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schizophrenia differential diagnoses

Johann Steiner, Harald Prüss, Stephan Köhler, Thomas Frodl, Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite intensive research, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders continue to be theoretical constructs that describe clinical syndromes and no pathophysiologically defined diseases. Moreover, there are no clear biomarkers at hand. Therefore, these diagnoses are still set up based on clinical ICD-10 / DSM-5 criteria and the exclusion of alcohol- / drug-associated, systemic or other brain organic causes. METHODS: Recently, autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as rare, but potentially treatable differential diagnosis...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Petros Ntounas, Alexandra Katsouli, Vasiliki Efstathiou, Dimitris Pappas, Pythagoras Chatzimanolis, Charalampos Touloumis, Charalampos Papageorgiou, Athanassios Douzenis
This cross sectional study aimed to compare the differences in psychopathology of Greek homicide and homicide attempters, patients with schizophrenia, with non violent individuals, suffering from schizophrenia. The study compared three Groups of 220 men, diagnosed with schizophrenia: (a) Group Α (Schizophrenia - No violence, (b) Group Β (Schizophrenia - with violence or violent crime), (c) Group C (Schizophrenia - not guilty by reason of insanity - violent crime). Several psychometric tools were used, such as M...
September 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Yvonne Lee, Erica Winnicki, Lavjay Butani, Stephanie Nguyen
Psychogenic polydipsia is a well-described phenomenon in those with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. Primary polydipsia is differentiated from psychogenic polydipsia by the lack of a clear psychotic disturbance. We present a case of a 27-month-old boy who presented with polyuria and polydipsia. Laboratory studies, imaging, and an observed water deprivation test were consistent with primary polydipsia. Polydipsia resolved after family limited his fluid intake and began replacing water drinking with other transition objects and behaviors for self-soothing...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Michael S Broder, Mallik Greene, Eunice Chang, Ann Hartry, Maëlys Touya, Jennifer Munday, Tingjian Yan
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are typically viewed as nonconcurrent psychiatric disorders, yet patients may experience mood and SCZ symptoms simultaneously. Several studies have shown overlap between SCZ and BD symptoms and susceptibility genes. This study explored the following: (1) patterns of administrative claims; (2) demographic characteristics and comorbidities; (3) health care resource use; and (4) health care costs in patients with diagnoses of SCZ, type I BD (BD-I), and both in a real-world setting...
September 4, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Kalman J Kaplan, Martin Harrow
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between suicide and social class has proved to be complex. Durkheim predicted suicide rate would increase with social status, while others thought the opposite. Results have been mixed. In some studies, suicidality has increased with increasing social status, and in other studies, the two variables have had an inverse relationship. These studies have been primarily conducted on general non-psychiatric populations Methods: The present study, in contrast, examines this relationship on a twenty-year prospective longitudinal sample of 400 psychiatric patients (differentiated by psychiatric diagnosis) after index hospitalization...
August 28, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Cunyan Li, Huai Tao, Xiudeng Yang, Xianghui Zhang, Yong Liu, Yamei Tang, Aiguo Tang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a devastating psychiatric disorder. Validation of potential serum biomarkers during first-episode psychosis (FEP) is especially helpful to understand the onset and prognosis of this disorder. To address this question, we examined multiple blood biomarkers and assessed the efficacy to diagnose SZ. The expression levels of Neuregulin1 (NRG1), ErbB4, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1) and ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) proteins in peripheral blood of 53 FEP patients and 57 healthy controls were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Doron Amsalem, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Doron Gothelf, David Roe
OBJECTIVE: Subtle expressions of stigmata or microaggressions consist of insensitive and demeaning remarks or statements which negate an individual's perception of their reality. They are differentiated from more traditional and overt forms of discrimination in that they are often voiced by well-intentioned individuals who are unaware of the negative underpinnings and potentially harmful effects of their comments. This study aimed to explore the subjective experience of stigma and macroaggression among consumers and their family members during their encounters with mental health care providers...
