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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786607/pre-set-extrusion-bioprinting-for-multiscale-heterogeneous-tissue-structure-fabrication
#1
Donggu Kang, Geunseon Ahn, Donghwan Kim, Hyun-Wook Kang, Seokhwan Yun, Won-Soo Yun, Jin-Hyung Shim, Songwan Jin
Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology have led to various attempts in fabricating human tissue-like structures. However, current bioprinting technologies have limitations for creating native tissue-like structures. To resolve these issues, we developed a new pre-set extrusion bioprinting technique that can create heterogeneous, multicellular, and multimaterial structures simultaneously. The key to this ability lies in the use of a precursor cartridge that can stably preserve a multimaterial with a pre-defined configuration that can be simply embedded in a syringe-based printer head...
May 22, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782498/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites-integrate-sterol-and-phospholipid-regulation
#2
Evan Quon, Yves Y Sere, Neha Chauhan, Jesper Johansen, David P Sullivan, Jeremy S Dittman, William J Rice, Robin B Chan, Gilbert di Paolo, Christopher T Beh, Anant K Menon
Tether proteins attach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other cellular membranes, thereby creating contact sites that are proposed to form platforms for regulating lipid homeostasis and facilitating non-vesicular lipid exchange. Sterols are synthesized in the ER and transported by non-vesicular mechanisms to the plasma membrane (PM), where they represent almost half of all PM lipids and contribute critically to the barrier function of the PM. To determine whether contact sites are important for both sterol exchange between the ER and PM and intermembrane regulation of lipid metabolism, we generated Δ-super-tether (Δ-s-tether) yeast cells that lack six previously identified tethering proteins (yeast extended synatotagmin [E-Syt], vesicle-associated membrane protein [VAMP]-associated protein [VAP], and TMEM16-anoctamin homologues) as well as the presumptive tether Ice2...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782142/projection-based-3d-printing-of-cell-patterning-scaffolds-with-multi-scale-channels
#3
Dai Xue, Yancheng Wang, Jiaxin Zhang, Deqing Mei, Yue Wang, Shaochen Chen
To fully actualize artificial, cell-laden biological models in tissue engineering, such as 3D organoids and organs-on-a-chip systems, cells need to be patterned such that they can precisely mimic natural microenvironments in vitro. Despite increasing interest in this area, patterning cells at multiscales (~10 μm - 10 mm) remains a significant challenge in bioengineering. Here we report a projection-based 3D printing system that achieves rapid and high-resolution fabrication of hydrogel scaffolds featuring intricate channels for multi-scale cell patterning...
May 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779879/the-xmap215-ortholog-alp14-promotes-microtubule-nucleation-in-fission-yeast
#4
Ignacio Flor-Parra, Ana Belén Iglesias-Romero, Fred Chang
The organization and number of microtubules (MTs) in a cell depend on the proper regulation of MT nucleation. Currently, the mechanism of nucleation is the most poorly understood aspect of MT dynamics. XMAP215/chTOG/Alp14/Stu2 proteins are MT polymerases that stimulate MT polymerization at MT plus ends by binding and releasing tubulin dimers. Although these proteins also localize to MT organizing centers and have nucleating activity in vitro, it is not yet clear whether these proteins participate in MT nucleation in vivo...
May 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775394/degradation-of-ticarcillin-by-subcritial-water-oxidation-method-application-of-response-surface-methodology-and-artificial-neural-network-modeling
#5
Erdal Yabalak
This study was performed to investigate the mineralization of ticarcillin in the artificially prepared aqueous solution presenting ticarcillin contaminated waters, which constitute a serious problem for human health. 81.99% of total organic carbon removal, 79.65% of chemical oxygen demand removal, and 94.35% of ticarcillin removal were achieved by using eco-friendly, time-saving, powerful and easy-applying, subcritical water oxidation method in the presence of a safe-to-use oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775125/influence-of-tetramethylammonium-hydroxide-tmah-on-the-microbial-properties-of-anaerobic-granular-sludge-acclimated-to-isoplophyl-alcohol-ipa-wastewater-under-psychrophilic-conditions
#6
Tsuyoshi Danshita, Yuma Miyaoka, Norihisa Matsuura, Haruhiko Sumino, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kazuaki Syutsubo
In this study, a continuous flow experiment was conducted in which a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at psychrophilic conditions (18-19°C) was fed with artificial wastewater, containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and isoplophyl alcohol (IPA), from the electronics industry. This was done to evaluate process performance and microbial properties of the granular sludge that was retained in the reactor. The inoculated granular sludge was precultured with IPA containing wastewater but not TMAH; as a result, no degradation was observed in 30 days of operation...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775077/evaluating-the-influence-of-road-lighting-on-traffic-safety-at-accesses-using-an-artificial-neural-network
#7
Yueru Xu, Zhirui Ye, Yuan Wang, Chao Wang, Cuicui Sun
OBJECTIVES: This paper focuses on the effect of road lighting on road safety at accesses and tries to quantitatively analyze the relationship between road lighting and road safety. METHODS: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was applied in this study. This method is one of the most popular machine-learning methods in recent years and does not require any pre-defined assumptions. This method was applied using field data collected from ten road segments in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China...
