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Metformin in obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436599/metformin-as-targeted-treatment-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
Angel Belle C Dy, Flora Tassone, Marwa Eldeeb, María J Salcedo-Arellano, Nicole Tartaglia, Randi Hagerman
Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) may be affected by several comorbid conditions, both behavioral and medical. Growth findings suggest that they are at an increased risk for obesity and overeating. The Prader-Willi phenotype (PWP) of FXS occurs in less than 10% of patients but it is associated with severe hyperphagia, lack of satiation and morbid obesity. Metformin is a drug used in individuals with high risk for diabetes type 2, obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. It has had a strong safety profile in children and adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432082/effect-of-oral-contraceptives-and-or-metformin-on-glp-1-secretion-and-reactive-hypoglycemia-in-pcos
#2
Dorte Glintborg, Hanne Mumm, Jens Juul Holst, Marianne Andersen
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may increase the risk of reactive hypoglycaemia (RH) and decrease glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The possible effects of treatment with oral contraceptives (OCP) and/or metformin on GLP-1 secretion and risk of RH in PCOS is undetermined. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety women with PCOS were randomized to 12 month treatment with OCP (150 mg desogestrel+30 microgram ethinylestradiol), metformin (2 g/day), or metformin +OCP...
April 21, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411689/moutan-cortex-and-paeoniae-radix-rubra-reverse-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-disorder-and-restore-gut-microbiota-homeostasis
#3
Ling-Jun Zhong, Zhi-Sheng Xie, Hua Yang, Ping Li, Xiao-Jun Xu
The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effcts of Moutan Cortex (CM, root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr) and Paeoniae Radix Rubra (PR, root of Paeonia veitchii Lynch) on metabolic disorders, focusing on the infuence of CM and PR on the obesity-related gut microbiota homeostasis. The diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model was used to test the therapeutic effects of CM and PR. The mice were orally administered with CM and PR for 6 weeks, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed to evaluate the insulin sensitivity of the mice...
March 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404960/impact-of-metformin-on-c-reactive-protein-levels-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis
#4
Yong Chen, Meng Li, Hongli Deng, Sheying Wang, Lihua Chen, Ningsha Li, Dan Xu, Qiguang Wang
The impact of the recommended first-line treatment with metformin on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting the impact of metformin on serum CRP levels in women with PCOS. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assesse the effects. GRADE approach was used to assesse the quality of the evidence. A total of 20 studies that included 433 women with PCOS were analyzed...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399917/metformin-and-sulodexide-restore-cardiac-microvascular-perfusion-capacity-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#5
Judith van Haare, M Eline Kooi, Jurgen W G E van Teeffelen, Hans Vink, Jos Slenter, Hanneke Cobelens, Gustav J Strijkers, Dennis Koehn, Mark J Post, Marc van Bilsen
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in coronary microcirculatory function, such as the endothelial glycocalyx, are early hallmarks in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, in the present study myocardial microcirculatory perfusion during rest and stress was assessed following metformin or sulodexide therapy in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Additionally, the effect of degradation of the glycocalyx on myocardial perfusion was assessed in chow-fed rats. METHODS: Rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and were divided into a group without therapy, and groups that received the anti-diabetic drug metformin or the glycocalyx-stabilizing drug sulodexide in their drinking water during the last 4 weeks of the feeding period...
April 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392139/metformin-improves-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-b-cell-function-in-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Thomas Vazquez, Suzanne Lechner, Bonnie B Blomberg, Daniela Frasca
Metformin (MET), the first-line medication for Type-2 Diabetes (T2D), has been shown to reduce chronic inflammation indirectly through reduction of hyperglycemia, or directly acting as anti-inflammatory drug. The effects of MET on B lymphocytes is uncharacterized. In the present study, we measured in vivo and in vitro influenza vaccine responses in 2 groups of T2D patients: recently diagnosed but not taking anti-diabetic drugs, and patients taking MET. Results show that B cell function and vaccine responses, hampered by obesity and T2D, are recovered by MET...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389241/inhibition-of-src-homology-2-domain-containing-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-as-the-possible-mechanism-of-metformin-assisted-amelioration-of-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-fed-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Yadhu Sharma, Samina Bashir, Ansarullah, Mohemmed Faraz Khan, Altaf Ahmad, Farah Khan
SHP-1 (Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase) is a known negative regulator of insulin signaling and inflammation. To date, the molecular mechanism of metformin in modulating SHP-1 expression has remained elusive. In the present study, we have investigated the role of SHP-1 in relation to anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory actions of metformin in an obese phenotype mouse model. We observed that metformin treatment significantly reduced SHP-1 activity in obese mice, leading to improved insulin sensitivity...
