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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323561/pleiotropic-effects-and-pharmacological-properties-of-penehyclidine-hydrochloride
#1
REVIEW
Yaguang Wang, Yafen Gao, Jun Ma
Background: Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is an anticholinergic drug manufactured in China. It is used widely in clinics as a reversal agent in cases of organic phosphorus poisoning and as a preanesthetic medication. Compared with other anticholinergic agents, PHC confers substantial advantages. Here, in this review, we focus on its important clinical effects for organic phosphorus poisoning, preanesthetic medication, and the protective effects on certain visceral organs. Materials and methods: Our bibliographic sources include the PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, updated in March 2018...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315583/anticholinergic-drug-use-and-its-association-with-self-reported-symptoms-among-older-persons-with-and-without-diabetes
#2
Niina-Mari Inkeri, Merja Karjalainen, Maija Haanpää, Hannu Kautiainen, Juha Saltevo, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Miia Tiihonen
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Anticholinergic drug use has been associated with a risk of central and peripheral adverse effects. There is a lack of information on anticholinergic drug use in persons with diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate anticholinergic drug use and the association between anticholinergic drug use and self-reported symptoms in older community-dwelling persons with and without diabetes. METHODS: The basic population was comprised of Finnish community-dwelling primary care patients aged 65 and older...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305048/an-anticholinergic-burden-score-for-german-prescribers-score-development
#3
Esther Katharina Kiesel, Yvonne Marina Hopf, Michael Drey
BACKGROUND: Anticholinergic drugs put elderly patients at a higher risk for falls, cognitive decline, and delirium as well as peripheral adverse reactions like dry mouth or constipation. Prescribers are often unaware of the drug-based anticholinergic burden (ACB) of their patients. This study aimed to develop an anticholinergic burden score for drugs licensed in Germany to be used by clinicians at prescribing level. METHODS: A systematic literature search in pubmed assessed previously published ACB tools...
October 11, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176331/efficacy-of-antidotes-and-their-combinations-in-the-treatment-of-acute-carbamate-poisoning-in-rats
#4
Miloš P Stojiljković, Ranko Škrbić, Milan Jokanović, Vesna Kilibarda, Dubravko Bokonjić, Maja Vulović
BACKGROUND: Physostigmine and its analogues neostigmine, pyridostigmine and rivastigmine are carbamates nowadays used in many indications, including antidotal effects against antimuscarinic poisonings, reversal of competitive neuromuscular block, myasthenia gravis, Alzheimer's disease and prophylaxis against nerve agent intoxications. Use of these medicinal carbamates, but also of carbamate insecticides, created need for research into the potential and mechanisms of action of several antidotes against carbamate poisonings, including anticholinergics and oximes...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766401/penehyclidine-hydrochloride-decreases-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-inflammatory-injury-through-a-beta-arrestin-1-dependent-mechanism
#5
Fei Zheng, Fei Xiao, Qing-Hong Yuan, Qiang-Sheng Liu, Zong-Ze Zhang, Yan-Lin Wang, Jia Zhan
Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC), a type of hyoscyamus drug, has both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activities and retains potent central and peripheral anticholinergic activities. Compared with other hyoscyamine, the notable advantage of PHC is that it has few M2 receptor-associated cardiovascular side effects. Recent studies and clinical trials have suggested that treatment with penehyclidine hydrochloride may also possess good effects in the treatment of lung injury. The mechanism responsible for this effect has yet to be determined; however, one possibility is that they might do so by a direct effect on pulmonary vascular endothelium...
October 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488287/electro-acupuncture-at-st37-and-st25-induce-different-effects-on-colonic-motility-via-the-enteric-nervous-system-by-affecting-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#6
C Liang, K-Y Wang, M-R Gong, Q Li, Z Yu, B Xu
BACKGROUND: On the basis of the importance of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in gastrointestinal motility, we hypothesized that the ENS may mediate the therapeutic efficacy of electro-acupuncture (EA) in constipation by regulating the mechanisms underlying the effects of EA on gastrointestinal function. METHODS: Model mice with constipation were generated by gastric instillation of 0-4°C normal saline. Defecation time and stool (form and wet and dry weight) were assessed...
July 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959540/the-possible-role-of-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-in-the-treatment-of-chemical-warfare-agent-poisoning
#7
REVIEW
Arik Eisenkraft, Avshalom Falk
Organophosphates (OPs) are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins) and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against OPs include the peripheral anticholinergic drug atropine and an oxime that reactivates the inhibited cholinesterase...
