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Metformin in obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646699/insulin-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Djuro Macut, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Dario Rahelić, Mirjana Doknić
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among women during reproductive age. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and deranged adipokines secretion from the adipose tissue. In addition to the reduced insulin sensitivity, PCOS women exhibit β-cell dysfunction as well. Low birth weight and foetal exposure to androgens may contribute to the development of the PCOS phenotype during life. Further metabolic complications lead to dyslipidaemia, worsening obesity and glucose tolerance, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and greater susceptibility to diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640857/glucose-dysregulation-and-response-to-common-anti-diabetic-agents-in-the-fatzo-pco-mouse
#2
Richard G Peterson, Charles Van Jackson, Karen M Zimmerman, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, M Dodson Michael, Paul J Emmerson, Tamer Coskun
The FATZO/Pco mouse is the result of a cross of the C57BL/6J and AKR/J strains. The crossing of these two strains and the selective inbreeding for obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia has resulted in an inbred strain exhibiting obesity in the presumed presence of an intact leptin pathway. Routinely used rodent models for obesity and diabetes research have a monogenic defect in leptin signaling that initiates obesity. Given that obesity and its sequelae in humans are polygenic in nature and not associated with leptin signaling defects, the FATZO mouse may represent a more translatable rodent model for study of obesity and its associated metabolic disturbances...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#3
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632873/screening-for-obesity-and-intervention-for-weight-management-in-children-and-adolescents-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#4
Elizabeth A O'Connor, Corinne V Evans, Brittany U Burda, Emily S Walsh, Michelle Eder, Paula Lozano
Importance: Obesity is common in children and adolescents in the United States, is associated with negative health effects, and increases the likelihood of obesity in adulthood. Objective: To systematically review the benefits and harms of screening and treatment for obesity and overweight in children and adolescents to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials, and the Education Resources Information Center through January 22, 2016; references of relevant publications; government websites...
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619690/metformin-the-aspirin-of-the-21-st-century-its-role-in-gestational-diabetes-prevention-of-preeclampsia-and-cancer-and-the-promotion-of-longevity
#5
REVIEW
Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Maik Hüttemann, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Agustin Conde-Agudelo, Percy Pacora, Bo Hyun Yoon, Lawrence I Grossman
Metformin is everywhere. Originally introduced in clinical practice as an anti-diabetic agent, its role as a therapeutic agent is expanding to include treatment of pre-diabetes, gestational diabetes, polycystic ovarian disease, and more recently, experimental studies, as well as observations in randomized clinical trials, suggest that metformin could have a place in the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia. This article provides a brief overview of the history of metformin in the treatment of diabetes, reviews the results of meta-analyses of metformin in gestational diabetes, and the treatment of obese non-diabetic pregnant women to prevent macrosomia...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616207/changes-in-metformin-use-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Talha H Imam
Metformin is one of the oldest and most widely prescribed antidiabetic medicines worldwide. It is the only such medicine that has shown a reduction of cardiovascular mortality in diabetes mellitus type 2. Since many diabetic patients have chronic kidney disease, its use is often curtailed by practitioners due to fear of lactic acidosis and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warnings that, until recently, had been in place for decades. Current guidelines, though somewhat vague regarding dosages, clearly pave the way for spreading the use of metformin in patients with lower glomerular filtration rates...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615356/sulforaphane-reduces-hepatic-glucose-production-and-improves-glucose-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Annika S Axelsson, Emily Tubbs, Brig Mecham, Shaji Chacko, Hannah A Nenonen, Yunzhao Tang, Jed W Fahey, Jonathan M J Derry, Claes B Wollheim, Nils Wierup, Morey W Haymond, Stephen H Friend, Hindrik Mulder, Anders H Rosengren
A potentially useful approach for drug discovery is to connect gene expression profiles of disease-affected tissues ("disease signatures") to drug signatures, but it remains to be shown whether it can be used to identify clinically relevant treatment options. We analyzed coexpression networks and genetic data to identify a disease signature for type 2 diabetes in liver tissue. By interrogating a library of 3800 drug signatures, we identified sulforaphane as a compound that may reverse the disease signature...
