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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930917/shock-2017-military-supplement-an-overview-of-two-human-trials-of-perfluorocarbon-emulsions-in-non-cardiac-surgery
#1
Donat R Spahn, Peter E Keipert
Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) constitute one class of artificial oxygen carriers that are being produced completely synthetically. One formulation that has been evaluated extensively in clinical trials is a 60% w/v perflubron-based emulsion. Efficacy and safety of this perflubron emulsion was evaluated in a Phase 2 and a large prospective randomized Phase 3 multicenter European study, which collectively included a total of 639 patients. Perflubron emulsion was highly successful in improving organ function, reversing physiologic transfusion triggers and in reducing the need for allogeneic blood transfusions...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928941/computational-design-of-molecular-motors-as-nanocircuits-in-leishmaniasis
#2
Dipali Kosey, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of lesihmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major and is spread by the bite of a sandfly .This species infects the macrophages and dendritic cells Due to multi-drug resistance, there is a need for a new therapeutic technique. Recently, a novel molecular motor of Leishmania, Myosin XXI, was classified and characterized. In addition, the drug resistance in this organism has been linked with the overexpression of ABC transporters. Systems biology aims to study the simulation and modeling of natural biological systems whereas synthetic biology deals with building novel and artificial biological parts and devices  Together they have contributed enormously to drug discovery, vaccine design and development, infectious disease detection and diagnostics...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927305/discovery-and-application-of-immune-biomarkers-for-hematological-malignancies
#3
Dimitrios Zafeiris, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Sarah Wagner, Alan Graham Pockley, Graham Roy Ball, Sergio Rutella
Hematological malignancies originate and progress in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, where they establish a uniquely immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment. Although high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are being employed to interrogate immune surveillance and escape mechanisms in patients with solid tumours, and to identify actionable targets for immunotherapy, our knowledge of the immunological landscape of hematological malignancies, as well as our understanding of the molecular circuits that underpin the establishment of immune tolerance, is not comprehensive...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920389/-research-progress-in-multi-enzyme-regulation-of-genetically-engineered-bacteria-producing-lycopene
#4
Jiali Xu, Siyi Zuo, Chengjia Xie, Ling Jiang, Shuang Li, He Huang, Xian Xu
Lycopene plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis pathway of 2-methyl-derythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) and mevalonic acid (MVA). It is a representative product of isoprenoid family, and a typical product of multi-enzyme catalytic reaction in organism. In this paper, we first introduced the general regulation methods in multi-enzyme synthesis reaction, including the construction of multi gene co-expression plasmid, gene order regulation, promoter and ribosome binding site regulation, gene knockout and replacement, aiming at the optimization strategies of multi-enzyme catalytic reaction in lycopene synthesis pathway...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920010/exploring-step-by-step-assembly-of-nanoparticle-cytochrome-biohybrid-photoanodes
#5
Ee Taek Hwang, Katherine L Orchard, Daisuke Hojo, Joseph Beton, Colin W J Lockwood, Tadafumi Adschiri, Julea N Butt, Erwin Reisner, Lars J C Jeuken
Coupling light-harvesting semiconducting nanoparticles (NPs) with redox enzymes has been shown to create artificial photosynthetic systems that hold promise for the synthesis of solar fuels. High quantum yields require efficient electron transfer from the nanoparticle to the redox protein, a property that can be difficult to control. Here, we have compared binding and electron transfer between dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystals or CdS quantum dots and two decaheme cytochromes on photoanodes. The effect of NP surface chemistry was assessed by preparing NPs capped with amine or carboxylic acid functionalities...
August 2017: ChemElectroChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917780/quantifying-biodegradable-organic-matter-in-polluted-water-on-the-basis-of-coulombic-yield
#6
Yuan Liu, Ai-Xue Tuo, Xiao-Jun Jin, Xiang-Zhong Li, Hong Liu
Biodegradable organic matter (BOM) in polluted water plays a key role in various biological purification technologies. The five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) index is often used to determine the amount of BOM. However, standard BOD5 assays, centering on dissolved oxygen detection, have long testing times and often show severe deviation (error ≥ 15%). In the present study, the coulombic yield (Q) of a bio-electrochemical degradation process was determined, and a new index for BOM quantification was proposed...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915407/differentiation-and-sarcomere-formation-in-skeletal-myocytes-directly-prepared-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-sphere-based-culture
#7
Saowanee Jiwlawat, Eileen Lynch, Jennifer Glaser, Ivy Smit-Oistad, Jeremy Jeffrey, Jonathan M Van Dyke, Masatoshi Suzuki
Human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising resource for propagation of myogenic progenitors. Our group recently reported a unique protocol for the derivation of myogenic progenitors directly (without genetic modification) from human pluripotent cells using free-floating spherical culture. Here we expand our previous efforts and attempt to determine how differentiation duration, culture surface coatings, and nutrient supplements in the medium influence progenitor differentiation and formation of skeletal myotubes containing sarcomeric structures...