2016: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336159/the-anticholinergic-impregnation-scale-towards-the-elaboration-of-a-scale-adapted-to-prescriptions-in-french-psychiatric-settings
#8
Jeanne Briet, Hervé Javelot, Edwige Heitzmann, Luisa Weiner, Catherine Lameira, Philippe D'Athis, Marie Corneloup, Jean-Louis Vailleau
PURPOSE: Some drugs have anticholinergic activity and can cause peripheral or central side effects. Several scales exist to evaluate the potential anticholinergic effect of prescribed drugs but: (i) they are validated in the elderly and mainly assess the cognitive side effect of treatments; (ii) they do not concern some of the drugs frequently used in clinical psychiatry in France. The aim of our study is to develop a new scale, the anticholinergic impregnation scale (AIS), with drugs used in France and based on an assessment of the drugs used against peripheral anticholinergic adverse effects...
September 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138837/donepezil-plus-solifenacin-cpc-201-treatment-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Thomas N Chase, Martin R Farlow, Kathleen Clarence-Smith
Available cholinergic drugs for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) provide modest symptomatic benefit. We hypothesized that co-administration of a peripheral anticholinergic to reduce dose-limiting adverse effects (AEs) would enable the safe/tolerable use of higher cholinesterase inhibitor doses and thus improve their antidementia efficacy. A modified single-blind, ascending-dose, phase IIa study of donepezil plus solifenacin (CPC-201) lasting 26 weeks was conducted in 41 patients with probable AD of moderate severity...
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093070/clonidine-is-effective-for-the-treatment-of-primary-idiopathic-hyperhidrosis-and-hot-flushes-a-case-report
#10
Ahmed Albadrani
BACKGROUND: While primary hyperhidrosis can be seen in men, accompanying hot flushes is rarely seen in men. Primary hyperhidrosis is thought to be related to overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system while hot flushes are believed to be related to altered peripheral vascular reactivity and a narrowed thermoregulatory zone. CASE PRESENTATION: I report the case of a 29-year-old man of Arab origin who presented to a dermatology clinic with a complaint of generalized sweating, with heavier involvement of his inguinal region, axilla, and lower back...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988806/medications-influencing-central-cholinergic-pathways-affect-fixation-stability-saccadic-response-time-and-associated-eye-movement-dynamics-during-a-temporally-cued-visual-reaction-time-task
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Preshanta Naicker, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Luca Modenese, Justin J Kavanagh
RATIONALE: Anticholinergic medications largely exert their effects due to actions on the muscarinic receptor, which mediates the functions of acetylcholine in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays an important role in the modulation of movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of over-the-counter medications with varying degrees of central anticholinergic properties on fixation stability, saccadic response time and the dynamics associated with this eye movement during a temporally-cued visual reaction time task, in order to establish the significance of central cholinergic pathways in influencing eye movements during reaction time tasks...
February 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965143/anticholinergic-activity-in-the-nervous-system-consequences-for-visuomotor-function
#12
REVIEW
Preshanta Naicker, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Justin J Kavanagh
Acetylcholine is present in the peripheral and central nervous system, where it is involved in a number of fundamental physiological and biochemical processes. In particular, interaction with muscarinic receptors can cause adverse effects such as dry mouth, drowsiness, mydriasis and cognitive dysfunction. Despite the knowledge that exists regarding these common side-effects, little is known about how anticholinergic medications influence central motor processes and fine motor control in healthy individuals...
March 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586162/botulinum-toxin-type-a-in-motor-nervous-system-unexplained-observations-and-new-challenges
#13
REVIEW
I Matak, Z Lacković, M Relja
In the motor system, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) actions were classically attributed to its well-known peripheral anticholinergic actions in neuromuscular junctions. However, the enzymatic activity of BoNT/A, assessed by the detection of cleaved synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), was recently detected in motor and sensory regions of the brainstem and spinal cord after toxin peripheral injection in rodents. In sensory regions, the function of BoNT/A activity is associated with its antinociceptive effects, while in motor regions we only know that BoNT/A activity is present...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421224/primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Maureen Rischmueller, Joanna Tieu, Susan Lester
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a relatively common autoimmune systemic rheumatic disease. In addition to sicca syndrome and swollen salivary glands, systemic features manifest in the majority of patients, and are severe in 15%, particularly affecting the joints, skin, lungs, and peripheral nervous system. A recent meta-analysis estimated a pooled relative risk of 13.76 for the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, particularly in pSS patients who have parotid enlargement, vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia, and antibodies to Ro and La...