September 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Marquis Philip Vawter, Robert Philibert, Brandi Rollins, Patricia L Ruppel, Terry W Osborn
This study developed potential blood-based biomarker tests for diagnosing and differentiating schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder type I (BD), and normal control (NC) subjects using mRNA gene expression signatures. A total of 90 subjects ( n = 30 each for the three groups of subjects) provided blood samples at two visits. The Affymetrix exon microarray was used to profile the expression of over 1.4 million probesets. We selected potential biomarker panels using the temporal stability of the probesets and also back-tested them at two different visits for each subject...
May 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Jason Smucny, Tyler A Lesh, Ana-Maria Iosif, Tara A Niendam, Laura M Tully, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive impairment, particularly in the domain of cognitive control, is characteristic of schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum and bipolar disorders (BDs). The longitudinal trajectory of these impairments, however, remains unclear. Indeed, some studies have observed degeneration and others stability or even improvement over time in these illnesses. Here we examined the longitudinal stability of the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT), a cognitive control task, in 52 patients with recent-onset SZ (<2 years from first study measurement), 20 patients with recent-onset BD Type I with psychotic features, and 70 healthy control subjects...
November 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Leonid O Bryzgalov, Elena E Korbolina, Ilja I Brusentsov, Elena Y Leberfarb, Natalia P Bondar, Tatiana I Merkulova
BACKGROUND: A challenge of understanding the mechanisms underlying cognition including neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders is mainly given by the potential severity of cognitive disorders for the quality of life and their prevalence. However, the field has been focused predominantly on protein coding variation until recently. Given the importance of tightly controlled gene expression for normal brain function, the goal of the study was to assess the functional variation including non-coding variation in human genome that is likely to play an important role in cognitive functions...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, José Pinto-Gouveia, Ermelindo Peixoto
BACKGROUND: Social experiences have a significant impact on cognitive functioning and appraisals of social interactions. Specifically, recalls of antipathy from parents, submissiveness, and bullying during childhood can have a significant influence on paranoid ideation later in life. METHOD: Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was performed on a sample of 91 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in remission and active phase, their first-degree relatives (n = 32) and unaffected controls (n = 64)...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Kristen M Ward, Larisa Yeoman, Cora McHugh, A Zarina Kraal, Stephanie A Flowers, Amy E Rothberg, Alla Karnovsky, Arun K Das, Vicki L Ellingrod, Kathleen A Stringer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia are known to have higher rates of metabolic disease than the general population. Contributing factors likely include lifestyle and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) use, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study was to identify metabolomic variability in adult patients with schizophrenia who were taking AAPs and grouped by fasting insulin concentration, our surrogate marker for metabolic risk. DESIGN: Metabolomics analysis PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-four adult patients with schizophrenia who were taking an AAP for at least 6 months, with no changes in their antipsychotic regimen for the previous 8 weeks, and who did not require treatment with insulin, participated in the study...
June 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Sally Al Abdulmohsen, Ayman Ayoubi, Sadeq Al-Dandan
A 44-year-old male with schizophrenia presented with progressive right proptosis for one year and conjunctivitis for two months. An orbital cyst was seen in the superotemporal region on computerized tomography and was surgically removed. There was no history or radiological signs of paranasal sinus disease or previous trauma. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a cyst lined with respiratory epithelium. Respiratory choristomatous cysts of the orbit are considered rare in both pediatric and adult patients. We review the literature of respiratory orbital cysts and conclude that they tend to present in adults and should be considered in the differential diagnoses of orbital cysts...
2018: Case Reports in Pathology
H Duclos, B Desgranges, F Eustache, M Laisney
Social cognition is impaired in a large number of neurological afflictions, including neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodevelopmental syndromes, and has become a significant element in differential diagnoses. This report describes the different processes involved in social cognition and the way in which they work together to allow adapted behaviors. This is then followed by the numerous clinical symptoms of social behavioral disturbances and social cognition performance in different neurological afflictions such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia...
