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Metformin in obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923166/a-comparative-systematic-review-of-yasmin-drospirenone-pill-versus-standard-treatment-options-for-symptoms-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Jing Li, Jing Ren, Wenxia Sun
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the impact of Yasmin (drospirenone pill) compares with other standard treatments for symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). STUDY DESIGN: The relevant studies of the randomized controlled trials in women with PCOS treated with drospirenone were retrieved and the systematic evaluation was conducted. RESULTS: Eighteen articles were included. Compared with drospirenone (DRSP) monotherapy, DRSP plus metformin was better in reducing body mass index (BMI), luteinizing hormone (LH) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921426/-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Hana Krejčí
The present generation of women of childbearing age more frequently suffer from overweight, obesity, initial as well as fully established metabolic syndrome, which together with postponing motherhood until the third decade in life plays an important role in the increasing incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) that currently affects about 1/5 of pregnant women. However the causal link between diabetes during pregnancy and metabolic diseases in the whole population is mutual. By way of epigenetic changes, maternal diabetes unfavourably programmes metabolism of the offspring, who tend to transfer the disorder to the next generations...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904745/sex-differences-in-outcomes-after-stroke-among-patients-with-low-total-cholesterol-levels-a-large-hospital-based-prospective-study
#3
Guanen Zhou, Zhongping An, Wenjuan Zhao, Yan Hong, Haolin Xin, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that total cholesterol (TC) levels are associated with stroke outcomes, but sex differences in the association between TC levels, especially a low TC level, and ischemic stroke outcomes are unknown. We aimed to assess the sex differences in stroke outcomes among patients with atherothrombotic infarctions and low TC levels in China. METHODS: This study recruited patients with atherothrombotic infarctions from Tianjin, China, between May 2005 and September 2014...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904616/effect-of-folic-acid-and-metformin-on-insulin-resistance-and-inflammatory-factors-of-obese-children-and-adolescents
#4
Elham Hashemi Dehkordi, Farnaz Sattari, Abolfazl Khoshdel, Karamali Kasiri
BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing trend of obesity, especially in developing countries such as Iran, and the role of inflammatory factors and insulin resistance (IR) in the occurrence of obesity-related complications as well as the safety of some agents such as folic acid and metformin, this clinical trial was designed to investigate the effect of metformin and folic acid on inflammatory factors and IR among obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial study, sixty obese children aged 6-12 years were enrolled...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#5
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903149/obesity-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-evidence-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
Sao Jiralerspong, Pamela J Goodwin
Purpose To summarize the evidence of an association between obesity and breast cancer prognosis. Methods We reviewed the literature regarding overweight and obesity and breast cancer survival outcomes, overall and with regard to breast cancer subtypes, breast cancer therapies, biologic mechanisms, and possible interventions. We summarize our findings and provide clinical management recommendations. Results Obesity is associated with a 35% to 40% increased risk of breast cancer recurrence and death and therefore poorer survival outcomes...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#7
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889809/reversal-of-type-2-diabetes-in-youth-who-adhere-to-a-very-low-energy-diet-a-pilot-study
#8
Megan L Gow, Louise A Baur, Nathan A Johnson, Chris T Cowell, Sarah P Garnett
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a very-low-energy diet (VLED) is a feasible and acceptable treatment option for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, and whether adherence can lead to rapid weight loss, reversal of type 2 diabetes and reduced liver fat as seen in adult studies. METHODS: Eight participants with type 2 diabetes and obesity, aged 7-16 years, non-medicated (n = 1) or treated with metformin (n = 7) and in some cases insulin (n = 3), followed a VLED (<3360 kJ/day) for 8 weeks, then transitioned to a hypocaloric diet (∼6300 kJ/day) that they followed to 34 weeks...
November 26, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871268/metformin-and-dietary-advice-to-improve-insulin-sensitivity-and-promote-gestational-restriction-of-weight-among-pregnant-women-who-are-overweight-or-obese-the-grow-randomised-trial
#9
Jodie M Dodd, Rosalie M Grivell, Andrea R Deussen, Gustaaf Dekker, Jennie Louise, William Hague
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a significant global health problem, with approximately 50% of women entering pregnancy having a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m(2). Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a well-recognised increased risk of adverse health outcomes both for the woman and her infant. Currently available data from large scale randomised trials and systematic reviews highlight only modest effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions in limiting gestational weight gain, with little impact on clinically relevant pregnancy outcomes...
November 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867884/comparison-clinical-and-metabolic-effects-of-metformin-and-pioglitazone-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#10
Karoon Shahebrahimi, Nasrin Jalilian, Nasrin Bazgir, Mansour Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. This study compares the effects of 2 types of insulin sensitizer drugs, metformin and pioglitazone, on clinical, metabolic, and endocrine characteristics of women with PCOS...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866938/ovulation-induction-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-current-options
#11
REVIEW
Richard S Legro
There are a variety of effective treatment options to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The most effective treatments are primarily reproductive and target the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is headed toward replacing clomiphene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, as the first-choice option. Metabolic treatments likely work indirectly through the HPO axis. Many metabolic treatments have shown initial promise and later failed (troglitozone or d-chiro-inositol) or disappointed (metformin); further studies are needed of newer agents to treat type 2 diabetes...
September 21, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836248/a-review-for-clinicians-prostate-cancer-and-the-antineoplastic-properties-of-metformin
#12
REVIEW
Stephen J Hankinson, Mina Fam, Nitin N Patel
OBJECTIVES: Metformin has numerous antineoplastic effects including an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism, AMP-activated protein kinase-independent mechanisms, alteration of insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, and suppression of androgen signaling pathways that trigger prostate cancer growth and proliferation. In contrast to other malignancies that are associated with increased incidence among patients with obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), epidemiological studies suggest that obesity and T2DM may impart a protective effect on prostate cancer incidence by creating a set of metabolic conditions that lower androgen levels...
