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Daniel J Owens, Craig Twist, James N Cobley, Glyn Howatson, Graeme L Close
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is characterized by symptoms that present both immediately and for up to 14 days after the initial exercise bout. The main consequence of EIMD for the athlete is the loss of skeletal muscle function and soreness. As such, numerous nutrients and functional foods have been examined for their potential to ameliorate the effects of EIMD and accelerate recovery, which is the purpose of many nutritional strategies for the athlete. However, the trade-off between recovery and adaptation is rarely considered...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Sharon Hammes-Schiffer
The development of renewable energy sources that are environmentally friendly and economical is of critical importance. The effective utilization of such energy sources relies on catalysts to facilitate the interconversion between electrical and chemical energy through multielectron, multiproton reactions. The design of effective catalysts for these types of energy conversion processes requires the ability to control the localization and movement of electrons and protons, as well as the coupling between them...
August 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Alicia Baldessari, Guadalupe García Liñares
The application of Candida antarctica lipase B as catalyst in the synthesis of two examples of nitrogen polymers is described. Firstly, we report a novel linear polyamidoamine oligomer, obtained by polymerization of ethyl acrylate and N-methyl-1,3-diaminopropane, catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B immobilized on polypropylene. The second part of the chapter describes an efficient route for the synthesis of a novel β-peptoid oligomer with hydroxyalkyl pendant groups in the nitrogen atom, through the polymerization of ethyl N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-β-alaninate catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B physically adsorbed within a macroporous poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl methacrylate) resin...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julian Gomez-Cambronero, Ramya Ganesan
Phospholipase D (PLD), is a protein that breaks down phospholipids, maintaining structural integrity and remodeling of cellular or intracellular membranes, as well as mediating protein trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics during cell motility. One of the reaction products of PLD action is phosphatidic acid (PA). PA is a mitogen involved in a large variety of physiological cellular functions, such as cell growth, cell cycle progression, and cell motility. We have chosen as cell models the leukocyte polymorphonuclear neutrophil and the macrophage as examples of cell motility...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Justin P Peters, L James Maher
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used to image and study biological molecules. As an example, we have utilized AFM to investigate how the mechanical properties of DNA polymers depend on electrostatics and the strength of DNA base stacking by studying double-stranded DNA molecules incorporating several different neutral and charged base modifications. Here, we describe ten complementary approaches for determining DNA persistence length by AFM imaging. The combination of different approaches provides increased confidence and statistical reliability over existing methods utilizing only a single approach...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ivan Corbeski, Velten Horn, Ramon A van der Valk, Ulric B le Paige, Remus T Dame, Hugo van Ingen
Architectural DNA-binding proteins are key to the organization and compaction of genomic DNA inside cells. The activity of architectural proteins is often subject to further modulation and regulation through the interaction with a diverse array of other protein factors. Detailed knowledge on the binding modes involved is crucial for our understanding of how these protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions shape the functional landscape of chromatin in all kingdoms of life: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.Microscale thermophoresis (MST) is a biophysical technique that has seen increasing application in the study of biomolecular interactions thanks to its solution-based nature, its rapid application, modest sample demand, and the sensitivity of the thermophoresis effect to binding events...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Guangcan Yang, Yanwei Wang
Dynamic Light Scattering ( DLS ) enables the characterization of sizes and electrokinetic properties of colloids, polymers, macromolecules. DNA is a charged semiflexible polyelectrolyte, which is condensed or compacted by counterions, proteins, and other condensing agents in processes such as chromosome compaction and gene therapeutic applications. DNA condensation is closely related to charge screening, since packaging requires effective neutralization of its surface negative charges. In this chapter, we describe in detail the protocol for DLS of DNA-ligand complexes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ryosuke L Ohniwa, Hugo Maruyama, Kazuya Morikawa, Kunio Takeyasu
This protocol describes the application of atomic force microscopy for structural analysis of the prokaryotic and organellar nucleoids. It is based on a simple cell manipulation procedure that enables step-wise dissection of the nucleoid. The procedure includes (1) on-substrate-lysis of cells, and (2) enzyme treatment, followed by atomic force microscopy. This type of dissection analysis permits analysis of nucleoid structure ranging from the fundamental units assembled on DNA to higher order levels of organization...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Siyi Zhu, Jiaxin Bing, Xiaoping Min, Chen Lin, Xiangxiang Zeng
Heterogeneous information networks (HINs) currently play an important role in daily life. HINs are applied in many fields, such as science research, e-commerce, recommendation systems, and bioinformatics. Particularly, HINs have been used in biomedical research. Algorithms have been proposed to calculate the correlations between drugs and targets and between diseases and genes. Recently, the interaction between drugs and human genes has become an important subject in the research on drug efficacy and human genomics...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kazuei Igarashi, Keiko Kashiwagi
Polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine have numerous roles in the growth of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.  For example, it is well known that putrescine and spermidine are strongly involved in proliferation and viability of Escherichia coli cells.  Studies of polyamine functions and distributions in E. coli cells have revealed that polyamines mainly exist as an RNA-polyamine complex.  Polyamines stimulate the assembly of 30S ribosomal subunits and thereby increase general protein synthesis 1...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Atsushi Ishimatsu, Hieu Van Mai, Karen L M Martin
Although fishes by nature are aquatic, many species reproduce in such a way that their embryos are exposed to air either occasionally or constantly during incubation. We examine the ecological context and review specific examples of reproduction by fishes at the air-water interface, including fishes that do and do not breathe air. Four modes of reproduction at the air-water interface are described across 18 teleost Orders, from fresh water, estuaries and sea water. Mode 1, the most common type of reproduction by fishes at the air-water interface, includes 21 Families of mostly marine teleosts that spawn in water onto a substrate surface, on vegetation, or into hollow objects such as shells that will later be continuously or occasionally exposed to air...
