lei Du, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita, Yume Kokubun, Hisayoshi Arai, Hiroyuki Taroda
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for the prevention and/or risk reduction of some diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Therefore, PUFAs-rich marine microalgae have received considerable research attention. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a rich source of lipids and fucoxanthin, has commercial applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the lipid class composition and fatty acid distribution in P. tricornutum under high-density and scale-up cultivation were investigated by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238487/human-waste-an-underestimated-source-of-nutrient-pollution-in-coastal-seas-of-bangladesh-india-and-pakistan
#7
Md Nurul Amin, Carolien Kroeze, Maryna Strokal
Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238484/floating-macro-litter-along-the-mediterranean-french-coast-composition-density-distribution-and-overlap-with-cetacean-range
#8
Nathalie Di-Méglio, Ilaria Campana
This study investigated the composition, density and distribution of floating macro-litter along the Liguro-Provençal basin with respect to cetaceans presence. Survey transects were performed in summer between 2006 and 2015 from sailing vessels with simultaneous cetaceans observations. During 5171km travelled, 1993 floating items were recorded, widespread in the whole study area. Plastics was the predominant category, with bags/packaging always representing >45% of total items. Overall mean density (14...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238431/assessing-seawater-intrusion-in-an-arid-coastal-aquifer-under-high-anthropogenic-influence-using-major-constituents-sr-and-b-isotopes-in-groundwater
#9
J Mahlknecht, D Merchán, M Rosner, A Meixner, R Ledesma-Ruiz
The La Paz aquifer system (Baja California Sur, Mexico) is under severe anthropogenic pressure because of high groundwater abstraction for urban supply (city of La Paz, around 222,000 inhabitants) and irrigated agriculture (1900ha). In consequence, seawater has infiltrated the aquifer, forcing the abandonment of wells with increased salinity. The objective of this study was to assess seawater intrusion, understand the hydrogeochemical processes involved and estimate the contribution of seawater in the wells tested...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238365/the-well-sorted-fine-sand-community-from-the-western-mediterranean-sea-a-resistant-and-resilient-marine-habitat-under-diverse-human-pressures
#10
Jean-Claude Dauvin, Ali Bakalem, Alexandrine Baffreau, Claire Delecrin, Gérard Bellan, Claudio Lardicci, Elena Balestri, Rafael Sardá, Samir Grimes
The Biocoenosis of Well Sorted Fine Sands (WSFS) (SFBC, Sables Fins Bien Calibrés in French) is a Mediterranean community very well delimited by bathymetry (2-25 m) and sedimentology (>90% of fine sand) occurring in zones with relatively strong hydrodynamics. In this study focused on sites located along the Algerian, French, Italian and Spanish coasts of the Western Basin of the Mediterranean Sea (WBMS) we aim to compare the structure, ecological status and diversity of the macrofauna of the WSFS and examine the effects of recent human pressures on the state of this shallow macrobenthic community...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238328/international-policies-to-reduce-plastic-marine-pollution-from-single-use-plastics-plastic-bags-and-microbeads-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Dirk Xanthos, Tony R Walker
Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads...
February 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238327/population-dynamics-of-the-rock-shell-reishia-clavigera-associated-with-different-degrees-of-organotin-contamination-in-hong-kong
#12
Kevin K Y Ho, Kenneth M Y Leung
Application of organotins in antifouling systems on ship hulls has been globally prohibited by the International Maritime Organization since September 2008. It is, therefore, anticipated that there is a recovery of imposex-affected gastropod populations worldwide. We studied the population dynamics of the rock shell Reishia clavigera in six locations around Hong Kong's coastal waters, covering different degrees of organotin contamination for 25months (2011-2013). Abundance and density of R. clavigera were higher in clean sites, while they tended to grow faster in polluted sites...
