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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027600/the-impact-of-population-dynamics-on-the-population-hiv-care-cascade-results-from-the-anrs-12249-treatment-as-prevention-trial-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#1
Joseph Larmarange, Mamadou Hassimiou Diallo, Nuala McGrath, Collins Iwuji, Mélanie Plazy, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Frank Tanser, Till Bärnighausen, Deenan Pillay, François Dabis, Joanna Orne-Gliemann
INTRODUCTION: The universal test and treat strategy (UTT) was developed to maximize the proportion of all HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and virally suppressed, assuming that it will lead to a reduction in HIV incidence at the population level. The evolution over time of the cross-sectional HIV care cascade is determined by individual longitudinal trajectories through the HIV care continuum and underlying population dynamics. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the contribution of each component of population change (in- and out-migration, HIV seroconversion, ageing into the cohort and definitive exit such as death) on the HIV care cascade in the context of the ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) cluster-randomized trial, investigating UTT in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, between 2012 and 2016...
July 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758494/uncovering-potential-anti-neuroinflammatory-components-of-modified-wuziyanzong-prescription-through-a-target-directed-molecular-docking-fingerprint-strategy
#2
Jinfeng Chen, Jinlong Wang, Yingyuan Lu, Shaoyang Zhao, Qian Yu, Xuemei Wang, Pengfei Tu, Kewu Zeng, Yong Jiang
Neuroinflammation is a main factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease. Our previous studies indicated that the modified Wuziyanzong Prescription (MWP) can suppress neuroinflammatory responses via nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways. However, the anti-neuroinflammatory components of MWP remain unclear. Herein, a target-directed molecular docking fingerprint (TMDF) strategy, via integrating the chemical profiling and molecular docking approaches, was developed to identify the potential anti-neuroinflammatory components of MWP...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728025/-explore-compatibility-mechanism-of-xingnaojing-injection-in-treating-cerebral-infarction-based-on-network-pharmacology
#3
Fu-Jiang Song, Bin Fan, Jian Sun
This paper aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of Xingnaojing injection and its scientific connotation of compatibility mechanism from a new perspective on bioinformatics and network biology. Based on the analysis function of intergrative pharmacology platform V1.0, the compatibility mechanism of this prescription was investigated by constructing the herbs-compounds-targets network. Seven hundreds and ninety-five targets from the prescription were screened out, then 302 hub nodes were included in drug targets-disease targets network...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676000/the-2016-hiv-diagnosis-and-care-cascade-in-new-south-wales-australia-meeting-the-unaids-90-90-90-targets
#4
Phillip Keen, Richard T Gray, Barbara Telfer, Rebecca Guy, Heather-Marie Schmidt, Bill Whittaker, Jo Holden, Martin Holt, Anthony Kelleher, David Wilson, Denton Callander, David A Cooper, Garrett Prestage, Christine Selvey, Andrew E Grulich
INTRODUCTION: The HIV Strategy in New South Wales (NSW) Australia aims to virtually eliminate HIV transmission by 2020. We estimated the 2016 HIV diagnosis and care cascade for the state of NSW, with a focus on introducing population-based data to improve data quality and assess progress towards the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. METHODS: To estimate the number of people living with diagnosed HIV (PLDHIV) we used NSW data from the Australian National HIV Registry, enhanced by surveillance among people recently diagnosed with HIV to improve migration estimates...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675214/controllable-extension-of-hairpin-structured-flaps-to-allow-low-background-cascade-invasive-reaction-for-a-sensitive-dna-logic-sensor-for-mutation-detection
#5
Yun-Long Liu, Hai-Ping Wu, Qiang Zhou, Qin-Xin Song, Jian-Zhong Rui, Xiao-Xiang Guan, Guo-Hua Zhou, Bing-Jie Zou
A DNA logic sensor was constructed for gene mutation analysis based on a novel signal amplification cascade by controllably extending a hairpin-structured flap to bridge two invasive reactions. The detection limit was as low as 0.07 fM, and the analytical specificity is high enough to unambiguously pick up 0.02% mutants from a large amount of wild-type DNA. Gene mutations related to the personalized medicine of gefitinib, a typical tyrosine kinase inhibitor, were analyzed by the DNA logic sensor with only a 15 minute response time...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660212/aiming-for-elimination-outcomes-of-a-consultation-pathway-supporting-regional-general-practitioners-to-prescribe-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c
#6
A J Wade, A McCormack, C Roder, K McDonald, M Davies, N Scott, M Wardrop, E Athan, M E Hellard
To increase access to treatment, the Australian government enabled general practitioners (GPs) to prescribe direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV)-in consultation with a specialist if inexperienced in HCV management. This study describes the establishment and outcomes of a remote consultation pathway supporting GPs to treat HCV. Key stakeholders from primary and tertiary healthcare services in the Barwon South Western region developed and implemented an HCV remote consultation pathway...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410060/pharmacy-level-barriers-to-implementing-expedited-partner-therapy-in-baltimore-maryland
#7
Jennifer Z Qin, Clarissa P Diniz, Jenell S Coleman
BACKGROUND: Addressing record high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence in the United States requires the utilization of effective strategies, such as expedited partner therapy, to reduce reinfection and further transmission. Expedited partner therapy, which can be given as a prescription or medication, is a strategy to treat the sexual partners of index patients diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection without prior medical evaluation of the partners. OBJECTIVE: There are multiple steps in the prescription-expedited partner therapy cascade, and we sought to identify pharmacy-level barriers to implementing prescription-expedited partner therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis treatment...