August 13, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Imke H Bartelink, Ella F Jones, Sheerin K Shahidi-Latham, Evelyn Lee Pei Rong, Yanan Zheng, Paolo Vicini, Laura van 't Veer, Denise Wolf, Andrei Iagaru, Deanna L Kroetz, Brendan Prideaux, Cornelius Cilliers, Greg Thurber, Zena Wimana, Geraldine Gebhart
Precision medicine aims to use patient genomic, epigenomic, specific drug dose and other data to define disease patterns that may potentially lead to an improved treatment outcome. Personalized dosing regimens based on tumor drug penetration can play a critical role in this approach. State-of-the-art techniques to measure tumor drug penetration focus on systemic exposure, tissue penetration, cellular or molecular engagement and expression of pharmacological activity. Using In silico methods, this information can be integrated to bridge the gap between the therapeutic regimen and the pharmacological link with clinical outcome...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Gaëtan Vignoud, Laurent Venance, Jonathan D Touboul
Hebbian plasticity describes a basic mechanism for synaptic plasticity whereby synaptic weights evolve depending on the relative timing of paired activity of the pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) constitutes a central experimental and theoretical synaptic Hebbian learning rule. Various mechanisms, mostly calcium-based, account for the induction and maintenance of STDP. Classically STDP is assumed to gradually emerge in a monotonic way as the number of pairings increases...
August 14, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Sanbo Ding, Zhanshan Wang, Huaguang Zhang
This paper aims at investigating the master-slave quasi-synchronization of delayed memristive neural networks (MNNs) by proposing a region-partitioning-dependent intermittent control. The proposed method is described by three partitions of non-negative real region and an auxiliary positive definite function. Whether the control input is imposed on the slave system or not is decided by the dynamical relationships among the three subregions and the auxiliary function. From these ingredients, several succinct criteria with the associated co-design procedure are presented such that the synchronization error converges to a predetermined level...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Yonggang Chen, Zidong Wang, Bo Shen, Hongli Dong
Over the past two decades, the synchronization problem for dynamical networks has drawn significant attention due to its clear practical insight in biological systems, social networks, and neuroscience. In the case where a dynamical network cannot achieve the synchronization by itself, the feedback controller should be added to drive the network toward a desired orbit. On the other hand, the time delays may often occur in the nodes or the couplings of a dynamical network, and the existence of time delays may induce some undesirable dynamics or even instability...
August 7, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Qilong Gao, Naike Shi, Qiang Sun, Andrea Sanson, Ruggero Milazzo, Alberto Carnera, He Zhu, Saul H Lapidus, Yang Ren, Qingzhen Huang, Jun Chen, Xianran Xing
The understanding of the negative thermal expansion (NTE) mechanism is vital not only for the development of new NTE compounds but also for effectively controlling thermal expansion. Here, we report an interesting isotropic NTE property in cubic GaFe(CN)6 Prussian blue analogues (α l = -3.95 × 10-6 K-1 , 100-475 K), which is a new example to understand the complex NTE mechanism. A combined study of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, X-ray total scattering, X-ray absorption fine structure, neutron powder diffraction, and density functional theory calculations shows that the NTE of GaFe(CN)6 originates from the low-frequency phonons (< ∼100 cm-1 ), which are directly related to the transverse vibrations of the atomic -Ga-N≡C-Fe- chains...
August 14, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
S Kol
BACKGROUND: 'Be fruitful and multiply' is the first God's command in the Bible. Every aspect in life of the Orthodox Jewish population, including the strive for fertility, is tightly covered by a wide set of commands and rules ('Halacha') that span more than 3,000 years. This is a unique example of a population that continues to adhere to such time-honored rules. OBJECTIVE: To describe rules that encourage fertility on one hand, but may hinder fertility and influence infertility diagnosis and treatment on the other...
August 13, 2018: Andrology
Samuel D Banister, Mark Connor
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are the largest and most structurally diverse class of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Although the earliest SCRA NPS were simply repurposed from historical academic manuscripts or pharmaceutical patents describing cannabinoid ligands, recent examples bear hallmarks of rational design. SCRA NPS manufacturers have applied traditional medicinal chemistry strategies (such as molecular hybridization, bioisosteric replacement, and scaffold hopping) to existing cannabinoid templates in order to generate new molecules that circumvent structure-based legislation...
August 14, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Jacopo Grilli, Clotilde Cadart, Gabriele Micali, Matteo Osella, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
In physics, it is customary to represent the fluctuations of a stochastic system at steady state in terms of linear response to small random perturbations. Previous work has shown that the same framework describes effectively the trade-off between cell-to-cell variability and correction in the control of cell division of single E. coli cells. However, previous analyses were motivated by specific models and limited to a subset of the measured variables. For example, most analyses neglected the role of growth rate variability...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Louise A Rollins-Smith, Jacques Robert
In many studies of diseases affecting amphibians, it is important to determine to what extent lymphocyte-mediated defenses are involved. For example, in studies of the nature of the immune response of Xenopus laevis to the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , it was essential to determine if mucosal antimicrobial peptides or lymphocyte-mediated immunity was most important for resistance to this skin pathogen. In this protocol, we describe a method for sublethal irradiation to reduce lymphocyte numbers...
August 13, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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