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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352755/a-mos1-transposase-in-vivo-assay-to-screen-new-hiv-1-integrase-inhibitors
#1
Mariana Cancian, Elgion L S Loreto
The integrase and transposase enzymes of retrovirus and transposons, respectively, share the catalytic DDE domain. In vitro assays showed that inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase generally inhibit the mariner Mos1 transposase. Using a Drosophila strain in which the mobilisation of the mariner element can be quantified by mosaic eyes, we showed that flies maintained in medium containing 210 µM to 4 mM of raltegravir, or 1 or 2 mM of dolutegravir, which are HIV-1 integrase inhibitor used in AIDS treatment, have 23-33% less somatic mobilisation in mosaic eyes when treated with raltegravir and 28-32% when treated with dolutegravir...
January 19, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352428/hnf4%C3%AE-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-vertebrate-lc-pufa-biosynthesis-insights-into-the-regulatory-role-of-hnf4%C3%AE-on-expression-of-liver-fatty-acyl-desaturases-in-the-marine-teleost-siganus-canaliculatus
#2
Shuqi Wang, Junliang Chen, Danli Jiang, Qinghao Zhang, Cuihong You, Douglas R Tocher, Óscar Monroig, Yewei Dong, Yuanyou Li
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is an important metabolic pathway in vertebrates, especially fish, considering they are the major source of n-3 LC-PUFA in the human diet. However, most fish have only limited capability for biosynthesis of LC-PUFA. The rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus) is able to synthesize LC-PUFA as it has all the key enzyme activities required including Δ6Δ5 Fads2, Δ4 Fads2, Elovl5, and Elovl4. We previously reported a direct interaction between the transcription factor Hnf4α and the promoter regions of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 Fads2, which suggested that Hnf4α was involved in the transcriptional regulation of fads2 in rabbitfish...
January 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352216/black-legged-kittiwakes-as-messengers-of-atlantification-in-the-arctic
#3
Mikko Vihtakari, Jorg Welcker, Børge Moe, Olivier Chastel, Sabrina Tartu, Haakon Hop, Claus Bech, Sébastien Descamps, Geir Wing Gabrielsen
Climate warming is rapidly altering marine ecosystems towards a more temperate state on the European side of the Arctic. However, this "Atlantification" has rarely been confirmed, as long-term datasets on Arctic marine organisms are scarce. We present a 19-year time series (1982-2016) of diet samples from black-legged kittiwakes as an indicator of the changes in a high Arctic marine ecosystem (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Our results highlight a shift from Arctic prey dominance until 2006 to a more mixed diet with high contribution of Atlantic fishes...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352137/iron-biogeochemistry-in-the-high-latitude-north-atlantic-ocean
#4
Eric P Achterberg, Sebastian Steigenberger, Chris M Marsay, Frédéric A C LeMoigne, Stuart C Painter, Alex R Baker, Douglas P Connelly, C Mark Moore, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua
Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for marine microbial organisms, and low supply controls productivity in large parts of the world's ocean. The high latitude North Atlantic is seasonally Fe limited, but Fe distributions and source strengths are poorly constrained. Surface ocean dissolved Fe (DFe) concentrations were low in the study region (<0.1 nM) in summer 2010, with significant perturbations during spring 2010 in the Iceland Basin as a result of an eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (up to 2...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352134/pseudoalteromonas-haloplanktis-tac125-produces-4-hydroxybenzoic-acid-that-induces-pyroptosis-in-human-a459-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#5
Filomena Sannino, Clementina Sansone, Christian Galasso, Sara Kildgaard, Pietro Tedesco, Renato Fani, Gennaro Marino, Donatella de Pascale, Adrianna Ianora, Ermenegilda Parrilli, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, Giovanna Romano, Maria Luisa Tutino
In order to exploit the rich reservoir of marine cold-adapted bacteria as a source of bioactive metabolites, ethyl acetate crude extracts of thirteen polar marine bacteria were tested for their antiproliferative activity on A549 lung epithelial cancer cells. The crude extract from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 was the most active in inhibiting cell proliferation. Extensive bioassay-guided purification and mass spectrometric characterization allowed the identification of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) as the molecule responsible for this bioactivity...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352083/polyphosphate-accumulating-bacteria-potential-contributors-to-mineral-dissolution-in-the-oral-cavity
#6
Ashley A Breiland, Beverly E Flood, Julia Nikrad, John Bakarich, Matthew Husman, TaekHyun Rhee, Robert S Jones, Jake V Bailey
Bacteria that accumulate polyphosphate have previously been shown to dynamically influence the solubility of phosphatic minerals in marine settings and wastewater. Here we show that dental plaque, saliva, and carious lesions, all contain abundant polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria. Saturation state modeling results, informed by phosphate uptake experiments using the model organism Lactobacillus rhamnosus, which is known to inhabit advanced carious-lesions, suggest that polyphosphate accumulation can lead to undersaturated conditions with respect to hydroxyapatite under some oral cavity conditions...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351970/government-pledges-to-reduce-the-ocean-s-plastic
#7
(no author information available yet)
Georgina Mills explains how prime minister Theresa May has committed to reducing the UK's plastic waste, in a bid to save the world's marine wildlife.
