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Metformin in obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046482/blunted-rise-in-brain-glucose-levels-during-hyperglycemia-in-adults-with-obesity-and-t2dm
#1
Janice J Hwang, Lihong Jiang, Muhammad Hamza, Elizabeth Sanchez Rangel, Feng Dai, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Lisa Parikh, Brian B Koo, Douglas L Rothman, Graeme Mason, Robert S Sherwin
In rodent models, obesity and hyperglycemia alter cerebral glucose metabolism and glucose transport into the brain, resulting in disordered cerebral function as well as inappropriate responses to homeostatic and hedonic inputs. Whether similar findings are seen in the human brain remains unclear. In this study, 25 participants (9 healthy participants; 10 obese nondiabetic participants; and 6 poorly controlled, insulin- and metformin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) participants) underwent 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy scanning in the occipital lobe to measure the change in intracerebral glucose levels during a 2-hour hyperglycemic clamp (glucose ~220 mg/dl)...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021207/impact-of-lifestyle-and-metformin-interventions-on-the-risk-of-progression-to-diabetes-and-regression-to-normal-glucose-regulation-in-overweight-or-obese-people-with-impaired-glucose-regulation
#2
William H Herman, Qing Pan, Sharon L Edelstein, Kieren J Mather, Leigh Perreault, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Dana M Dabelea, Edward Horton, Steven E Kahn, William C Knowler, Carlos Lorenzo, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Elizabeth Venditti, Wen Ye
OBJECTIVE: Both lifestyle and metformin interventions can delay or prevent progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in people with impaired glucose regulation, but there is considerable interindividual variation in the likelihood of receiving benefit. Understanding an individual's 3-year risk of progressing to DM and regressing to normal glucose regulation (NGR) might facilitate benefit-based tailored treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the values of 19 clinical variables measured at the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) baseline evaluation and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the 3-year risk of progression to DM and regression to NGR separately for DPP lifestyle, metformin, and placebo participants who were adherent to the interventions...
October 11, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989873/effect-of-metformin-sustained-release-therapy-on-low-density-lipoprotein-size-and-adiponectin-in-the-south-indian-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
D Rama Nagendra Kumar, Krishna G Seshadri, Monna Pandurangi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to compare surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, such as adiponectin (APN) levels and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size, before and after sustained release metformin (Met-SR) therapy in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Sixty women with PCOS and sixty age-matched controls in the age group 18-45 years were recruited after obtaining informed consent. Women with PCOS were initiated on Met-SR 1 g orally, which was increased to 1...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986164/circulating-apoj-is-closely-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-human-subjects
#4
Ji A Seo, Min-Cheol Kang, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Sang Soo Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Charles Choe, Won Bin Hwang, Dong Mee Lim, Olivia Farr, Christos Mantzoros, Robert R Henry, Young-Bum Kim
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. ApolipoproteinJ (ApoJ) has been implicated in altered pathophysiologic states including cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease. However, the function of ApoJ in regulation of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. This study sought to determine whether serum ApoJ levels are associated with insulin resistance in human subjects and if they change after interventions that improve insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Serum ApoJ levels and insulin resistance status were assessed in nondiabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects...
October 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978007/differences-in-risk-factors-of-malignancy-between-men-and-women-with-type-2-diabetes-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#5
Mariusz Dąbrowski, Elektra Szymańska-Garbacz, Zofia Miszczyszyn, Tadeusz Dereziński, Leszek Czupryniak
BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter, retrospective, case-control study was to identify differences in risk factors of malignancy between men and women with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Among women the most prevalent malignancies were: breast and uterine cancers (35.6% and 14.4% respectively), while among men there were: colorectal and prostate cancers (24.5% and 13.3% respectively). In both gender metformin use was associated with lower cancer risk. Obesity and insulin treatment in dose-dependent and time-varying manner were associated with significantly increased risk of malignancy in females...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977604/metformin-affects-cortical-bone-mass-and-marrow-adiposity-in-diet-induced-obesity-in-male-mice
#6
Sheila Bornstein, Michele Moschetta, Yawara Kawano, Antonio Sacco, Daisy Huynh, Daniel Brooks, Salomon Manier, Heather Fairfield, Carolyne Falank, Aldo M Roccaro, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary Bouxein, Calvin Vary, Irene M Ghobrial, Clifford J Rosen, Michaela R Reagan
Obesity during maturation can affect the growing skeleton directly and indirectly, although these effects and the mechanisms behind them are not fully understood. Our objective was to determine how a high-fat diet with or without metformin treatment affects skeletal development. We also sought to characterize changes that occur in white adipose tissue, circulating metabolites, lipids, and gut microbiota. A diet-induced obesity C57BL/6J mouse model was used to test the effects of obesity and metformin on bone using bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973971/effects-of-antidiabetic-drugs-on-gut-microbiota-composition
#7
REVIEW
Sophie A Montandon, François R Jornayvaz
Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It is becoming clear that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes (T2D); inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases; notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis...