February 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238170/multiple-approaches-to-assess-the-safety-of-artisanal-marine-food-in-a-tropical-estuary
#13
A C Padovan, M J Neave, N C Munksgaard, K S Gibb
In this study, metal and metalloid concentrations and pathogens were measured in shellfish at different locations in a tropical estuary, including sites impacted by sewage and industry. Oyster, mangrove snails and mud snails did not exceed Australian and New Zealand Food Standards maximum levels for copper, lead or estimated inorganic arsenic at any site although copper concentrations in oysters and mud snails exceeded generally expected levels at some locations. Bacterial community composition in shellfish was species-specific regardless of location and different to the surrounding water and sediment...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238042/entotheonella-bacteria-as-source-of-sponge-derived-natural-products-opportunities-for-biotechnological-production
#14
Agneya Bhushan, Eike E Peters, Jörn Piel
Marine sponges belong to the oldest animals existing today. Apart from their role in recycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, they are also an important source of a wide variety of structurally diverse bioactive natural products. Over the past few decades, a multitude of compounds from sponges have been discovered exhibiting diverse, pharmacologically promising activities. However, in many cases the low substance quantities present in the sponge tissue would require the collection of large amounts of sponge material, thus impeding further drug development...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238037/computer-aided-drug-discovery-from-marine-compounds-identification-of-the-three-dimensional-structural-features-responsible-for-antimalarial-activity
#15
Caterina Fattorusso, Marco Persico, Francesca Rondinelli, Nausicaa Orteca, Antonio Di Dato
An integrated computational approach, based on molecular dynamics/mechanics, semi-empirical, and DFT calculations as well as dynamic docking studies, has been employed to gain insight into the mechanism of action of new antimalarial agents characterized by the scaffold of the marine compounds plakortin and aplidinone. The results of this approach show that these molecules, after interaction with Fe(II), likely coming from the heme molecule, give rise to the formation of radical species, that should represent the toxic intermediates responsible for subsequent reactions leading to plasmodium death...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238036/discovery-and-development-of-novel-drugs
#16
Vesna Erakovic Haber, Radan Spaventi
Drug discovery and development process is nowadays conducted in relatively standardised sequence of phases, starting with Discovery and being followed by Preclinical, Clinical and Non-Clinical Development. Discovery phase is divided in Hit Finding, Lead generation, Lead Optimisation and Candidate Identification Phase. Main drivers of the whole process are regulatory requirements and the aim to eliminate the unnecessary spending by early elimination of unlikely drug candidates. Marine products, once purified, isolated and produced in required quantities, follow the same route as any other synthetic drug...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238035/major-antimicrobial-representatives-from-marine-sponges-and-or-their-associated-bacteria
#17
Fei He, Linh H Mai, Johan Gardères, Amjad Hussain, Vesna Erakovic Haber, Marie-Lise Bourguet-Kondracki
The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria during the last 20 years has stimulated research efforts in order to overcome this thorny problem. Marine sponges and their associated bacteria, which have been proven to be a source of bioactive natural products, have appeared as a promising opportunity to identify new antibiotic compounds. An overview of the major antibacterial compounds isolated from marine sponges and/or their associated bacteria is presented in this chapter, highlighting new potential antibiotics...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238034/35-years-of-marine-natural-product-research-in-sweden-cool-molecules-and-models-from-cold-waters
#18
Lars Bohlin, Paco Cárdenas, Anders Backlund, Ulf Göransson
Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237853/familial-cortical-myoclonic-tremor-and-epilepsy-description-of-a-new-south-african-pedigree-with-30-year-follow-up
#19
Riaan van Coller, Anne-Fleur van Rootselaar, Clara Schutte, C H van der Meyden
AIM: The aims of this study were to report the index case of a South African family with cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy, to describe the pedigree with the clinical findings and results of additional investigations, and to report the unique follow-up evaluation of affected and unaffected family members after 30 years. METHODS: The index case led to evaluation of the clinical files of patients from 1978/1979 and clinical assessment and investigation of patients from this cohort as well as newly identified family members...
February 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237800/an-extract-of-the-marine-alga-alaria-esculenta-modulates-%C3%AE-synuclein-folding-and-amyloid-formation
#20
James C Giffin, Robert C Richards, Cheryl Craft, Nusrat Jahan, Cindy Leggiadro, Thierry Chopin, Michael Szemerda, Shawna L MacKinnon, K Vanya Ewart
The conversion of α-synuclein from its natively unfolded and α-helical tetrameric forms to an amyloid conformation is central to the emergence of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, prevention of this conversion offers an effective way of avoiding the onset of this disease or delaying its progress. At different concentrations, an aqueous extract from the edible winged kelp (Alaria esculenta), was shown to lower and to raise the melting point of α-synuclein. Size fractionation of the extract resulted in the separation of these distinct activities...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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