August 1, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912891/bioengineering-of-artificial-antigen-presenting-cells-and-lymphoid-organs
#8
REVIEW
Chao Wang, Wujin Sun, Yanqi Ye, Hunter N Bomba, Zhen Gu
The immune system protects the body against a wide range of infectious diseases and cancer by leveraging the efficiency of immune cells and lymphoid organs. Over the past decade, immune cell/organ therapies based on the manipulation, infusion, and implantation of autologous or allogeneic immune cells/organs into patients have been widely tested and have made great progress in clinical applications. Despite these advances, therapy with natural immune cells or lymphoid organs is relatively expensive and time-consuming...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912832/unique-organization-and-unprecedented-diversity-of-the-bacteroides-pseudobacteroides-cellulosolvens-cellulosome-system
#9
Olga Zhivin, Bareket Dassa, Sarah Moraïs, Sagar M Utturkar, Steven D Brown, Bernard Henrissat, Raphael Lamed, Edward A Bayer
BACKGROUND: (Pseudo) Bacteroides cellulosolvens is an anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic, cellulosome-producing clostridial bacterium capable of utilizing cellulose and cellobiose as carbon sources. Recently, we sequenced the B. cellulosolvens genome, and subsequent comprehensive bioinformatic analysis, herein reported, revealed an unprecedented number of cellulosome-related components, including 78 cohesin modules scattered among 31 scaffoldins and more than 200 dockerin-bearing ORFs...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910802/effects-of-expanded-hemodialysis-therapy-on-clinical-outcomes
#10
Sandip Mitra, Kunaal Kharbanda
The invention of dialysis has been a phenomenal advance in the treatment of kidney failure. The introduction of artificial kidneys in clinical care remains one of the most successful lifesaving interventions in modern medicine. Its glory, however, has been tempered by poor long-term outcomes and a negative qualitative impact on the lives of patients who suffer from an extremely complex, burdensome, and restricted life on dialysis. There remains a huge gap in patient well-being and outcomes between artificial kidney treatments and kidney transplantation...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906450/obstacle-recognition-based-on-machine-learning-for-on-chip-lidar-sensors-in-a-cyber-physical-system
#11
Fernando Castaño, Gerardo Beruvides, Rodolfo E Haber, Antonio Artuñedo
Collision avoidance is an important feature in advanced driver-assistance systems, aimed at providing correct, timely and reliable warnings before an imminent collision (with objects, vehicles, pedestrians, etc.). The obstacle recognition library is designed and implemented to address the design and evaluation of obstacle detection in a transportation cyber-physical system. The library is integrated into a co-simulation framework that is supported on the interaction between SCANeR software and Matlab/Simulink...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906067/ruminal-phytate-degradation-of-maize-grain-and-rapeseed-meal-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-as-affected-by-phytate-content-in-donor-animal-diets-and-inorganic-phosphorus-in-the-buffer
#12
E Haese, M Lengowski, E Gräter, A Föll, J Möhring, H Steingass, M Schollenberger, M Rodehutscord
The ruminal disappearance of phytate phosphorus (InsP6 -P) from maize grain and rapeseed meal (RSM) was determined in two in vitro studies. In experiment 1, two diets differing in phosphorus (P) and InsP6 -P concentration were fed to the donor animals of rumen fluid (diet HP: 0.49% P in dry matter, diet LP: 0.29% P). Maize grain and RSM were incubated in a rumen fluid/saliva mixture for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. In experiment 2, a diet similar to diet HP was fed, and the rumen fluid was mixed with artificial saliva containing 120 mg inorganic P/l (Pi) or no inorganic P (P0)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905284/effect-of-cadmium-bioavailability-in-food-on-its-compartmentalisation-in-carabids
#13
Agnieszka J Bednarska, Zuzanna M Świątek, Karolina Paciorek, Natalia Kubińska
Metals assimilated by organisms are sequestered in various compartments and some forms are more stable than others. Sequestration mechanisms used by invertebrates to detoxify metals and prevent interaction with important biomolecules include metal binding to proteins and other ligands, and storage in inorganic granules. The rate and extent at which metal concentrations in different compartments respond to metal concentrations in food and food characteristics has not received much attention, despite being of great relevance...
