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Anne Guichard, Catherine Hébert, Kareen Nour, Ginette Lafontaine, Émilie Tardieu, Valery Ridde
Although actions to reduce social inequalities in health cannot be considered the exclusive responsibility of public health actors, they should at least make sure their interventions account for these inequalities. However, the actors involved in these interventions have few tools to support them in this process. Therefore, building on a study conducted in France, we have adapted, tested, and developed in Quebec a tool intended to help actors take into account social inequalities in health. The article presents the approach that led to the adaptation of the tool to the Quebec context, to describe the tool, and then to discuss some issues for inclusion in professional practices...
September 6, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Emily Y Fan, Dejah R Judelson, Andres Schanzer
Prosthetic graft infection is a rare and serious complication of thoracic endovascular aortic repair associated with high mortality and posing unique challenges for treatment. The prosthetic graft infection is often identified late as patients present with mild nonspecific symptoms. We describe the successful medical management and surgical explantation of an infected thoracic endograft with an aorta-bronchial fistula, using an inline reconstruction with an antibiotic-soaked synthetic graft. In this report, we provide an example of a patient with an infected thoracic endograft and how inline reconstruction combined with appropriate medical management is an acceptable treatment strategy...
December 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
Raimund Nagel, John E Bieber, Mark G Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S Nett, Reuben J Peters
The ability of plant-associated microbes to produce gibberellin A (GA) phytohormones was first described for the fungal rice pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi in the 1930s. Recently the capacity to produce GAs was shown for several bacteria, including symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria (α-rhizobia) and gamma-proteobacteria phytopathogens. All necessary enzymes for GA production are encoded by a conserved operon, which appears to have undergone horizontal transfer between and within these two phylogenetic classes of bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Josie Libertucci, Vincent B Young
The human body is colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms collectively referred to as the microbiota. Here, we describe how the human microbiota influences susceptibility to infectious diseases using examples from the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive tract. We will discuss how interactions between the host, the indigenous microbiota and non-native microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can alter the outcome of infections. This Review Article will highlight the complex mechanisms by which the microbiota mediates colonization resistance, both directly and indirectly, against infectious agents...
January 2019: Nature Microbiology
Fabíola Reis de Oliveira, Marina Zilio Fantucci, Leidiane Adriano, Valéria Valim, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Paulo Louzada-Junior, Eduardo Melani Rocha
For decades, neurological, psychological, and cognitive alterations, as well as other glandular manifestations (EGM), have been described and are being considered to be part of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Dry eye and dry mouth are major findings in SS. The lacrimal glands (LG), ocular surface (OS), and salivary glands (SG) are linked to the central nervous system (CNS) at the brainstem and hippocampus. Once compromised, these CNS sites may be responsible for autonomic and functional disturbances that are related to major and EGM in SS...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alessandra Durazzo, Massimo Lucarini, Emanuela Camilli, Stefania Marconi, Paolo Gabrielli, Silvia Lisciani, Loretta Gambelli, Altero Aguzzi, Ettore Novellino, Antonello Santini, Aida Turrini, Luisa Marletta
The study aims to communicate the current status regarding the development and management of the databases on dietary lignans; within the phytochemicals, the class of the lignan compounds is of increasing interest because of their potential beneficial properties, i.e., anticancerogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic, and antiestrogenic activities. Furthermore, an introductory overview of the main characteristics of the lignans is described here. In addition to the importance of the general databases, the role and function of a food composition database is explained...
December 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhong-Chao Deng, Xiang Yu, Hong-De Qin, Zhong-Ben Zhu
In the single-beacon underwater tracking system, vehicles rely on slant range measurements from an acoustic beacon to bound errors accumulated by dead reckoning. Ranges are usually obtained based on a presumed known effective sound velocity (ESV). Since the ESV is difficult to determine accurately, traditional methods suffer from large positioning error. By treating the unknown ESV as a state variable, a novel single-beacon tracking model (the so called "5-sv" model) and an extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based solution method have been discussed to solve the problem of ESV estimation...
