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Artificial organs

Olivia Langhamer, Håkon Holand, Gunilla Rosenqvist
Worldwide growth of offshore renewable energy production will provide marine organisms with new hard substrate for colonization in terms of artificial reefs. The artificial reef effect is important when planning offshore installations since it can create habitat enhancement. Wind power is the most advanced technology within offshore renewable energy sources and there is an urgent need to study its impacts on the marine environment. To test the hypothesis that offshore wind power increases the abundance of reef species relative to a reference area, we conduct an experiment on the model species common shore crab (Carcinus maenas)...
2016: PloS One
Tânia F C V Silva, Petrick A Soares, Diego R Manenti, Amélia Fonseca, Isabel Saraiva, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Fumiaki Shima, Hirokazu Narita, Ayami Hiura, Hiroshi Shimoda, Mitsuru Akashi
There is considerable global demand for three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues which mimic our native organs and tissues for use as in vitro drug screening systems and in regenerative medicine. In particular, there has been an increasing number of patients who suffer from arterial diseases such as arteriosclerosis. As such, in vitro 3D arterial wall models that can evaluate the effects of novel medicines and a novel artificial graft for the treatment are required. In our previous study, we reported the rapid construction of 3D tissues by employing a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique and revealed their potential applications in the pharmaceutical fields and tissue engineering...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Elizabeth A Gonzalez, Poulomi Nandy, Anne D Lucas, Victoria M Hitchins
Cleaning reusable medical devices removes organic and inorganic soil, which allows for effective disinfection and sterilization. However, it is not always clear what variables to consider when validating cleaning. This study compared the ability of 3 different cleaning agents (ie, water, alcohol, and bleach) to remove bacteria (ie, vegetative and spores) and artificial blood test soil from 2 common device materials: polypropylene and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. There was a complex interaction between bacteria, soil, and surface roughness...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Matthew Jacobs, Martin Lopez-Garcia, O-Phart Phrathep, Tracy Lawson, Ruth Oulton, Heather M Whitney
Enhanced light harvesting is an area of interest for optimizing both natural photosynthesis and artificial solar energy capture(1,2). Iridescence has been shown to exist widely and in diverse forms in plants and other photosynthetic organisms and symbioses(3,4), but there has yet to be any direct link demonstrated between iridescence and photosynthesis. Here we show that epidermal chloroplasts, also known as iridoplasts, in shade-dwelling species of Begonia(5), notable for their brilliant blue iridescence, have a photonic crystal structure formed from a periodic arrangement of the light-absorbing thylakoid tissue itself...
October 24, 2016: Nature Plants
Minoo Heidari Kani, Eng-Cheng Chan, Roger C Young, Trent Butler, Roger Smith, Jonathan W Paul
Research insights into uterine function and the mechanisms of labour have been hindered by the lack of suitable animal and cellular models. The use of traditional culturing methods limits the exploration of complex uterine functions, such as cell interactions, connectivity and contractile behaviour, as it fails to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) nature of uterine cell interactions in vivo. Animal models are an option, however, use of these models is constrained by ethical considerations as well as translational limitations to humans...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hongqin Song, Dandan Liu, Jinjun Xu, Lili Wu, Yabin Dai, Mei Liu, Jianping Tao
Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10(4), 1 × 10(4), or 100 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
N Rostami, R C Shields, S A Yassin, A R Hawkins, L Bowen, T L Luo, A H Rickard, R Holliday, P M Preshaw, N S Jakubovics
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been identified in the matrix of many different monospecies biofilms in vitro, including some of those produced by oral bacteria. In many cases, eDNA stabilizes the structure of monospecies biofilms. Here, the authors aimed to determine whether eDNA is an important component of natural, mixed-species oral biofilms, such as plaque on natural teeth or dental implants. To visualize eDNA in oral biofilms, approaches for fluorescently stained eDNA with either anti-DNA antibodies or an ultrasensitive cell-impermeant dye, YOYO-1, were first developed using Enterococcus faecalis, an organism that has previously been shown to produce extensive eDNA structures within biofilms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Céline Pasian, Raymond Azar, Denis Fouque
Protein energy wasting (PEW) is an independent factor associated with morbi-mortality in chronic kidney disease. Wasting is particularly common in chronic diseases of organs such as kidney disease with a major impact at the stage of dialysis. It covers 20 to 70% of patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease according to the degree of evolution of the disease and the diagnostic method used patients. Mechanisms of PEW are based mainly on anorexia and metabolic abnormalities caused by kidney disease. Nutritional treatment differs depending on the stage of the kidney disease acute or chronic treated whether or not by dialysis...
October 17, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Nabil Killiny
Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these two plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis...