May 18, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774608/virion-like-membrane-breaking-nanoparticles-with-tumor-activated-cell-and-tissue-dual-penetration-conquer-impermeable-cancer
#8
Xiao Zhang, Xianghui Xu, Yachao Li, Cheng Hu, Zhijun Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
Poor drug penetration into tumor cells and tissues is a worldwide difficulty in cancer therapy. A strategy is developed for virion-like membrane-breaking nanoparticles (MBNs) to smoothly accomplish tumor-activated cell-and-tissue dual-penetration for surmounting impermeable drug-resistant cancer. Tailor-made dendritic arginine-rich peptide prodrugs are designed to mimic viral protein transduction domains and globular protein architectures. Attractively, these protein mimics self-assemble into virion-like nanoparticles in aqueous solution, having highly ordered secondary structure...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774604/plant-sunscreen-and-co-ii-iii-porphyrins-for-uv-resistant-and-thermally-stable-perovskite-solar-cells-from-natural-to-artificial
#9
Jing Cao, Xudong Lv, Peng Zhang, Tracy T Chuong, Binghui Wu, Xiaoxia Feng, Changfu Shan, Jiacheng Liu, Yu Tang
The poor UV, thermal, and interfacial stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) makes it highly challenging for their technological application, and has drawn increasing attention to resolving the above issues. In nature, plants generally sustain long exposure to UV illumination without damage, which is attributed to the presence of the organic materials acting as sunscreens. Inspired by the natural phenomenon, a natural plant sunscreen, sinapoyl malate, an ester derivative of sinapic acid, is employed to modify the surface of electron transport materials (ETMs)...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772513/a-transition-to-white-led-increases-ecological-impacts-of-nocturnal-illumination-on-aquatic-primary-producers-in-a-lowland-agricultural-drainage-ditch
#10
Maja Grubisic, Roy H A van Grunsven, Alessandro Manfrin, Michael T Monaghan, Franz Hölker
The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770379/the-limits-to-biocatalysis-pushing-the-envelope
#11
Roger A Sheldon, Dean Brady
In the period 1985 to 1995 applications of biocatalysis, driven by the need for more sustainable manufacture of chemicals and catalytic, (enantio)selective methods for the synthesis of pharmaceutical intermediates, largely involved the available hydrolases. This was followed, in the next two decades, by revolutionary developments in protein engineering and directed evolution for the optimisation of enzyme function and performance that totally changed the biocatalysis landscape. In the same period, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology revolutionised the use of whole cell biocatalysis in the synthesis of commodity chemicals by fermentation...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770376/field-studies-reveal-functions-of-chemical-mediators-in-plant-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Meredith C Schuman, Ian T Baldwin
Plants are at the trophic base of most ecosystems, embedded in a rich network of ecological interactions in which they evolved. While their limited range and speed of motion precludes animal-typical behavior, plants are accomplished chemists, producing thousands of specialized metabolites which may function to convey information, or even to manipulate the physiology of other organisms. Plants' complex interactions and their underlying mechanisms are typically dissected within the controlled environments of growth chambers and glasshouses, but doing so introduces conditions alien to plants evolved in natural environments, such as being pot-bound, and receiving artificial light with a spectrum very different from sunlight...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769044/visualizing-histopathologic-deep-learning-classification-and-anomaly-detection-using-nonlinear-feature-space-dimensionality-reduction
#13
Kevin Faust, Quin Xie, Dominick Han, Kartikay Goyle, Zoya Volynskaya, Ugljesa Djuric, Phedias Diamandis
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in utilizing artificial intelligence, and particularly deep learning, for computer vision in histopathology. While accumulating studies highlight expert-level performance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) on focused classification tasks, most studies rely on probability distribution scores with empirically defined cutoff values based on post-hoc analysis. More generalizable tools that allow humans to visualize histology-based deep learning inferences and decision making are scarce...