September 30, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963087/metformin-influences-on-respiratory-system-in-obese-mice-induced-by-postnatal-overnutrition
#8
Maycon Daniel Dias, Melissa Goulart, Cecilia Dalécio, Silvia Enes-Marques, Évila da Silva Lopes Salles, Marina Venâncio, Elisângela Monteiro Pereira, Valdemar Antonio Paffaro, Erika Kristina Incerpi, Roseli Soncini
Many studies have confirmed the merits of metformin to treat type 2 diabetes, but few studies have addressed its effect on the respiratory system. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical to many lung functions. In this way, we evaluated the metformin impact on the lung in treated obese Swiss mice, induced by postnatal overnutrition. Glucose and insulin were detected and the insulin resistance index (HOMA) was calculated; inflammatory cells and nitrite/nitrate concentration (NOx) was quantified from bronchoalveolar lavage, collagen and lung VEGF-a was analysed in the lung tissue and lung mechanics were evaluated by methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction...
September 28, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953677/effects-of-metformin-treatment-on-serum-levels-of-c-reactive-protein-and-interleukin-6-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-a-prisma-compliant-article
#9
Jiao Wang, Lingyan Zhu, Kaixiang Hu, Yunliang Tang, Xiangxia Zeng, Jianying Liu, Jixiong Xu
BACKGROUND: Metformin is effective for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but conflicting results regarding its impact on serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in women with PCOS have been reported. To provide high-quality evidence about the effect of treatment with metformin on CRP and IL-6 in PCOS, relevant studies that assessed the serum levels of CRP and IL-6 in women with PCOS receiving metformin treatment were reviewed and analyzed. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the Science Citation Index, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases, and personal contact was made with the authors...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947922/diabetes-medication-associates-with-dna-methylation-of-metformin-transporter-genes-in-the-human-liver
#10
Sonia García-Calzón, Alexander Perfilyev, Ville Männistö, Vanessa D de Mello, Emma Nilsson, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Given that metformin is the most common pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes, understanding the function of this drug is of great importance. Hepatic metformin transporters are responsible for the pharmacologic action of metformin. However, epigenetics in genes encoding metformin transporters has not been fully elucidated. We examined the DNA methylation of these genes in the liver of subjects with type 2 diabetes and tested whether epigenetic alterations associate with diabetes medication, i...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935544/metformin-improves-obesity-associated-inflammation-by-altering-macrophages-polarization
#11
Yuanyuan Jing, Fan Wu, Dai Li, Lei Yang, Qi Li, Rong Li
Obesity is reported to be a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Adipose tissue macrophages play a key role in obesity-related inflammation. Metformin, the most widely used anti-diabetic drug, has recently been reported to have an effect on inflammation, but the mechanism is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate how metformin works on chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity and whether the mechanism underlying it is associated with macrophage polarization. Metformin was administered for 7 weeks to high fat-fed C57/6J male mice in vivo...
September 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933290/nutraceuticals-and-repurposed-drugs-of-phytochemical-origin-in-prevention-and-interception-of-chronic-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#12
Adriana Albini, Barbara Bassani, Denisa Baci, Katiuscia Dallaglio, Matteo Gallazzi, Paola Corradino, Antonino Bruno, Douglas M Noonan
Chronic, degenerative diseases are often characterized by inflammation and aberrant angiogenesis. For many of these pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, current therapies have limited efficacy, thus the validation of novel (chemo)preventive and interceptive approaches, of new or repurposed agents, alone or in combination with registered drugs, are urgently required. Phytochemicals (triterpenoids, flavonoids, retinoids) and their derivatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin) as well as biguanides (metformin and phenformin) originally developed from phytochemical backbones, are multi-target agents showing anti-angiogenic and anti-anti-inflammatory proprieties...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912879/a-crossover-study-of-the-combination-therapy-of-metformin-and-exenatide-or-biphasic-insulin-aspart-30-in-overweight-or-obese-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Huibiao Quan, Huachuan Zhang, Weiping Wei, Tuanyu Fang, Daoxiong Chen, Kaining Chen
The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of various combinations of exenatide, metformin (MET) and biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIA30) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred overweight or obese patients newly diagnosed with T2DM were evenly randomized into two groups: A (twice daily for all: Phase I, 5 µg exenatide + 0.5 g MET for 4 weeks, then 10 µg exenatide + 0.5 g MET for 8 weeks; Phase II, 0.5 g MET for 12 weeks; Phase III, 0.3-0.4 U/kg/day BIA30 + 0.5 g MET for 12 weeks) and B (Phases I, II, III matched the phases III, II and I in group A)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912305/effects-of-liraglutide-on-weight-loss-fat-distribution-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-obese-subjects-with-prediabetes-or-early-type-2-diabetes
#14
Francesca Santilli, Paola G Simeone, Maria T Guagnano, Marika Leo, Marica T Maccarone, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Cristina Sborgia, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Ermanno Angelucci, Virginia Federico, Stefano Cianfarani, Lamberto Manzoli, Giovanni Davì, Armando Tartaro, Agostino Consoli
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. The risk depends significantly on adipose tissue distribution. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog, is associated with weight loss, improved glycemic control, and reduced cardiovascular risk. We determined whether an equal degree of weight loss by liraglutide or lifestyle changes has a different impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese subjects with prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes...