January 20, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351285/wine-yeast-phenomics-a-standardized-fermentation-method-for-assessing-quantitative-traits-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-in-enological-conditions
#8
Emilien Peltier, Margaux Bernard, Marine Trujillo, Duyên Prodhomme, Jean-Christophe Barbe, Yves Gibon, Philippe Marullo
This work describes the set up of a small scale fermentation methodology for measuring quantitative traits of hundreds of samples in an enological context. By using standardized screw cap vessels, the alcoholic fermentation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were measured by following their weight loss over the time. This dispositive was coupled with robotized enzymatic assays for measuring metabolites of enological interest in natural grape juices. Despite the small volume used, kinetic parameters and fermentation end products measured are similar with those observed in larger scale vats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351280/a-generic-framework-for-individual-based-modelling-and-physical-biological-interaction
#9
Asbjørn Christensen, Patrizio Mariani, Mark R Payne
The increased availability of high-resolution ocean data globally has enabled more detailed analyses of physical-biological interactions and their consequences to the ecosystem. We present IBMlib, which is a versatile, portable and computationally effective framework for conducting Lagrangian simulations in the marine environment. The purpose of the framework is to handle complex individual-level biological models of organisms, combined with realistic 3D oceanographic model of physics and biogeochemistry describing the environment of the organisms without assumptions about spatial or temporal scales...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351203/ttx-bearing-planocerid-flatworm-platyhelminthes-acotylea-in-the-ryukyu-islands-japan
#10
Hiroyuki Ueda, Shiro Itoi, Haruo Sugita
Polyclad flatworms comprise a highly diverse and cosmopolitan group of marine turbellarians. Although some species of the genera Planocera and Stylochoplana are known to be tetrodotoxin (TTX)-bearing, there are few new reports. In this study, planocerid-like flatworm specimens were found in the sea bottom off the waters around the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The bodies were translucent with brown reticulate mottle, contained two conical tentacles with eye spots clustered at the base, and had a slightly frilled-body margin...
January 19, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351079/syphacia-muris-infection-in-rats-attenuates-colorectal-carcinogenesis-through-oxidative-stress-and-gene-expression-alterations-implications-for-modulatory-effects-by-bryostatin-1
#11
Elsayed I Salim, Samar F Harras, Aisha G Abdalla, Mohmmed H Mona
Accumulating evidence suggest that some infectious agents may interfere in the natural progression of neoplasia. This study examined the association between chronic infection with adult Syphacia muris parasites and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. In addition, the conceivable therapeutic effect of Bryostatin-1, a potent extract of the marine Bryozoan, Bugulane ritina, was investigated against this combined effect.DMH administration has induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF), surrogate biomarkers for colorectal carcinogenesis, while the S...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351074/two-nematode-species-from-freshwater-and-marine-fishes-in-thailand-including-ascarophis-scatophagi-sp-nov-cystidicolidae-from-scatophagus-argus-scatophagidae
#12
František Moravec, Thanapon Yooyen, Amornrat Sanprick
One new and one known species of parasitic nematodes are reported from Thailand for the first time: Falcaustra kaverii (Karve et Naik,1951) (Kathlaniidae) from the intestine of the freshwater fish Poropuntius deauratus (Valenciennes) (Cyprinidae) (new host record) and Ascarophis scatophagi sp. nov. (Cystidicolidae) from the intestine of the marine fish Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus) (Scatophagidae). The morphology of both these species was studied with the use of light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (the latter method used for F...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351069/metazoan-parasite-fauna-of-migrating-common-garfish-belone-belone-l-in-the-baltic-sea
#13
Patrick Unger, Kilian Neubert, Harry W Palm
A total of 35 common garfish, Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1761), were studied for metazoan parasites on their spawning grounds in the western Baltic Sea. Nine parasite species were found, and six new locality records could be established for German coastal waters (Axine belones, Monogenea; Proteocephalus sp., Cestoda; Anisakis simplex (s.s.), Contracaecum rudolphii A and Hysterothylacium aduncum, Nematoda; Echinorhynchus gadi, Acanthocephala). For the first time, the marine ectoparasite A. belones was recorded from the gills of garfish inside the Baltic Sea, indicating its ability to survive the spawning migration as well as the brackish water conditions at its reproduction grounds...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351020/a-dynamic-state-model-of-migratory-behavior-and-physiology-to-assess-the-consequences-of-environmental-variation-and-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-marine-vertebrates