October 20, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tiele Caprioli Machado, Marla Azário Lansarin
The hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), which is generated in the electroplating process, is toxic to most organisms and potentially harmful to human health. The method generally used for remediation of wastewater containing Cr(VI) employs chemicals with high toxicity. This work proposes an alternative technology for the treatment of these wastewaters, based on photochemical reduction of Cr(VI) by alcohols under radiation, which is environmentally sustainable and economically viable. Initially, a batch reactor in laboratory scale was used to determine the best experimental conditions and its specific reaction rate was calculated...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yinjun Zhao, Aizhong Ding
River classification is a very useful tool for river management yet still a difficult task. This paper proposed a new decision classifier (DCF) to classify rivers for Chinese river management based on existing classification systems. Aimed at river function management, the DCF with the five-layers frame was developed on reach level in a spatially nested pattern that from top to bottom are natural province, basin, valley, reach, habitat and microhabitat. Five indexes (artificial degree, closeness, sinuosity, bed material texture, geomorphic units (GUs)) were selected and organized into the DCF according to the importance of the influence on river structure from macro to micro, large to small and top to bottom, because they represent main aspects of river structures and are easy to obtain...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Laiyuan Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Jinyi Lin, Jie Yang, Linghai Xie, Mingdong Yi, Wen Li, Haifeng Ling, Changjin Ou, Wei Huang
Most simulations of neuroplasticity in memristors, which are potentially used to develop artificial synapses, are confined to the basic biological Hebbian rules. However, the simplex rules potentially can induce excessive excitation/inhibition, even collapse of neural activities, because they neglect the properties of long-term homeostasis involved in the frameworks of realistic neural networks. Here, we develop organic CuPc-based memristors of which excitatory and inhibitory conductivities can implement both Hebbian rules and homeostatic plasticity, complementary to Hebbian patterns and conductive to the long-term homeostasis...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guilhem Sommeria-Klein, Lucie Zinger, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac, Jérôme Chave
The DNA present in the environment is a unique and increasingly exploited source of information for conducting fast and standardized biodiversity assessments for any type of organisms. The datasets resulting from these surveys are however rarely compared to the quantitative predictions of biodiversity models. In this study, we simulate neutral taxa-abundance datasets, and artificially noise them by simulating noise terms typical of DNA-based biodiversity surveys. The resulting noised taxa abundances are used to assess whether the two parameters of Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity can still be estimated...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mingming Wang, Wei Zhan
The grand scale, ultimate efficiency, and sustainability of natural photosynthesis have inspired generations of researchers in biomimetic light energy utilization. As an essential and ubiquitous component in all photosynthetic machinery, lipids and their assemblies have long been recognized as powerful molecular scaffolds in building artificial photosynthetic systems. Model lipid bilayers, such as black lipid membranes and liposomes (vesicles), have been extensively used to host natural as well as synthetic photo- and redox-active species, thereby enabling key photosynthetic processes, such as energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer, to be examined in well-defined, natural-like membrane settings...
October 19, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yoshihiko Imanaka, Toshihisa Anazawa, Toshio Manabe, Hideyuki Amada, Sachio Ido, Fumiaki Kumasaka, Naoki Awaji, Gabriel Sánchez-Santolino, Ryo Ishikawa, Yuichi Ikuhara
The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Punam Dalai, Hannes Lukas Pleyer, Henry Strasdeit, Stefan Fox
On the Hadean-Early Archean Earth, the first islands must have provided hot and dry environments for abiotically formed organic molecules. The heat sources, mainly volcanism and meteorite impacts, were also available on Mars during the Noachian period. In recent work simulating this scenario, we have shown that neat glycine forms a black, sparingly water-soluble polymer ("thermomelanoid") when dry-heated at 200 °C under pure nitrogen. The present study explores whether relevant minerals and mineral mixtures can change this thermal behavior...
October 18, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Stefan C Weiss, Nicole Egetenmeyer, Wolfgang Schulz
Modern analytical test methods increasingly detect anthropogenic organic substances and their transformation products in water samples and in the environment. The presence of these compounds might pose a risk to the aquatic environment. To determine a possible (eco)toxicological risk, aquatic samples are tested using various bioassays, including sub-organismic assays such as the luminescent bacteria inhibition test, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, and the umu-test. The effect-directed analysis (EDA) combines physicochemical separation methods with biological (in vitro) tests...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Hans Lehrach
Every human is unique. We differ in our genomes, environment, behavior, disease history, and past and current medical treatment-a complex catalog of differences that often leads to variations in the way each of us responds to a particular therapy. We argue here that true personalization of drug therapies will rely on "virtual patient" models based on a detailed characterization of the individual patient by molecular, imaging, and sensor techniques. The models will be based, wherever possible, on the molecular mechanisms of disease processes and drug action but can also expand to hybrid models including statistics/machine learning/artificial intelligence-based elements trained on available data to address therapeutic areas or therapies for which insufficient information on mechanisms is available...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Alejandra Itzel González-Ramírez, Adrián Ramírez-Granillo, María Gabriela Medina-Canales, Aída Verónica Rodríguez-Tovar, María Angeles Martínez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are a highly structured consortia of microorganisms that adhere to a substrate and are encased within an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is produced by the organisms themselves. Aspergillus fumigatus is a biotechnological fungus that has a medical and phytopathogenic significance, and its biofilm occurs in both natural and artificial environments; therefore, studies on the stages observed in biofilm formation are of great significance due to the limited knowledge that exists on this specific topic and because there are multiple applications that are being carried out...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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