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Metformin in obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452573/the-effect-of-metformin-treatment-in-obese-insulin-resistant-patients-with-euthyroid-goiter
#1
Nicoleta Răcătăianu, Sorana Daniela Bolboacă, Adela-Viviana Sitar-Tăut, Smaranda Mârza, Daniela Moga, Ana Valea, Cristina Ghervan
Objective The study's objective was to evaluate the thyroid parameters in obese insulin-resistant patients with euthyroid diffuse or nodular goiter, following Metformin treatment. Patients and methods The study was experimental, open, and prospective. Fifty-three patients aged 18-68 were enrolled for two years. Obese insulin-resistant patients (cut-off Homeostasis-Model-Assessment of Insulin Resistance-HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) with euthyroid nodular/diffuse goiter were included. Subjects with diabetes, hypo-/hyper-thyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, psychiatric disorders, liver or heart failure were excluded...
February 16, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452178/effects-of-canagliflozin-versus-glimepiride-on-adipokines-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
W Timothy Garvey, Luc Van Gaal, Lawrence A Leiter, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, James List, Robert Cuddihy, Jimmy Ren, Michael J Davies
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are pro-inflammatory states associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, demonstrated superiority in lowering HbA1c versus glimepiride with less hypoglycemia and greater weight reduction via loss of fat mass in a 52-week trial of type 2 diabetes patients. This post hoc, exploratory analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin versus glimepiride on select adipokines, inflammatory biomarkers, and chemokines...
February 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450671/short-term-treatment-with-metformin-reduces-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-but-induces-liver-inflammation-in-obese-mice
#3
Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Camila O Souza, Luana A Biondo, Loreana Sanches Silveira, Edson A Lima, Helena A Batatinha, Adriane Pereira Araujo, Michele Joana Alves, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Rui Curi, José Cesar Rosa Neto
The study aimed to evaluate the metabolic and inflammatory effects of short-term treatments (10 days) with metformin (MET) on the NAFLD caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6 mice. After the treatment, histological liver slices were obtained, hepatocytes and macrophages were extracted and cultured with phosphate buffered saline, LPS (2.5 µg/mL) and MET (1 µM) for 24 h. Cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. NAFLD caused by the HFD was partially reduced by MET. The lipid accumulation induced by the HFD was not associated with liver inflammation; however, MET seemed to promote pro-inflammatory effects in liver, since it increased hepatic concentration of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and IFN-γ...
February 15, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438454/comparative-efficacy-of-antihypertensive-agents-in-salt-sensitive-hypertensive-patients-a-network-meta-analysis
#4
Han Qi, Zheng Liu, Han Cao, Wei-Ping Sun, Wen-Juan Peng, Bin Liu, Sheng-Jie Dong, Yu-Tao Xiang, Ling Zhang
Background: Salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) is an intermediate inherited phenotype of essential hypertension as well as being an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, effective medications for the treatment of SSH have not been clarified. This study was to compare the efficacious of different classes of antihypertensive agents combined with salt intake on the reduction of blood pressure in patients with salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH). Methods: We used sources as PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427549/linking-type-2-diabetes-and-gynecological-cancer-an-introductory-overview
#5
REVIEW
Emanuela Anastasi, Tiziana Filardi, Sara Tartaglione, Andrea Lenzi, Antonio Angeloni, Susanna Morano
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease with a growing prevalence and a leading cause of death in many countries. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between T2D and increased risk of many types of cancer, such as gynecologic neoplasms (endometrial, cervical, ovarian and vulvar cancer). Insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and high free ovarian steroid hormones are considered the possible mechanisms behind this complex relationship. A higher risk of endometrial cancer was observed in T2D, even though this association largely attenuated after adjusting for obesity...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421161/therapies-for-gestational-diabetes-and-their-implications-for-maternal-and-offspring-health-evidence-from-human-and-animal-studies
#6
REVIEW
Gabriel M Brawerman, Vernon W Dolinsky
Obesity prior to and during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of complications during pregnancy. One of the most common complications of pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a condition characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance that is diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy. GDM predisposes both mothers and their children to increased obesity and cardiometabolic disorders, namely type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current treatments include lifestyle changes and insulin injections, but oral anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and glyburide are increasingly prescribed as they do not require injections...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417495/effectiveness-and-safety-of-a-novel-care-model-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-at-1%C3%A2-year-an-open-label-non-randomized-controlled-study
#7
Sarah J Hallberg, Amy L McKenzie, Paul T Williams, Nasir H Bhanpuri, Anne L Peters, Wayne W Campbell, Tamara L Hazbun, Brittanie M Volk, James P McCarter, Stephen D Phinney, Jeff S Volek
INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate restriction markedly improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but necessitates prompt medication changes. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of a novel care model providing continuous remote care with medication management based on biometric feedback combined with the metabolic approach of nutritional ketosis for T2D management. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, controlled, before-and-after 1-year study of this continuous care intervention (CCI) and usual care (UC)...
