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Fibroblast Grow Factor

Miroslava Didiasova, Lukasz Wujak, Liliana Schaefer, Malgorzata Wygrecka
Factor XII (FXII) is a protease that is mainly produced in the liver and circulates in plasma as a single chain zymogen. Following contact with negatively charged surfaces, FXII is converted into the two-chain active form, FXIIa. FXIIa initiates the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway via activation of factor XI. Furthermore, it converts plasma prekallikrein to kallikrein (PK), which reciprocally activates FXII and liberates bradykinin from high molecular weight kininogen. In addition, FXIIa initiates fibrinolysis via PK-mediated urokinase activation and activates the classical complement pathway...
August 14, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Shira Bernard, Megan Myers, Wei Bin Fang, Brandon Zinda, Curtis Smart, Diana Lambert, An Zou, Fang Fan, Nikki Cheng
With improved screening methods, the numbers of abnormal breast lesions diagnosed in women have been increasing over time. However, it remains unclear whether these breast lesions will develop into invasive cancers. To more effectively predict the outcome of breast lesions and determine a more appropriate course of treatment, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate progression of non-invasive lesions to invasive breast cancers. A hallmark of invasive breast cancers is the accumulation of fibroblasts...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Galaxia M Rodriguez, Kristianne J C Galpin, Curtis W McCloskey, Barbara C Vanderhyden
Immunotherapy as a treatment for cancer is a growing field of endeavor but reports of success have been limited for epithelial ovarian cancer. Overcoming the challenges to developing more effective therapeutic approaches lies in a better understanding of the factors in cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment that limit response to immunotherapies. This article provides an overview of some ovarian cancer cell features such as tumor-associated antigens, ovarian cancer-derived exosomes, tumor mutational burden and overexpression of immunoinhibitory molecules...
July 24, 2018: Cancers
Charlie Y M Hsu, Tylor Walsh, Breanna S Borys, Michael S Kallos, Derrick E Rancourt
Recent advances in stem cell biology have accelerated the pre-clinical development of cell-based therapies for degenerative and chronic diseases. The success of this growing area hinges upon the concomitant development of scalable manufacturing platforms that can produce clinically relevant quantities of cells for thousands of patients. Current biomanufacturing practices for cell therapy products are built on a model previously optimized for biologics, wherein stable cell lines are established first, followed by large-scale production in the bioreactor...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Md Hasanur Alam, Jibak Lee, Takashi Miyano
The role of oocytes in follicular antrum formation is not well understood. We examined the effect of oocyte-derived growth factors, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the formation of antrum-like structures by cultured bovine oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs). OGCs containing growing oocytes (105-115 µm in diameter) were collected from early antral follicles (1.2-1.8 mm) and used to prepare oocytectomized complexes (OXCs) and granulosa cell complexes (GCs)...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Karolina Weronika Świderska, Anna Szlachcic, Łukasz Opaliński, Małgorzata Zakrzewska, Jacek Otlewski
In the rapidly developing field of targeted cancer therapy there is growing interest towards therapeutics combining two or more compounds to achieve synergistic action and minimize the chance of cancer resistance to treatment. We developed a fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-conjugate bearing two cytotoxic drugs with independent mode of action: α-amanitin and monomethyl auristatin E. Drugs are covalently attached to the targeting protein in a site-specific manner via maleimide-thiol conjugation and Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Joshua Luck, Oliver J Smith, Dean Malik, Afshin Mosahebi
BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafting is an emerging therapeutic option for cutaneous wounds. The regenerative potential of autologous fat relates to the presence of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) within the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). ADSCs are capable of differentiating into fibroblasts and keratinocytes, as well as secreting soluble mediators with angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the wound healing literature in humans...
July 18, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Samiksha Mahapatra, Dianna Martin, G Ian Gallicano
Stem cell research for treating or curing ischemic heart disease has, till date, culminated in three basic approaches: the use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology; reprogramming cardiac fibroblasts; and cardiovascular progenitor cell regeneration. As each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, exploiting the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages has been a challenge. Using human germline pluripotent stem cells (hgPSCs) along with a modified version of a relatively novel cell-expansion culture methodology to induce quick, indefinite expansion of normally slow growing hgPSCs, it was possible to emphasize the advantages of all three approaches...
2018: Journal of Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine
Xiangjun Liu, Chengfeng Zhang, Cunhua Wang, Jianwei Sun, Deliang Wang, Yansheng Zhao, Xiaohui Xu
Osteosarcoma is a common bone tumor and a frequently occuring cancer-associated threat to children. Notably, the prognosis of osteosarcoma is very poor when it is diagnosed with metastasis. A growing number of studies have indicated that various microRNAs (miRs) serve important regulatory roles in the pathogeny of different types of cancer. However, the functions of miR-210 in osteosarcoma need to be elucidated comprehensively. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential roles of miR-210 in osteosarcoma by targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)...
August 2018: Oncology Letters
Jiranuwat Sapudom, Tilo Pompe
The extracellular matrix (ECM) establishes the basis for the cell's microenvironment providing structural and mechanical support to cells and tissues, and regulating multiple cell functions including gene expression, cell cycle, apoptosis, morphogenesis, and migration. Tumor development can be considered as a process where the cells are subjected to mutations. However, changes in the microenvironment of tumor cells can strongly impact the growth, invasion and survival of tumor cells. This specialized microenvironment is known to have an abundance of inflammatory cells and activated fibroblasts both expressing ECM components and growth factors that support the survival and proliferation of tumor cells in a paracrine fashion...