December 8, 2018: Sensors
Aoife De Brún, Eilish McAuliffe
Social network analysis (SNA) is a term that describes a set of methodologies to understand and depict social relations or ties. SNA is different from other research methods in several ways that have important ethical implications, as well as specific considerations for study design. Recruitment of participants and attrition during the study, where there are several data collection time points, pose significant challenges. Furthermore, there are implications of non-participation in studies, whereby gaps in network maps may result in an inaccurate representation of how a network is working and this, in turn, means the results may be of lesser value in terms of informing policy and practice...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Luca Cariati, Manuela Oliverio, Francesco G Mutti, Sonia Bonacci, Tanja Knaus, Paola Costanzo, Antonio Procopio
Phenolic compounds present in extra virgin olive oil have recently attracted considerable attention due to their pharmacological activities. Among them oleacein (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), structurally related to oleochantal (4-HPEA-EDA), is one of the most studied. 3,4-DHPEA-EDA has been synthesized through decarboxylation of demethyloleuropein catalyzed by Er(OTf)3 . Demethyloleuropein is extracted from black olives drupes in very limited amounts and only in particular periods of the year. The availability of demethyloleuropein could be increased by a selective hydrolysis of the methyl ester moiety of oleuropein, a secoiridoid present in large amount in olive leaves...
December 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Kemal Eren, Steven Weaver, Robert Ketteringham, Morné Valentyn, Melissa Laird Smith, Venkatesh Kumar, Sanjay Mohan, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Ben Murrell
Next generation sequencing of viral populations has advanced our understanding of viral population dynamics, the development of drug resistance, and escape from host immune responses. Many applications require complete gene sequences, which can be impossible to reconstruct from short reads. HIV env, the protein of interest for HIV vaccine studies, is exceptionally challenging for long-read sequencing and analysis due to its length, high substitution rate, and extensive indel variation. While long-read sequencing is attractive in this setting, the analysis of such data is not well handled by existing methods...
December 13, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Nadiia I Gumerova, Tania Caldera Fraile, Alexander Roller, Gerald Giester, Magda Pascual-Borràs, C André Ohlin, Annette Rompel
Since the first successful triol-functionalization of the Anderson polyoxometalates, the six protons of their central octahedron X(OH)6 (X-heteroatom, p- or d-element) have been considered as a prerequisite for their functionalization with tripodal alcohols, and therefore, the functionalization of Anderson structures from the unprotonated sides have never been reported. Here, we describe the triol-functionalization of [Cr(OH)3 W6 O21 ]6- leading to the single-side grafted anions [Cr(OCH2 )3 CRW6 O21 ]6- (CrW6 -tris-R, R = -C2 H5 , -NH2 , -CH2 OH) and the unprecedented double-side functionalized anion [Cr((OCH2 )3 CC2 H5 )2 W6 O18 ]3- (CrW6 -(tris-C2 H5 )2 ), despite the lack of protons in the parent anion in the solid state...
December 13, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Min Wang, Runrun Sun, Qinglian Wang, Baohong Zhang
microRNAs (miRNAs) are an extensive class of newly identified endogenous small regulatory molecules. Many studies show that miRNAs play a critical role in almost all biological and metabolic progress through targeting protein-coding genes for mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. Many miRNAs are also identified from cotton using computational and/or experimental approaches, including the next-generation deep sequencing technology. However, their functions are unclear. In this chapter, we describe a detailed method for overexpressing miRNA, miR156 as an example, in cotton using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mi Zhang, Jianyan Zeng, Huizhen Cao, Yan Pei
Calcium ion (Ca2+ ) is a core regulator of cell functions in response to many developmental and environmental stimuli. A hallmark for Ca2+ signaling is the change of this ion in cells. Fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Ca2+ sensors provide a powerful tool for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring cytosolic Ca2+ level. Using YC3.60, one of those sensors, we have imaged cytosolic changes of Ca2+ in cotton fibers during the initiation stage. In this chapter, the imaging method is described in detail...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chengxin Yi, Yan Hong