February 7, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416195/assessment-of-pharmacological-responses-to-an-anti-diabetic-drug-in-a-new-obese-type-2-diabetic-rat-model
#8
Yasutaka Murai, Takeshi Ohta, Hironobu Tadaki, Katsuhiro Miyajima, Masami Shinohara, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Takahisa Yamada
Introduction: The number of diabetic patients has recently been increasing worldwide, and numerous anti-diabetic drugs have been developed to induce good glycemic control. In particular, metformin, which exhibits glucose-lowering effects by suppressing gluconeogenesis in the liver, is widely used as a first line oral anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: In this study, the pharmacological effects of metformin were investigated using female and male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats, a new obese type 2 diabetic model...
December 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415825/green-tea-extract-outperforms-metformin-in-lipid-profile-and-glycaemic-control-in-overweight-women-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#9
Monallisa Alves Ferreira, Anna Paula Oliveira Gomes, Ana Paula Guimarães de Moraes, Maria Luiza Ferreira Stringhini, João Felipe Mota, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes Coelho, Patrícia Borges Botelho
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Both green tea and metformin are used as adjuvants to treat and prevent complications associated with obesity; however, studies comparing their action and interaction in non-diabetic overweight women have not been reported. Thus, the current study evaluated the effects of green tea extract and metformin, both individually and in combination, on type 2 diabetes risk factors in non-diabetic overweight women. METHODS: A total of 120 overweight women were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to 1 of 4 groups, as follows: control (n = 29; 1 g of cellulose), green tea (n = 32; 1 g of dry green tea extract), metformin (n = 28; 1 g of metformin), and green tea + metformin (n = 31; 1 g of dry green tea extract + 1 g of metformin)...
December 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412816/tissue-expression-of-dpp-iv-in-obesity-diabetes-and-modulatory-effects-on-peptide-regulation-of-insulin-secretion
#10
Aine M McKillop, Claire L Stevenson, Brian M Moran, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt
Dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors represent an important class of glucose-lowering drug for type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 enzyme activity has been observed to be significantly altered in type 2 diabetes. Here, the role of DPP-4 was examined in a high fat fed (HFF) mouse model of insulin resistance. HFF mice had an increased bodyweight (p < .01), were hyperglycaemic (p < .01) and hyperinsulinaemic (p < .05). Compared to normal diet, HFF mice exhibited increased plasma DPP-4 activity (p < .01)...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412810/glp-1-receptor-agonists-show-neuroprotective-effects-in-animal-models-of-diabetes
#11
Victor A Gault, Christian Hölscher
Enzyme-resistant receptor agonists of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have shown positive therapeutic effects in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM has detrimental effects on brain function and impairment of cognition and memory formation has been described. One of the underlying mechanisms is most likely insulin de-sensitization in the brain, as insulin improves cognitive impairments and enhances learning. Treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists improves memory formation and impairment of synaptic plasticity observed in animal models of diabetes-obesity...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408736/diagnostic-evaluation-comorbidity-screening-and-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescents-in-three-specialty-clinics
#12
Meghna R Sebastian, Constance M Wiemann, Fida Bacha, Sharonda J Alston-Taylor
STUDY OBJECTIVE: A polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis in adolescence can have significant long-term health implications. The criteria for its diagnosis in adolescents have been subject to much debate. This study aimed to characterize the variability in diagnosis and management among different pediatric specialties. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: This is a retrospective review of electronic medical records of females (11 - 21 years old) who presented to three specialties (adolescent medicine (AM), pediatric endocrinology (ENDO), and gynecology (GYN)), with a post-visit diagnosis of PCOS, menstrual disorders, or hirsutism, at a large tertiary care center, from November 1, 2011- October 31, 2012...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371695/metformin-ameliorates-experimental-obesity-associated-autoimmune-arthritis-by-inducing-fgf21-expression-and-brown-adipocyte-differentiation
#13
Eun-Kyung Kim, Seung Hoon Lee, Seon-Young Lee, Jae-Kyung Kim, Joo Yeon Jhun, Hyun Sik Na, Se-Young Kim, Jong Young Choi, Chul Woo Yang, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease involving excessive inflammation. Recently, RA associated with a metabolic disorder was revealed to be non-responsive to RA medications. Metformin has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on RA and obesity. The aim of this investigation was to study the therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of metformin's action in an experimental model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) associated with obesity. Metformin was administered daily for 13 weeks to mice with CIA that had been fed a high-fat diet...