May 16, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768730/biofilm-in-voice-prosthesis-a-prospective-cohort-study-and-laboratory-tests-using-sonication-and-sem-analysis
#14
Jacopo Galli, Lea Calo', Duino Meucci, Monica Giuliani, Daniela Lucidi, Gaetano Paludetti, Riccardo Torelli, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Claudio Parrilla
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the biofilm growing pattern and its morphological extent on silicone and a teflon-like material using a sonication process and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study and a laboratory study. SETTING: Otolaryngology -Head and Neck surgery Department and the Microbiology Institute. PARTICIPANTS: The participants included fifteen laryngectomized patients with phonatory prostheses, which were removed due to device failure, and two different kinds of phonatory prostheses from the laboratory (Provox 2 and ActiValve) that were artificially colonized by Candida albicans...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768058/taishan-pinus-massoniana-pollen-polysaccharides-enhance-immune-responses-in-chickens-infected-by-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-b
#15
Shifa Yang, Guiming Li, Zengcheng Zhao, Zhongli Huang, Jian Fu, Minxun Song, Shuqian Lin, Ruiliang Zhu
Immunosuppressive virus, which can cause suppressed immunity and vaccination failure, frequently occurs in chicken flocks and seriously destroys the poultry industry. Our previous studies have reported that Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) possess immunomodulatory effects and improve the immune effects of vaccines. In this study, avian leukosis virus subgroup B (ALV-B) was chosen as immunosuppressive virus to artificially establish immunosuppressive models in chickens, and the immune modulatory ability of TPPPS on the immune response of chickens was evaluated...
May 16, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766666/light-at-night-disrupts-nocturnal-rest-and-elevates-glucocorticoids-at-cool-color-temperatures
#16
Valentina J Alaasam, Richard Duncan, Stefania Casagrande, Scott Davies, Abhijaat Sidher, Brett Seymoure, Yantao Shen, Yong Zhang, Jenny Q Ouyang
Nighttime light pollution is quickly becoming a pervasive, global concern. Since the invention and proliferation of light-emitting diodes (LED), it has become common for consumers to select from a range of color temperatures of light with varying spectra. Yet, the biological impacts of these different spectra on organisms remain unclear. We tested if nighttime illumination of LEDs, at two commercially available color temperatures (3000 and 5000 K) and at ecologically relevant illumination levels affected body condition, food intake, locomotor activity, and glucocorticoid levels in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765198/management-of-post-lasik-dry-eye-a-multicenter-randomized-comparison-of-a-new-multi-ingredient-artificial-tear-to-carboxymethylcellulose
#17
Avi Wallerstein, W Bruce Jackson, Jeffrey Chambers, Amir M Moezzi, Hugh Lin, Peter A Simmons
Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of a preservative-free, multi-ingredient formulation of carboxymethylcellulose 0.5%, hyaluronic acid 0.1%, and organic osmolytes (CMC-HA), to preservative-free carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% (CMC) in the management of postoperative signs and symptoms of dry eye following laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: This was a double-masked, randomized, parallel-group study conducted in 14 clinical centers in Canada and Australia...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764303/relief-from-intractable-phantom-pain-by-combining-psilocybin-and-mirror-visual-feedback-mvf
#18
Vilayanur Ramachandran, Chaipat Chunharas, Zeve Marcus, Timothy Furnish, Albert Lin
AL's leg was amputated resulting in phantom-limb pain (PLP). (1) When a volunteer placed her foot on or near the phantom - touching it evoked organized sensations in corresponding locations on AL's phantom. (2) Mirror-visual-feedback (MVF) relieved PLP, as did, "phantom massage". (3) Psilocybin-MVF pairing produced synergistic effects, complete elimination of PLP, and reduction in paroxysmal episodes. (4) Touching the volunteer's leg where AL previously had external fixators, evoked sensation of nails boring through the leg...
May 15, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764126/molecular-simulation-of-the-water-triolein-oleic-acid-mixture-local-structure-and-thermodynamic-properties
#19
E Couallier, A Riaublanc, E David Briand, B Rousseau
An artificial oil-in-water emulsion analogous to those found in bioresources or food matrices is simulated and studied experimentally. It is composed of one of the major natural free fatty acids (the oleic acid, OA) and the corresponding triacylglyceride (trioleic glyceride, or triolein, GTO). Because of the large time and length scales involved, the molecular simulations are done with the Martini force field, a coarse-grained model. This allowed us to study the water-OA-GTO system at different compositions with more than 20 000 molecules and up to 2 μs...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761749/effects-of-light-and-temperature-on-daily-activity-and-clock-gene-expression-in-two-mosquito-disease-vectors
#20
Gustavo B S Rivas, Rayane Teles-de-Freitas, Márcio G Pavan, José B P Lima, Alexandre A Peixoto, Rafaela Vieira Bruno
Most organisms feature an endogenous circadian clock capable of synchronization with their environment. The most well-known synchronizing agents are light and temperature. The circadian clock of mosquitoes, vectors of many pathogens, drives important behaviors related to vectoral capacity, including oviposition, host seeking, and hematophagy. Main clock gene expression, as well as locomotor activity patterns, has been identified in Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus under artificial light-dark cycles...
June 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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