June 14, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608050/metabolic-and-androgen-profile-in-underweight-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Olympia E Anastasiou, Ali Canbay, Dagmar Fuhrer, Susanne Reger-Tan
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Aim of our study is to clarify the prevalence of underweight in PCOS patients and whether metabolic and androgen profiles of PCOS differ depending on normal or low body weight. METHODS: Out of 1269 consecutive patients with PCOS recruited from the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the University of Duisburg-Essen, 19 patients (1.5%) were underweight and were compared to 375 lean PCOS subjects (29...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600119/effects-on-diabetes-medications-weight-and-a1c-among-patients-with-obesity-and-diabetes-6-month-observations-from-a-full-meal-replacement-low-calorie-diet-weight-management-program
#9
Judy Y Shiau, Derek Y F So, Robert R Dent
OBJECTIVES: A 6-month weight-management program with full meal replacement, low-calorie diet (full MR-LCD) (900 kcal/day for 6 to 12 weeks) follows a protocol for patients with diabetes for decreasing or discontinuing weight-gaining diabetes medications first (Group WG) and then titrating weight-neutral medications (Group WN). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study (1992 to 2009) of weight, glycemic control and diabetes medications changes in 317 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes who were taking medications...
June 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595561/sexual-dysfunction-cardiovascular-risk-and-effects-of-pharmacotherapy
#10
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Asterios Karagiannis, Vasilios G Athyros
Sexual dysfunction affects millions of people with an increasing prevalence, worldwide. The pathophysiology of the disease shares several similarities with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, structural vascular damage and subclinical inflammation. Erectile dysfunction (ED) and female sexual dysfunction are common among patients with CVD and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Given the common pathogenesis of the diseases, ED is an independent prognostic factor of future ED events...
June 9, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592573/protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-effect-of-dapagliflozin-metformin-and-exercise-on-glycaemic-variability-body-composition-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-prediabetes-the-pre-d-trial
#11
Kristine Færch, Hanan Amadid, Lea Bruhn Nielsen, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Kristian Karstoft, Frederik Persson, Marit Eika Jørgensen
INTRODUCTION: The primary aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of three short-term glucose-lowering interventions (exercise, metformin and dapagliflozin) on glycaemic variability in overweight or obese men and women with elevated diabetes risk (ie, prediabetes, defined as haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)39-47 mmol/mol / 5.7%-6.4%). The secondary aims are to investigate the effects of the interventions on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Pre-D Trial is an investigator-initiated, randomised, controlled, parallel, open-label, superiority trial...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588183/orlistat-the-lipase-inhibitor-therapy-in-overweight-and-obese-subfertile-women
#12
D Rahman, S M Shahida, T Hussain, A Begum
This experimental study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of orlistat (a pancreatic lipase inhibitor) therapy over lifestyle change on weight reduction and ovulation in overweight and obese subfertile women. It was carried out in Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Dhaka, Bangladesh from August 2015 to January 2016. Subfertile obese and overweight female patients attending the study centre during study period was considered as study population...
April 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581818/effect-of-linagliptin-versus-metformin-on-glycemic-variability-in-patients-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#13
Tonatiuh González-Heredia, Diana M Hernández-Corona, Manuel González-Ortiz, Esperanza Martínez-Abundis
BACKGROUND: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and glycemic variability may be associated with increased risk of micro- and macrovascular complications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of linagliptin versus metformin on glycemic variability in patients with IGT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial with parallel groups was carried out in 16 adult patients with IGT, overweight or obesity. All patients signed an informed consent...