September 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902915/social-interactions-between-live-and-artificial-weakly-electric-fish-electrocommunication-and-locomotor-behavior-of-mormyrus-rume-proboscirostris-towards-a-mobile-dummy-fish
#14
Martin Worm, Frank Kirschbaum, Gerhard von der Emde
Mormyrid weakly electric fish produce short, pulse-type electric organ discharges for actively probing their environment and to communicate with conspecifics. Animals emit sequences of pulse-trains that vary in overall frequency and temporal patterning and can lead to time-locked interactions with the discharge activity of other individuals. Both active electrolocation and electrocommunication are additionally accompanied by stereotypical locomotor patterns. However, the concrete roles of electrical and locomotor patterns during social interactions in mormyrids are not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901283/a-systematic-review-of-religious-beliefs-about-major-end-of-life-issues-in-the-five-major-world-religions
#15
Rajshekhar Chakraborty, Areej R El-Jawahri, Mark R Litzow, Karen L Syrjala, Aric D Parnes, Shahrukh K Hashmi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the religious/spiritual beliefs of followers of the five major world religions about frequently encountered medical situations at the end of life (EoL). METHOD: This was a systematic review of observational studies on the religious aspects of commonly encountered EoL situations. The databases used for retrieving studies were: Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus...
October 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900900/mapping-the-information-trace-in-local-field-potentials-by-a-computational-method-of-two-dimensional-time-shifting-synchronization-likelihood-based-on-graphic-processing-unit-acceleration
#16
Zi-Fang Zhao, Xue-Zhu Li, You Wan
The local field potential (LFP) is a signal reflecting the electrical activity of neurons surrounding the electrode tip. Synchronization between LFP signals provides important details about how neural networks are organized. Synchronization between two distant brain regions is hard to detect using linear synchronization algorithms like correlation and coherence. Synchronization likelihood (SL) is a non-linear synchronization-detecting algorithm widely used in studies of neural signals from two distant brain areas...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900114/programmed-self-assembly-of-a-biochemical-and-magnetic-scaffold-to-trigger-and-manipulate-microtubule-structures
#17
Rémi Ducasse, Wei-An Wang, Marina Garcia-Jove Navarro, Nicolas Debons, Alexandra Colin, Jérémie Gautier, Jean-Michel Guigner, François Guyot, Zoher Gueroui
Artificial bio-based scaffolds offer broad applications in bioinspired chemistry, nanomedicine, and material science. One current challenge is to understand how the programmed self-assembly of biomolecules at the nanometre level can dictate the emergence of new functional properties at the mesoscopic scale. Here we report a general approach to design genetically encoded protein-based scaffolds with modular biochemical and magnetic functions. By combining chemically induced dimerization strategies and biomineralisation, we engineered ferritin nanocages to nucleate and manipulate microtubule structures upon magnetic actuation...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900076/-crispr-cas9-the-king-of-genome-editing-tools
#18
A V Bannikov, A V Lavrov
The discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 brought a hope for having an efficient, reliable, and readily available tool for genome editing. CRISPR/Cas9 is certainly easy to use, while its efficiency and reliability remain the focus of studies. The review describes the general principles of the organization and function of Cas nucleases and a number of important issues to be considered while planning genome editing experiments with CRISPR/Cas9. The issues include evaluation of the efficiency and specificity for Cas9, sgRNA selection, Cas9 variants designed artificially, and use of homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining in DNA editing...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898805/molecular-changes-in-vitellogenin-gene-of-spodoptera-exigua-after-long-time-exposure-to-cadmium-toxic-side-effect-or-microevolution
#19
Anna Płachetka-Bożek, Karolina Chwiałkowska, Maria Augustyniak
The reproduction of pest insects is a continuously ongoing issue, especially in the environmental pollution context. Natural or artificial stressing factors enforce a kind of trade-off, most often between growth/survival and reproduction, which improves fitness of the organism. Harmful factors, such as cadmium, can affect the vitellogenesis leading to reduction of yolk synthesis and egg production. The aim of this study was to assess whether 130-generational selection to cadmium in food might have induced change in vitellogenesis of Spodoptera exigua...
September 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895924/artificial-turf-contested-terrains-for-precautionary-public-health-with-particular-reference-to-europe
#20
Andrew Watterson
Millions of adults, children and teenagers use artificial sports pitches and playgrounds globally. Pitches are artificial grass and bases may be made up of crumb rubber from recycled tires or new rubber and sand. Player injury on pitches was a major concern. Now, debates about health focus on possible exposure and uptake of chemicals within pitch and base materials. Research has looked at potential risks to users from hazardous substances such as metals, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo (a) (e) pyrenes and phthalates: some are carcinogens and others may be endocrine disruptors and have developmental reproductive effects...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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