February 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417446/constipation-in-elderly-patients-with-noncancer-pain-focus-on-opioid-induced-constipation
#15
REVIEW
Sita Chokhavatia, Elizabeth S John, Mary Barna Bridgeman, Deepali Dixit
Constipation is a common and often debilitating condition in the elderly, which may be caused by underlying disease conditions, structural abnormalities in the bowel, and a variety of medications such as anticholinergics, antidepressants, and opiates. In this review, we focus on opioid-induced constipation (OIC), which is often underrecognized and undertreated in the elderly. When opioid therapy is initiated, healthcare providers are encouraged to evaluate risk factors for the development of constipation as part of a thorough patient history...
August 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010563/possible-role-for-anisodamine-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#16
REVIEW
Arik Eisenkraft, Avshalom Falk
In cases of organophosphate poisoning, patients are treated with a combination of antidotes. In addition to these poison-directed antidotes, patients may require extra oxygen and artificial ventilation; other modalities may also be needed due to the wide range of toxic effects. Anisodamine is a belladonna alkaloid, and like other drugs from this family is non subtype-selective muscarinic, and a nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonist, which has been employed in traditional Chinese medicine. As a muscarinic antagonist, it displays similar pharmacological effects to atropine and scopolamine...
June 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966981/anticholinergics-theoretical-and-clinical-overview
#17
REVIEW
Prasad S Nishtala, Mohammed Saji Salahudeen, Sarah N Hilmer
INTRODUCTION: Anticholinergics are a class of medicines that block the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the brain and peripheral tissues. Medicines with anticholinergic activity are widely prescribed for and used by older people for various medical conditions. One-third to one-half of the medicines commonly prescribed for older people have anticholinergic activity. Several studies have reported anticholinergic burden to be a predictor of cognitive and functional impairments in older people...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26786111/severe-ischemic-colitis-following-olanzapine-use-a-case-report
#18
Samuel R Fernandes, Rosa Alves, Luís Araújo Correia, Ana Rita Gonçalves, João Malaquias, Emilia Oliveira, José Velosa
Ischemic colitis is the most common subtype of intestinal ischemia usually resulting from vasospasm, vessel occlusion or mesenteric hypoperfusion. Neuroleptics have seldom been linked to ischemic colitis by blocking peripheral anticholinergic and antiserotonergic receptors inducing severe gastrointestinal paresis. We report a young patient with severe ischemic colitis requiring surgery due to necrosis of the bowel. After exclusion of other potential causes, olanzapine was admitted as the cause of ischemia. Clinicians should be aware of how to recognize and treat the potentially life-threatening effects of neuroleptics...
September 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26071050/mirtazapine-a-review-of-its-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-potential-in-the-management-of-major-depression
#19
R Davis, M I Wilde
SYNOPSIS: Mirtazapine is a tetracyclic antidepressant with a novel mechanism of action; it increases noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission via blockade of central α2-adrenergic auto- and heteroreceptors. The increased release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) stimulates serotonin 5-HT1 receptors because mirtazapine directly blocks 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors. The enhancement of both noradrenergic- and 5-HT1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission is thought to be responsible for the antidepressant activity of mirtazapine...
May 1996: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504063/cholinergic-properties-of-new-7-methoxytacrine-donepezil-derivatives
#20
Vendula Sepsova, Jana Z Karasova, Gunnar Tobin, Daniel Jun, Jan Korabecny, Pavla Cabelova, Katerina Janska, Jan Krusek, Kristyna Skrenkova, Kamil Kuca, Ondrej Soukup
Organophosphorus nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which causes the breakdown of the transmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the synaptic cleft. Overstimulation of cholinergic receptors (muscarinic and nicotinic) by excessive amounts of ACh causes several health problems and may even cause death. Reversible AChE inhibitors play an important role in prophylaxis against nerve agents. The presented study investigated whether 7-methoxytacrine (7-MEOTA) and 7-MEOTA-donepezil derivatives can act as central and peripheral reversible AChE inhibitors and simultaneously antagonize muscarinic and nicotinic receptors...
April 2015: General Physiology and Biophysics
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