September 14, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904497/the-effect-of-metformin-treatment-on-the-serum-levels-of-homocysteine-folic-acid-and-vitamin-b12-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam Gholinezhad-Chari, Reza Ghadimi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although metformin therapy can increase homocysteine (Hcy) levels, it frequently is used as an oral medicine in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), who might be at risk of catching diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of metformin on the levels of serum Hcy, vitamin B12 (vit B12), and folic acid in patients with PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interventional study was designed with 18 patients with PCOS at the Fatemehzahra infertility Hospital in Babol, Iran...
April 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893023/itolizumab-in-the-management-of-psoriasis-with-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Shrichand G Parasramani
Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disease that has been associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors mainly hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. A 49-year-old male patient presented with extensive plaque psoriasis from past 13 years. Past medications included methotrexate, PUVA therapy, topical immunosuppressants and corticosteroids. His baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score was 39.8. The patient was screened and diagnosed with MS as per Alberti's Criteria (his waist circumference was 100 cm, blood pressure was 160/100 mmHg and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) was 30 mg/dl)...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891932/inadequate-vitamin-c-status-in-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-associations-with-glycaemic-control-obesity-and-smoking
#17
Renée Wilson, Jinny Willis, Richard Gearry, Paula Skidmore, Elizabeth Fleming, Chris Frampton, Anitra Carr
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is an essential micronutrient in humans, being required for a number of important biological functions via acting as an enzymatic cofactor and reducing agent. There is some evidence to suggest that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have lower plasma vitamin C concentrations compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The aim of this study was to investigate plasma vitamin C concentrations across the glycaemic spectrum and to explore correlations with indices of metabolic health...
September 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891142/network-meta-analysis-of-lorcaserin-and-oral-hypoglycaemics-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity
#18
L M Neff, M S Broder, D Beenhouwer, E Chang, E Papoyan, Z W Wang
In addition to weight loss, randomized controlled trials have shown improvement in glycaemic control in patients taking lorcaserin. The aim of this study aim was to compare adding lorcaserin or other glucose lowering medications to metformin on weight and glycaemic control. A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials were conducted. Included studies (published 1990-2014) were of lorcaserin or glucose lowering medications in type 2 diabetic patients compared to placebo or different active treatments...
September 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886024/clomiphene-citrate-effect-in-obese-men-with-low-serum-testosterone-treated-with-metformin-due-to-dysmetabolic-disorders-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Carla Pelusi, Vito Angelo Giagulli, Margherita Baccini, Flaminia Fanelli, Marco Mezzullo, Alessia Fazzini, Nicola Bianchi, Matteo Domenico Carbone, Giovanni De Pergola, Marianna Mastroroberto, Antonio Maria Morselli Labate, Renato Pasquali
CONTEXT: Low testosterone (T) levels are often found in obese men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and overt type 2 diabetes (T2DM); however, the mechanisms underlying this condition and its correct therapy are still under debate. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate (CC) in increasing endogenous T levels in obese men with low serum T and with IGT or T2DM treated with metformin (MET). DESIGN: Cross-over, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884449/insulin-resistance-and-hunger-in-childhood-obesity-a-patient-and-physician-s-perspective
#20
Wendy Scinta, Harold Bayes, Nicole Smith
This article is co-authored by the mother of a child with obesity and insulin resistance, who gives her perspective. It is also co-authored by the treating Obesity Medicine clinician and an investigator in obesity clinical research (both certified in Obesity Medicine), who give their perspectives. The discussion focuses upon the potential clinical use of metformin in managing young patients with obesity and insulin resistance. The article integrates what is scientifically known about the mechanisms of actions of metformin and how these mechanisms are reflected in the clinical response of young patients...
September 7, 2017: Advances in Therapy
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