May 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336283/headaches-and-facial-pain-in-rhinology
#8
Asitha D L Jayawardena, Rakesh Chandra
"Sinus headache" is a common chief complaint that often leads patients to an otolaryngologist's office. Because facial pain may or may not be sinogenic in origin, the otolaryngologist should be equipped to evaluate and treat or to appropriately refer these patients. Analysis of current data indicates that the majority of patients who present with sinus headaches actually have migraines. Furthermore, the downstream effect of the cytokine cascade initiated in migraine physiology can cause rhinologic symptoms, including rhinorrhea, congestion, and lacrimation, which may also confound diagnosis...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330585/potentially-inappropriate-medications-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-undertaken-as-a-comprehensive-geriatric-risk-assessment
#9
Sharmin S Bala, Sujita W Narayan, Prasad S Nishtala
PURPOSE: The prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) is associated with an increase in adverse events, prescribing cascades, high health-care costs, morbidity, and mortality in the elderly. The overarching objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of PIMs in the elderly, applying the 2012 American Geriatrics Society Beers criteria for the study period 2012-2014, and the updated 2015 Beers criteria for 2015. METHODS: The study population (N = 70,479) included a continuously recruited national cohort of community-dwelling older (aged ≥ 65 years) New Zealanders who had undertaken the International Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (interRAI-HC) assessments between September 2012 and October 2015...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#10
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward J Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718493/the-hiv-continuum-of-care-in-the-bahamas-in-2014
#11
Nikkiah Forbes, Glenise Johnson, Arvis Mortimer, Indira Martin, Morton Frankson, Kathryn Johnston, Tamara Thompson, Sharon Weissman
Objective: The HIV cascade of care describes the spectrum of engagement in HIV care from diagnosis to viral suppression (VS). The study objective was to develop a baseline HIV cascade of care for new HIV diagnoses in the Bahamas in 2014. Methods: Individuals who were newly diagnosed with HIV in 2014 and known to be alive within a year of that diagnosis were included in the cascade of care (n = 250). Individuals with one CD4 or HIV viral load (VL) measure in 2014 were considered linked to care...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699096/hepatitis-c-cascade-of-care-among-pregnant-women-on-opioid-agonist-pharmacotherapy-attending-a-comprehensive-prenatal-program
#12
Kimberly Page, Lawrence Leeman, Steven Bishop, Sandra Cano, Ludmila N Bakhireva
Background Given the large increases in opioid use among pregnant women and associations with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, screening pregnant women who are on (opioid agonist) pharmacotherapy for HCV infection has potential to inform medical care for these mothers as well as their newborns. We investigated the HCV testing cascade among pregnant women on pharmacotherapy in order to describe exposure and infection rates and to identify opportunities that would improve care. Methods Secondary analyses of laboratory results were performed for HCV testing, including anti-HCV, viremia (RNA) and genotype...
September 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670362/the-chinese-medicine-jianpi-huayu-decoction-inhibits-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-regulation-of-the-smad3-smad7-cascade
#13
Chong Zhong, Yong-Fa Zhang, Jun-Hai Huang, Zi-Yu Wang, Qiu-Yuan Chen, Li-Tian Su, Zhen-Tao Liu, Cheng-Ming Xiong, Zhi Tao, Rong-Ping Guo
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and aggressive malignant tumors in the world. In China, traditional medicine is commonly used in the treatment of cancer. Among these medicines, Jianpi Huayu Decoction (JHD) is a typical clinical prescription against multiple tumors. However, the exact function and targets of JHD are currently unknown. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of JHD against HCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hepatic carcinoma SMMC7221 cells were treated with JHD drug-serum in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902560/assessing-different-partner-notification-methods-for-assuring-partner-treatment-for-gonorrhea-looking-for-the-best-mix-of-options
#14
Eleanor Fleming, Matthew Hogben
CONTEXT: Partner notification for gonorrhea is intended to interrupt transmission and to bring people exposed to infection to care. Partner notification may be initiated through public health professionals (disease intervention specialist: DIS referral) or patients (patient referral). In some cases, patients may carry medications or prescriptions for partners (patient-delivered partner therapy: PDPT). OBJECTIVE: To examine how patterns of notifying and treating partners of persons with gonorrhea differ by partner notification approach...