May 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385910/metformin-reduces-prostate-tumor-growth-in-a-diet-dependent-manner-by-modulating-multiple-signaling-pathways
#8
Andre Sarmento-Cabral, Fernando L-Lopez, Manuel D Gahete, Justo P Castano, Raul M Luque
Prostate-cancer is strongly influenced by obesity, wherein metformin could represent a promising treatment; however, the endocrine-metabolic/cellular/molecular-mechanisms underlying these associations and effects are still unclear. To determine the beneficial anti-tumoral effects of metformin on prostate-cancer progression/aggressiveness and the relative contribution of high-fat diet (HFD; independently of obesity), we used HFD-fed immuno-suppressed mice inoculated with PC3 cells (which exhibited partial resistance to diet-induced obesity) compared with low-fat diet (LFD)-fed control-mice...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375099/beneficial-effects-of-sitagliptin-and-metformin-in-non-diabetic-hypertensive-and-dyslipidemic-patients
#9
Mazhar Hussain, Moazzam Ali Atif, Muhammad Bilal R Ghafoor
Obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and its associated complications. To evaluate the beneficial effects of sitagliptin and metformin in non-diabetic dyslipidemic and hypertensive patients. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 newly diagnosed dyslipidemic patients with BMI > 25 and blood pressure > 130/80 at outpatient clinic of medical unit-1 of Sheikh Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan. They were divided in to three groups each containing 35 patients; First group served as a healthy control while second and third study groups were given tablet sitagliptin 50mg and tab metformin 850mg respectively twice a day for twelve weeks...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373404/precancer-atlas-to-drive-precision-prevention-trials
#10
Avrum Spira, Matthew B Yurgelun, Ludmil Alexandrov, Anjana Rao, Rafael Bejar, Kornelia Polyak, Marios Giannakis, Ali Shilatifard, Olivera J Finn, Madhav Dhodapkar, Neil E Kay, Esteban Braggio, Eduardo Vilar, Sarah A Mazzilli, Timothy R Rebbeck, Judy E Garber, Victor E Velculescu, Mary L Disis, Douglas C Wallace, Scott M Lippman
Cancer development is a complex process driven by inherited and acquired molecular and cellular alterations. Prevention is the holy grail of cancer elimination, but making this a reality will take a fundamental rethinking and deep understanding of premalignant biology. In this Perspective, we propose a national concerted effort to create a Precancer Atlas (PCA), integrating multi-omics and immunity - basic tenets of the neoplastic process. The biology of neoplasia caused by germline mutations has led to paradigm-changing precision prevention efforts, including: tumor testing for mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in Lynch syndrome establishing a new paradigm, combinatorial chemoprevention efficacy in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), signal of benefit from imaging-based early detection research in high-germline risk for pancreatic neoplasia, elucidating early ontogeny in BRCA1-mutation carriers leading to an international breast cancer prevention trial, and insights into the intricate germline-somatic-immunity interaction landscape...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367163/therapeutic-effects-of-metformin-and-clomiphene-in-combination-with-lifestyle-intervention-on-infertility-in-women-with-obese-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#11
Jing Zhang, Qinqin Si, Jinqiong Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of metformin and clomiphene in combination with lifestyle adjustment on infertility in women with obese polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A total of 101 infertile women with obese PCOS admitted to our hospital from July 2013 to July 2015 were randomly divided into an observation group (n=51) and a control group (n=50). The control group was treated with metformin plus clomiphene, based on which the observation group was also subjected to lifestyle adjustment...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359101/treatment-of-pediatric-obesity-an-umbrella-systematic-review
#12
Tamim Rajjo, Khaled Mohammed, Mouaz Alsawas, Ahmed T Ahmed, Wigdan Farah, Noor Asi, Jehad Almasri, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad
Objective: Multiple interventions are available to reduce excess body weight in children. We appraised the quality of evidence supporting each intervention and assessed the effectiveness on different obesity-related outcomes. Methods: We conducted a systematic search for systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating pediatric obesity interventions applied for ≥6 months. We assessed the quality of evidence for each intervention using GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351720/estradiol-effects-on-hypothalamic-ampk-and-bat-thermogenesis-a-gateway-for-obesity-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Miguel López, Manuel Tena-Sempere
In addition to their prominent roles in the control of reproduction, estrogens are important modulators of energy balance, as evident in conditions of deficiency of estrogens, which are characterized by increased feeding and decreased energy expenditure, leading to obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitous cellular energy gauge that is activated under conditions of low energy, increasing energy production and reducing energy wasting. Centrally, the AMPK pathway is a canonical route regulating energy homeostasis, by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with neuronal networks...