January 26, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358486/cellular-energy-sensing-and-metabolism-implications-for-treating-diabetes-the-2017-outstanding-scientific-achievement-award-lecture
#14
Gregory R Steinberg
The Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award recognizes distinguished scientific achievement in the field of diabetes, taking into consideration independence of thought and originality. Gregory R. Steinberg, PhD, professor of medicine, Canada Research Chair, J. Bruce Duncan Endowed Chair in Metabolic Diseases, and codirector of the Metabolism and Childhood Obesity Research Program at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, received the prestigious award at the American Diabetes Association's 77th Scientific Sessions, 9-13 June 2017, in San Diego, CA...
February 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345505/the-pharmacological-management-of-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Julie Rask Larsen, Lorena Dima, Christoph U Correll, Peter Manu
Introduction The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice...
January 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344438/new-therapeutic-approaches-in-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-associated-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathophysiological disorder affecting reproductive and metabolic indices. PCOS is commonly associated with a high prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity; this association carries an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification, metformin, hormonal contraceptives (HCs), and bariatric surgery as the main treatment options in obese patients with PCOS. Studies are being conducted to test the efficacy of existing treatment options as well as to discover new therapies...
November 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343628/keeping-the-home-fires-burning-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#17
REVIEW
D Grahame Hardie
Living cells obtain energy either by oxidizing reduced compounds of organic or mineral origin or by absorbing light. Whichever energy source is used, some of the energy released is conserved by converting adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which are analogous to the chemicals in a rechargeable battery. The energy released by the conversion of ATP back to ADP is used to drive most energy-requiring processes, including cell growth, cell division, communication and movement. It is clearly essential to life that the production and consumption of ATP are always maintained in balance, and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of the key cellular regulatory systems that ensures this...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340030/increased-efficacy-of-metformin-corresponds-to-differential-metabolic-effects-in-the-ovarian-tumors-from-obese-versus-lean-mice
#18
Jianjun Han, Weiya Z Wysham, Yan Zhong, Hui Guo, Lu Zhang, Kim M Malloy, Hallum K Dickens, Gene Huh, Douglas Lee, Liza Makowski, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
Obesity is a significant risk factor for ovarian cancer (OC) and associated with worse outcomes for this disease. We assessed the anti-tumorigenic effects of metformin in human OC cell lines and a genetically engineered mouse model of high grade serous OC under obese and lean conditions. Metformin potently inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner in all four human OC cell lines through AMPK/mTOR pathways. Treatment with metformin resulted in G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis, reduction of invasion and decreased hTERT expression...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317579/-metformin-reduces-plasma-triglycerides-in-ob-ob-obese-mice-via-inhibiting-the-hepatic-apoa5-expression
#19
Xiansheng Huang, Rong Li, Luzhu Chen, Wen Dai
To investigate the role of apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertriglyceridemia and the related therapeutic effects of metformin.
 Methods: The ob/ob mice were treated with regular chow diet and metformin for 4 weeks, and the levels of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and apoA5 were measured. Hepatic IAR20 cells were treated with metformin and/or apoA5 siRNAs, and then cellular TG contents and apoA5 expression were determined.
 Results: High plasma and hepatic levels of apoA5 and TG were found in ob/ob mice...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312569/metformin-improves-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-mice-via-down-regulation-of-apolipoprotein-a5-as-part-of-the-ampk-lxr%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#20
Min-Jie Lin, Wen Dai, Melanie J Scott, Rong Li, Yi-Qi Zhang, Yang Yang, Lu-Zhu Chen, Xian-Sheng Huang
Apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) has been implicated in the formation of hepatocyte lipid droplets, a histological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent evidence demonstrated that liver X receptor α (LXRα), a transcription factor involved in down-regulation of APOA5 mRNA, is activated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that contributes to metformin-related antihyperglycemic effects. In this study we investigated the role of apoA5 and AMPK/LXRα signaling pathway in metformin-related improvement of NAFLD...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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