November 8, 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832864/impaired-adipose-tissue-lipid-storage-but-not-altered-lipolysis-contributes-to-elevated-levels-of-nefa-in-type-2-diabetes-degree-of-hyperglycemia-and-adiposity-are-important-factors
#13
Maria J Pereira, Stanko Skrtic, Petros Katsogiannos, Niclas Abrahamsson, Cherno O Sidibeh, Santosh Dahgam, Marianne Månsson, Ulf Risérus, Joel Kullberg, Jan W Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) mediate many adverse metabolic effects. In this work we aim to determine the impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D), glycemic control and obesity on lipolysis regulation. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: 20 control and 20 metformin-treated T2D subjects were matched for sex (10M/10 F), age (58±11 vs 58±9 y) and BMI (30.8±4.6 vs 30.7±4.9kg/m(2)). In vivo lipolysis was assessed during a 3h-OGTT with plasma glycerol and NEFA levels...
December 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832452/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antihyperglycemic-medications-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
REVIEW
Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Kelly L Matson, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Meghan Kelly, Asieh Karimani
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among children and adolescents has been rising. This condition is associated with obesity, and it's prevalence is higher among minority or female youth. Lifestyle modification including diet and exercise is only successful in a small proportion of patients; therefore, pharmacotherapy approaches are needed to treat T2DM among youth. Currently, in the USA, only metformin and insulin are approved for the treatment of T2DM in children. However, several antihyperglycemic agents including exenatide, glimepiride, glyburide, liraglutide, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone are also used off-label in this population...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819155/drugs-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-related-co-morbidities
#15
Ozra Tabatabaei-Malazy, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad Abdollahi
The continuing global epidemic of obesity in adolescents has raised the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the wealth of information concerning T2DM in adults, rare data are available targeting treatment of T2DM in pediatric. Areas covered: This article has reviewed clinical practice guidelines, particularly the American Diabetes Association and the Pediatric Endocrine Society consensus, jointly with clinical trial data available in databases with respect to the use of available pharmacological options to treat T2DM and its complications in youth...
November 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#16
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804063/metformin-reduces-lipogenesis-markers-in-obese-mice-fed-a-low-carbohydrate-and-high-fat-diet
#17
Karla Nayara de Oliveira Santana, Deborah Farias Lelis, Keila Lopes Mendes, Jamille Fernandes Lula, Alanna Fernandes Paraíso, João Marcus Oliveira Andrade, John David Feltenberger, Junio Cota, Diego Vicente da Costa, Alfredo Mauricio Batista de Paula, André Luiz Sena Guimarães, Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos
Lipogenesis is the process by which fatty acids are synthesized. In metabolic syndrome, an insulin resistant state along with high plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) and hyperglycemia may contribute to the lipogenic process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of metformin on the expression of lipogenic genes and glycemic profile in mice fed with low-carbohydrate high-fat diet by evaluating their metabolic profile. SWISS male mice were divided into 4 groups (N = 7) that were fed with standard (ST), standard plus metformin (ST + MET), low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LCHFD) and low-carbohydrate high-fat diet plus metformin (LCHFD + MET) (100 mg kg(-1) diet) diets respectively...
December 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800648/treatment-with-a-novel-agent-combining-docosahexaenoate-and-metformin-increases-protectin-dx-and-il-6-production-in-skeletal-muscle-and-reduces-insulin-resistance-in-obese-diabetic-db-db-mice
#18
Patricia L Mitchell, Renato Nachbar, Dominic Lachance, Philippe St-Pierre, Jocelyn Trottier, Olivier Barbier, André Marette
AIMS: To compare the therapeutic potential of TP-113, a unique molecular entity linking DHA with metformin, for alleviating insulin resistance in obese diabetic mice through the PDX/IL-6 pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We utilized the generically obese diabetic db/db mouse model for all experiments. Initial studies investigated both a dose and time course response. These results were then utilized to design a long term (5wk) treatment protocol. Mice were gavaged twice a day with one of three treatments: 200 mg/kg BW TP113, and equivqlent dose of metformin alone (70 mg/kg BW) or water...
November 1, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789220/pleiotropic-protective-effects-of-vitamin-d-against-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats-one-for-all
#19
Dalia K Mostafa, Rasha A Nasra, Noha Zahran, Mohammed T Ghoneim
Several lines of evidence point to the association of vitamin D deficiency with the different components of metabolic syndrome. Yet, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome is not clearly elucidated. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that administration of vitamin D, either alone or in combination of metformin can improve metabolic and structural derangements associated with metabolic syndrome. Fifty wistar rats were randomly assigned to serve either as normal control (10 rats) or metabolic syndrome rats, by feeding them with a standard or a high fat diet (HFD), respectively...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780736/add-on-therapy-with-anagliptin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-metformin-and-miglitol-can-maintain-higher-concentrations-of-biologically-active-glp-1-total-gip-and-a-lower-concentration-of-leptin
#20
Takeshi Osonoi, Miyoko Saito, Natsuyo Hariya, Moritaka Goto, Kazuki Mochizuki
Metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) reduce hyperglycemia without excessive insulin secretion, and enhance postprandial plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We assessed add-on therapeutic effects of DPP-4I anagliptin in Japanese T2DM patients treated with metformin, an α-GI miglitol, or both drugs on postprandial responses of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and on plasma concentration of the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin...
December 2016: Peptides
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