Transgenic cotton has been widely employed both in commercial cultivation and basic research. It is essential to determine which plants contain the transgene and in how many copies after transgenic cotton plants are generated. A TaqMan quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Tq RT-PCR) method is described here to examine transgene copy number in transgenic cotton plants. The estimation of two transgene elements, the target gene of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and the selective gene of neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII), is used as an example to detail each step in Tq RT-PCR procedure, including endogenous reference gene selection, reference plasmid construction, primer-probe design, DNA extraction, real-time PCR, and data analysis...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nicholas J Slipek, Jyotika Varshney, David A Largaespada
Since the advent of large-scale, detailed descriptive cancer genomics studies at the beginning of the century, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), labs around the world have been working to make this data useful. Data like these can be made more useful by comparison with complementary functional genomic data. One new example is the application of CRISPR/Cas9-based library screening for cancer-related traits in cell lines. Such screens can reveal genome-wide suppressors of tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here we describe the use of widely available lentiviral libraries for such screens in cultured cell lines...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Guillaume Salomon, Joannis Koepsell, Jayadev Vijayan, Timon A Hilker, Jacopo Nespolo, Lode Pollet, Immanuel Bloch, Christian Gross
The interplay between magnetism and doping is at the origin of exotic strongly correlated electronic phases and can lead to novel forms of magnetic ordering. One example is the emergence of incommensurate spin-density waves, which have wavevectors that do not belong to the reciprocal lattice. In one dimension this effect is a hallmark of Luttinger liquid theory, which also describes the low-energy physics of the Hubbard model1 . Here we use a quantum simulator that uses ultracold fermions in an optical lattice2-8 to directly observe such incommensurate spin correlations in doped and spin-imbalanced Hubbard chains using fully spin- and density-resolved quantum gas microscopy...
December 12, 2018: Nature
Jose E Pietri, Connor Tiffany, Dangsheng Liang
The German cockroach, Blatella germanica, is a common pest in urban environments and is among the most resilient insects in the world. The remarkable ability of the German cockroach to develop resistance when exposed to toxic insecticides is a prime example of adaptive evolution and makes control of this insect an ongoing struggle. Like many other organisms, the German cockroach is host to a diverse community of symbiotic microbes that play important roles in its physiology. In some insect species, there is a strong correlation between the commensal microbial community and insecticide resistance...
2018: PloS One
Usha Menon, Kimlin Ashing, Mei Wei Chang, Shannon M Christy, Katarina Friberg-Felsted, Virginia Gil Rivas, Clement K Gwede, Qian Lu, Cathy D Meade, Jamila Sly, Monica Wang, Betina Yanez, Karen Yeary, Jean C Yi, Kassandra I Alcaraz
BACKGROUND: An emphasis on precision health (PH) has stimulated precision medicine studies to focus on the interplay of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors with disease risks, treatments, prognoses, and outcomes affecting health disparities. It is imperative, as well, that improving health equity among underserved populations remains central to the efforts and aims of PH. OBJECTIVES: Apply the transdisciplinary ConNECT Framework: A model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity to PH by integrating a population health agenda for reducing health disparities...
December 12, 2018: Nursing Research
Ashley E Levack, Elizabeth B Gausden, Aleksey Dvorzhinskiy, Dean G Lorich, David L Helfet
In physiologically young patients with displaced femoral neck fractures, surgical treatment is aimed at achieving fracture union while preserving native hip anatomy and biomechanics. The intracapsular environment, tenuous vascular supply, and unfavorable hip biomechanics contribute to the high complication rates seen after osteosynthesis of these fractures. Conventional fixation methods for osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures include multiple cancellous screws, fixed-angle dynamic implants, and fixed-angle length-stable constructs...
January 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Georgios Giannakakis, Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, E Charles H Sykes
Heterogeneous catalysts are workhorses in the industrial production of most commodity and specialty chemicals, and have widespread energy and environmental applications, with the annual market value of the catalysts themselves reaching almost $20 billion in 2018. These catalysts are complex, comprising multicomponent materials and multiple structures, making their rational design challenging, if not impossible. Furthermore, typical active metals like Pt, Pd, and Rh are expensive and can be susceptible to poisoning by CO, coking, and they are not always 100% selective...
December 12, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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