July 24, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Jun Chen, Lin Ma, Nianzhao Zhang, Yaofeng Zhu, Keqin Zhang, Zhishun Xu, Qian Wang
Background and aim: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of impacting tumor progression but its role in tumor stroma remodeling still remains unclear. This present study was aimed to evaluate the potential function of MSCs on tumor stroma remodeling using rabbits VX2 bladder tumor model. Methods: The VX2 bladder tumor models were established by injecting mixed cell suspensions (106 of VX2 tumor cells and 0/106 /107 of autologous MSCs in group A, B, C, respectively) into the bladder mucosa using thirty male New Zealand white rabbits...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Magnus Hallin, Yurina Miki, Andrew J Hayes, Robin L Jones, Cyril Fisher, Khin Thway
Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue neoplasm that typically arises on the distal extremities of adults. It usually behaves in a low-grade manner and its characteristic histology is of a lobulated proliferation of moderately atypical spindled to epithelioid cells, vacuolated cells, and enlarged or bizarre cells with prominent nucleoli, dispersed within myxoid stroma containing a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate. The etiology of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma remains unknown with no definite causal factors identified...
2018: Rare Tumors
J O Zeitz, A Weber, E Most, W Windisch, C Bolduan, J Geyer, F-J Romberg, C Koch, K Eder
Nicotinic acid (NA) has been shown to induce muscle fiber switching toward oxidative type I fibers and a muscle metabolic phenotype that favors fatty acid (FA) utilization in growing rats, pigs, and lambs. The hypothesis of the present study was that supplementation of NA in cows during the periparturient phase also induces muscle fiber switching from type II to type I fibers in skeletal muscle and increases the capacity of the muscle to use free FA, which may help to reduce nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) flow to the liver, liver triglyceride (TG) accumulation, and ketogenesis...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Twana Alkasalias, Lidia Moyano-Galceran, Marie Arsenian-Henriksson, Kaisa Lehti
Tumorigenesis is a complex process involving dynamic interactions between malignant cells and their surrounding stroma, including both the cellular and acellular components. Within the stroma, fibroblasts represent not only a predominant cell type, but also a major source of the acellular tissue microenvironment comprising the extracellular matrix (ECM) and soluble factors. Normal fibroblasts can exert diverse suppressive functions against cancer initiating and metastatic cells via direct cell-cell contact, paracrine signaling by soluble factors, and ECM integrity...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Oksana Kowalczuk, Jerzy Laudanski, Wojciech Laudanski, Wieslawa Ewa Niklinska, Miroslaw Kozlowski, Jacek Niklinski
The present study aimed to verify a possibility of ongoing lymphangiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) via examination of mRNA levels of a number of lymphangiogenesis-associated genes in tumors. It was hypothesized that transcriptional activation of these genes would occur in tumors that stimulate new lymphatic vessel formation. The study was performed on 140 pairs of fresh-frozen surgical specimens of cancer and unaffected lung tissues derived from NSCLC stage I-IIIA patients. mRNA levels were evaluated with the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction method and expressed as fold change differences between the tumor and normal tissues...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Chin-An Yang, I-Ching Chou, Der-Yang Cho, Chien-Yu Lin, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Yu-Chen Ho, Ting-Yuan Liu, Ying-Hsuan Li, Jan-Gowth Chang
Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) has been reported to have heterogeneous causes, including mutations in genes of fibroblast growth factors and in genes in the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway. Here, we identified an activating cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) p.D269V mutation, located at the predicted protein-protein interaction groove, as a novel genetic cause of Dandy-Walker variant (DWV). CIP2A has been reported as an oncoprotein promoting tumor survival via inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)...
August 2018: Neurogenetics
Angela Dittmer, Jürgen Dittmer
We studied the long-term effect of stromal factors on the development of fulvestrant-resistance (FR) and fulvestrant-induced dormancy (D). Sublines established from stroma-treated FR-cells (C-FR cells) and D-cells (C-D cells) show permanently high expression of integrin β1 as well as Bcl-3 and P-STAT3 (C-FR) or IGF1R (C-D). Yet, cells fail to withstand fulvestrant better and do not migrate or grow faster than control cells. Instead, C-D cells rely on stromal factors to perform as well as control cells. In addition, C-FR cells adapted to integrin β1 for growth in 3D cultures...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Hisatsugu Maekawa, Fumihiko Kakizaki, Tadayoshi Yamaura, Kenji Kawada, Yoshiharu Sakai, M Mark Taketo
Recent advances allowed culturing and examination of patient-derived colorectal cancer (PD-CRC) cells as organoids or spheroids. To be applied to practical personalized medicine, however, current methods still need to be strengthened for higher efficiency. Here we report an improved method to propagate PD-CRC tumor initiating cells (TICs) in spheroid culture. We established > 100 cancer spheroid lines derived from independent colorectal cancer patients employing a serum-containing medium with additional inhibitors, Y27632 and SB431542...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
Seh-Hoon Oh, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Mark L Jewell, Richard T Premont, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic failure of mechanisms that promote effective regeneration of dead hepatocytes causes replacement of functional hepatic parenchyma with fibrous scar tissue, ultimately resulting in cirrhosis. Therefore, defining and optimizing mechanisms that orchestrate effective regeneration might prevent cirrhosis. We hypothesized that effective regeneration of injured livers requires hepatocytes to evade the growth-inhibitory actions of TGFβ, since TGFβ signaling inhibits mature hepatocyte growth but drives cirrhosis pathogenesis...
August 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Jun-De Zhu, Jun-Jie Wang, Xian-Hu Zhang, Yan Yu, Zhao-Sheng Kang
Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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