#14
Enrico Pirotta, Marc Mangel, Daniel P Costa, Bruce Mate, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Daniel M Palacios, Luis A Hückstädt, Elizabeth A McHuron, Lisa Schwarz, Leslie New
Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350453/late-cretaceous-marine-arthropods-relied-on-terrestrial-organic-matter-as-a-food-source-geochemical-evidence-from-the-coon-creek-lagerst%C3%A3-tte-in-the-mississippi-embayment
#15
M B Vrazo, A F Diefendorf, B E Crowley, A D Czaja
The Upper Cretaceous Coon Creek Lagerstätte of Tennessee, USA, is known for its extremely well-preserved mollusks and decapod crustaceans. However, the depositional environment of this unit, particularly its distance to the shoreline, has long been equivocal. To better constrain the coastal proximity of the Coon Creek Formation, we carried out a multiproxy geochemical analysis of fossil decapod (crab, mud shrimp) cuticle and associated sediment from the type section. Elemental analysis and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of kerogenized carbon in the crabs and mud shrimp; carbon isotope (δ13 C) analysis of bulk decapod cuticle yielded similar mean δ13 C values for both taxa (-25...
January 19, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350440/abrupt-burial-imparts-persistent-changes-to-the-bacterial-diversity-of-turbidite-associated-sediment-profiles
#16
B K Harrison, A Myrbo, B E Flood, J V Bailey
The emplacement of subaqueous gravity-driven sediment flows imposes a significant physical and geochemical impact on underlying sediment and microbial communities. Although previous studies have established lasting mineralogical and biological signatures of turbidite deposition, the response of bacteria and archaea within and beneath debris flows remains poorly constrained. Both bacterial cells associated with the underlying sediment and those attached to allochthonous material must respond to substantially altered environmental conditions and selective pressures...
January 19, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350260/modulation-rate-transfer-functions-from-four-species-of-stranded-odontocete-stenella-longirostris-feresa-attenuata-globicephala-melas-and-mesoplodon-densirostris
#17
Adam B Smith, Aude F Pacini, Paul E Nachtigall
Odontocete marine mammals explore the environment by rapidly producing echolocation signals and receiving the corresponding echoes, which likewise return at very rapid rates. Thus, it is important that the auditory system has a high temporal resolution to effectively process and extract relevant information from click echoes. This study used auditory evoked potential methods to investigate auditory temporal resolution of individuals from four different odontocete species, including a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350212/defining-system-boundaries-of-an-institution-nitrogen-footprint
#18
Elizabeth de la Reguera, Elizabeth A Castner, James N Galloway, Allison M Leach, Neil Leary, Jianwu Tang
A nitrogen (N) footprint quantifies the amount of reactive nitrogen released to the environment and can be measured at different scales. The N footprint of a university includes activities and consumption within its geographic boundaries as well as activities that support the institution. Determining system bounds of an N footprint depends on the institution's mission and provides a common baseline for comparison. A comparison of three scopes of the N footprint, which describe how emissions are directly related to an institution's activities, was conducted for seven institutions...
April 1, 2017: Sustainability (New Rochelle)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349911/identification-of-fish-source-vibrio-alginolyticus-and-evaluation-of-its-bacterial-ghosts-vaccine-immune-effects
#19
Ji Cao, Jiajun Zhang, Lin Ma, Lin Li, Wenchang Zhang, Jinnian Li
Vibrio alginolyticus (V. alginolyticus) is a common pathogen for humans and marine aquatic animals. Vibriosis of marine aquatic animals, caused by V. alginolyticus, has become more prevalent globally in recent years. Hence, a safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed for the control of this disease. Here, the strain 16-3 isolated from the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) suffered from canker was identified as V. alginolyticus based on morphological, biochemical, and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis...
January 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349877/engineered-and-laser-processed-chitosan-biopolymers-for-sustainable-and-biodegradable-triboelectric-power-generation
#20
Ruoxing Wang, Shengjie Gao, Zhen Yang, Yule Li, Weinong Chen, Benxin Wu, Wenzhuo Wu
Recent advances achieved in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) focus on boosting power generation and conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, obstacles concerning economical and biocompatible utilization of TENGs continue to prevail. Being an abundant natural biopolymer from marine crustacean shells, chitosan enables exciting opportunities for low-cost, biodegradable TENG applications in related fields. Here, the development of biodegradable and flexible TENGs based on chitosan is presented for the first time...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
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