June 5, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580278/fgf21-does-not-require-adipocyte-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-or-the-phosphorylation-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-acc-to-mediate-improvements-in-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis
#14
Emilio P Mottillo, Eric M Desjardins, Andreas M Fritzen, Vito Z Zou, Justin D Crane, Julian M Yabut, Bente Kiens, Derek M Erion, Adhiraj Lanba, James G Granneman, Saswata Talukdar, Gregory R Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) shows great potential for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, as its long-acting analogue reduces body weight and improves lipid profiles of participants in clinical studies; however, the intracellular mechanisms mediating these effects are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor of the cell and a molecular target for anti-diabetic medications. This work examined the role of AMPK in mediating the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of FGF21...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575729/effects-of-saxagliptin-on-glucose-homeostasis-and-body-composition-of-obese-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-pre-diabetes
#15
Zixuan Wang, Dengcheng Xu, Lanhui Huang, Tiantian Zhang, Junqiao Wang, Qing Chen, Lei Kong, Xinli Zhou
AIMS: To assess the effect of saxagliptin monotherapy on blood glucose and islet β-cell function in obese patients with newly diagnosed pre-diabetes and abnormal fat metabolism. METHODS: A 24-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 25 obese subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (mean age 45years) to receive lifestyle intervention only (control group) or combined with saxagliptin 2.5mg or 5mg daily (S2...
May 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560428/metformin-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-improves-the-induction-of-autophagy-in-hfd%C3%A2-induced-obese-mice
#16
Min Li, Antara Sharma, Chunyan Yin, Xinrui Tan, Yanfeng Xiao
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on the induction of autophagy in the liver and adipose tissues of a mouse model of obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high‑fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity‑associated hepatic steatosis, and treated with metformin (150 mg/kg/d) by intraperitoneal injection for the final 4 weeks of HFD feeding. Body weight was recorded weekly, and the food intake of the mice was recorded daily during the treatment period. Liver and adipose tissues were harvested for histological and molecular analyses...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559290/a-role-for-pfkfb3-ipfk2-in-metformin-suppression-of-adipocyte-inflammatory-responses
#17
Ting Qi, Yanming Chen, Honggui Li, Ya Pei, Shih-Lung Woo, Xin Guo, Jiajia Zhao, Xiaoxian Qian, Joseph Awika, Yuqing Huo, Chaodong Wu
Metformin improves obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation, but has controversial effects on adipose tissue inflammation. The objective of the study is to examine the direct effect of metformin on adipocyte inflammatory responses and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Adipocytes were differentiated from 3T3-L1 cells and treated with metformin at various doses and for different time periods. The treated cells were examined for the proinflammatory responses, as well as the phosphorylation states of AMPK and the expression of PFKFB3/iPFK2...
July 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551306/metformin-prescribing-in-low-income-and-insured-patients-with-prediabetes
#18
Jun Wu, Eileen Ward, Tiffaney Threatt, Zhiqiang K Lu
OBJECTIVES: To describe prescribing patterns of metformin in low-income and Medicaid-insured patients with prediabetes and to identify common demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions of low-income and Medicaid-insured patients receiving metformin for treatment of prediabetes. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients (18-60 years old) who were enrolled in South Carolina Medicaid and diagnosed with prediabetes between January 2009 and December 2013...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548953/from-rapalogs-to-anti-aging-formula
#19
Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Inhibitors of mTOR, including clinically available rapalogs such as rapamycin (Sirolimus) and Everolimus, are gerosuppressants, which suppress cellular senescence. Rapamycin slows aging and extends life span in a variety of species from worm to mammals. Rapalogs can prevent age-related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, neurodegeneration and retinopathy and potentially rejuvenate stem cells, immunity and metabolism. Here, I further suggest how rapamycin can be combined with metformin, inhibitors of angiotensin II signaling (Losartan, Lisinopril), statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin), propranolol, aspirin and a PDE5 inhibitor...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546831/effect-of-variable-antidiabetic-treatments-strategy-on-oxidative-stress-markers-in-obese-patients-with-t2dm
#20
Abeer A ALrefai, Alsayed M Alsalamony, Sameer H Fatani, Hala F M Kamel
AIM: To evaluate the effect of different anti-diabetic treatment strategy on oxidative stress markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SUBJECT AND METHODS: A total of 93 patients with T2DM treated with metformin (G1 = 25), OHA (G2 = 22), OA and insulin (G3 = 26) and insulin alone (G4 = 20). In all patients, lipid profile and glycemic indices were assessed using routine laboratory tests. MDA and Oxidized LDL were assessed using commercially available ELISA kits...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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