April 2018: Revue Neurologique
Dominic B Dwyer, Carlos Cabral, Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Rachele Sanfelici, Joseph Kambeitz, Vince Calhoun, Peter Falkai, Christos Pantelis, Eva Meisenzahl, Nikolaos Koutsouleris
Identifying distinctive subtypes of schizophrenia could ultimately enhance diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. We aimed to uncover neuroanatomical subtypes of chronic schizophrenia patients to test whether stratification can enhance computer-aided discrimination of patients from control subjects. Unsupervised, data-driven clustering of structural MRI (sMRI) data was used to identify 2 subtypes of schizophrenia patients drawn from a US-based open science repository (n = 71) and we quantified classification improvements compared to controls (n = 74) using supervised machine learning...
August 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Sarah Salamon, Hanno Santelmann, Jeremy Franklin, Christopher Baethge
OBJECTIVES: Reliability of schizoaffective disorder (SAD) diagnoses is low in adults but unclear in children and adolescents (CAD). We estimate the test-retest reliability of SAD and its key differential diagnoses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression). METHODS: Systematic literature search of Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo for studies on test-retest reliability of SAD, in CAD. Cohen's kappa was extracted from studies. We performed meta-analysis for kappa, including subgroup and sensitivity analysis (PROSPERO protocol: CRD42013006713)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sorin Hostiuc, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Ionut Negoi, Eduard Drima
BACKGROUND: The process of assessing the decision-making capacity of potential subjects before their inclusion in clinical trials is a legal requirement and a moral obligation, as it is essential for respecting their autonomy. This issue is especially important in psychiatry patients (such as those diagnosed with schizophrenia). The primary purpose of this article was to evaluate the degree of impairment in each dimension of decision-making capacity in schizophrenia patients compared to non-mentally-ill controls, as quantified by the (MacCAT-CR) instrument...
January 5, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Gilad Gal, Hanan Munitz, Itzhak Levav
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown health care disparities among persons of minority status, including in countries with universal health care. Yet, a dearth of studies have addressed disparities resulting from the combined effect of two minority status groups: severe mental illness and ethnic-national sector filiation. This study aimed to compare the differential health care of Jewish- and Arab-Israelis with schizophrenia in a country with a universal health insurance. METHOD: This study builds on a large case-control epidemiological sample (N = 50,499) of Jewish- (92...
October 15, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
A Starnawska, C S Hansen, T Sparsø, W Mazin, L Olsen, M Bertalan, A Buil, J Bybjerg-Grauholm, M Bækvad-Hansen, D M Hougaard, P B Mortensen, C B Pedersen, M Nyegaard, T Werge, S Weinsheimer
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of comorbid mental disorders including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, as well as intellectual disability. Although most 22q11.2 deletion carriers have the long 3-Mb form of the hemizygous deletion, there remains a large variation in the development and progression of psychiatric disorders, which suggests that alternative factors contribute to the pathogenesis. In this study we investigated whether neonatal DNA methylation signatures in individuals with the 22q11...
August 29, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
Geeske van Rooijen, Adela-Maria Isvoranu, Olle H Kruijt, Claudia D van Borkulo, Carin J Meijer, Johanna T W Wigman, Henricus G Ruhé, Lieuwe de Haan
Depressive symptoms occur frequently in patients with schizophrenia. Several factor analytical studies investigated the associations between positive, negative and depressive symptoms and reported difficulties differentiating between these symptom domains. Here, we argue that a network approach may offer insights into these associations, by exploring interrelations between symptoms. The aims of current study were to I) construct a network of positive, negative and depressive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia to investigate interactions between individual symptoms; II) identify the most central symptoms within this network and III) examine group-level differences in network connectivity between remitted and non-remitted patients...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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