May 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899308/insight-gained-from-genome-wide-interaction-and-enrichment-analysis-on-weight-gain-during-citalopram-treatment
#15
Henrik Thyge Corfitsen, Antonio Drago
Weight gain is a possible side effect of the pharmacological antidepressant treatments. Defining antidepressant prescriptions based on personal genetic makeups would decrease the risk of weight gain and increase the quality of the current antidepressant pharmacological treatments. 643 depressed, citalopram treated individuals with available clinical and genome-wide genetic information were investigated to identify the molecular pathways associated with weight gain. 111 individuals experienced weight gain during citalopram treatment...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893604/implementation-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-at-a-new-england-sexually-transmitted-diseases-clinic
#16
Philip A Chan, Tiffany R Glynn, Catherine E Oldenburg, Madeline C Montgomery, Ashley E Robinette, Alexi Almonte, Julia Raifman, Leandro Mena, Rupa Patel, Kenneth H Mayer, Laura S Beauchamps, Amy S Nunn
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed PrEP uptake among MSM presenting for services at a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. METHODS: Men who have sex with men presenting to the Rhode Island STD Clinic between October 2013 and November 2014 were educated about, and offered, PrEP. We categorized PrEP engagement using an implementation cascade to describe gaps in uptake which described MSM who: (1) were educated about PrEP, (2) indicated interest, (3) successfully received follow-up contact, (4) scheduled an appointment, (5) attended an appointment, and (6) initiated PrEP (ie, received a prescription)...
November 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659071/nonvitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulant-activity-challenges-in-measurement-and-reversal
#17
REVIEW
Karen S Brown, Hamim Zahir, Michael A Grosso, Hans J Lanz, Michele F Mercuri, Jerrold H Levy
BACKGROUND: Four nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are approved for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. Bleeding is a complication for all anticoagulants and concerns regarding bleeding risk and the suitability of effective reversal strategies may be a barrier to their prescription...
September 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596150/the-population-level-cascade-of-care-for-hepatitis-c-in-british-columbia-canada-the-bc-hepatitis-testers-cohort-bc-htc
#18
Naveed Z Janjua, Margot Kuo, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Stanley Wong, Darrel Cook, Jason Wong, Jason Grebely, Zahid A Butt, Hasina Samji, Alnoor Ramji, Mark Tyndall, Mel Krajden
BACKGROUND: Population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected people across the cascade of care identifies gaps in access and engagement in care and treatment. We characterized a population-level cascade of care for HCV in British Columbia (BC), Canada and identified factors associated with leakage at each stage. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes 1.5million individuals tested for HCV, HIV, reported cases of hepatitis B, and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990 to 2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalizations, cancers, prescription drugs and mortality data...
October 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513328/disparities-in-depressive-symptoms-and-antidepressant-treatment-by-gender-and-race-ethnicity-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states
#19
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Heidi M Crane, Katerina Christopoulos, Rob J Fredericksen, Bradley N Gaynes, Amy Heine, W Christopher Mathews, Richard Moore, Sonia Napravnik, Steven Safren, Michael J Mugavero
OBJECTIVE: To describe disparities along the depression treatment cascade, from indication for antidepressant treatment to effective treatment, in HIV-infected individuals by gender and race/ethnicity. METHODS: The Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort includes 31,000 HIV-infected adults in routine clinical care at 8 sites. Individuals were included in the analysis if they had a depressive symptoms measure within one month of establishing HIV care at a CNICS site...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506130/detecting-signals-of-detrimental-prescribing-cascades-from-social-media
#20
Tao Hoang, Jixue Liu, Nicole Pratt, Vincent W Zheng, Kevin C Chang, Elizabeth Roughead, Jiuyong Li
MOTIVATION: Prescribing cascade (PC) occurs when an adverse drug reaction (ADR) is misinterpreted as a new medical condition, leading to further prescriptions for treatment. Additional prescriptions, however, may worsen the existing condition or introduce additional adverse effects (AEs). Timely detection and prevention of detrimental PCs is essential as drug AEs are among the leading causes of hospitalization and deaths. Identifying detrimental PCs would enable warnings and contraindications to be disseminated and assist the detection of unknown drug AEs...
July 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
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