March 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347542/managing-obesity-in-pregnancy-an-obstetric-and-midwifery-perspective
#14
Jodie M Dodd, Annette L Briley
Overweight and obesity during pregnancy and childbirth represent a significant health burden, placing women and their infants at increased risk of almost all documented adverse outcomes. Research efforts have focused on strategies to limit gestational weight gain, including dietary and lifestyle interventions, as well as the use of adjuvant therapies such as metformin. However, there remain many barriers to behavioural change for women during pregnancy, and current care recommendations largely reflect good clinical practice, rather than being based on strong evidence...
March 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334683/combined-metformin-and-insulin-treatment-reverses-metabolically-impaired-omental-adipogenesis-and-accumulation-of-4-hydroxynonenal-in-obese-diabetic-patients
#15
Morana Jaganjac, Shamma Almuraikhy, Fatima Al-Khelaifi, Mashael Al-Jaber, Moataz Bashah, Nayef A Mazloum, Kamelija Zarkovic, Neven Zarkovic, Georg Waeg, Wael Kafienah, Mohamed A Elrayess
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-associated impaired fat accumulation in the visceral adipose tissue can lead to ectopic fat deposition and increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated whether impaired adipogenesis of omental (OM) adipose tissues and elevated 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) accumulation contribute to this process, and if combined metformin and insulin treatment in T2DM patients could rescue this phenotype. METHODS: OM adipose tissues were obtained from forty clinically well characterized obese individuals during weight reduction surgery...
March 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330386/the-effects-of-dual-therapy-intensification-with-insulin-or-dipeptidylpeptidase-4-inhibitor-on-cardiovascular-events-and-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Mamza Jil, Mehta Rajnikant, Donnelly Richard, Idris Iskandar
PURPOSE: To compare time to a composite endpoint of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had their treatment intensified with a dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor or insulin following dual-therapy (metformin plus sulfonylurea) failure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 5238 patients newly treated with either a dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor or insulin following dual-therapy failure (2007-2014)...
March 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323503/add-on-dpp-4-inhibitor-alogliptin-alone-or-in-combination-with-pioglitazone-improved-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-metformin-treated-pcos
#17
Mojca Jensterle, Katja Goricar, Andrej Janez
PURPOSE: Impaired β-cell function remains unaddressed in PCOS. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor alogliptin (ALO) alone or in combination with pioglitazone (PIO) improves β-cell function along with insulin resistance (IR) in metformin (MET) treated obese women with PCOS with persistent IR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12-week randomized study, ALO 25 mg QD (n=15) or ALO 25 mg QD and PIO 30 mg QD (n=15) was added to MET 1000 mg BID in PCOS women (aged 34...
March 21, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317764/cucurbitane-glycosides-from-the-fruit-of-siraitia-grosvenori-and-their-effects-on-glucose-uptake-in-human-hepg2-cells-in-vitro
#18
Fu Li, Fumei Yang, Xin Liu, Lun Wang, Bin Chen, Lianhong Li, Mingkui Wang
The mogrosides in the fruit of Siraitia grosvenori can serve as a sugar substitute for diabetics due to their sweetness, low calorie and positive effects on blood glucose level control. The present study was to purify the mogrosides from the fruit of S. grosvenori and evaluate their enhancement of glucose uptake rate in HepG2 cells in vitro. As a result, eighteen mogrosides were isolated, including six new ones and a known but new naturally occurring compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were identified by 1D, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques, together with chemical methods...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290049/type-2-diabetes-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-factors-and-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
P Wainwright, E Scorletti, C D Byrne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to assess the epidemiological evidence for a link between type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma and to investigate possible pathophysiological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: The presence of type 2 diabetes significantly increases the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, and treatment with metformin may be associated with a lower risk. Treatment with insulin and sulphonylureas may be associated with increased risk...
April 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276972/pharmacotherapy-of-treatment-resistant-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) management offers a variety of pharmacological interventions targeting different defects, numerous patients remain with persistent hyperglycaemia responsible for severe complications. Unlike resistant hypertension, treatment resistant T2D is not a classical concept although it is a rather common observation in clinical practice. Areas covered: This article proposes a definition for 'treatment resistant diabetes', analyses the causes of poor glucose control despite standard therapy, briefly considers the alternative approaches to glucose-lowering pharmacotherapy and finally describes how to overcome poor glycaemic control, using innovative oral or injectable combination therapies...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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