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latent infection

Vanessa Estato, Joice Stipursky, Fabiana Gomes, Tally Chalolachvilli Mergener, Edwards Frazão-Teixeira, Silvana Allodi, Eduardo Tibiriçá, Helene Santos Barbosa, Daniel Adesse
Toxoplasmosis is one of the leading parasitic diseases worldwide. Some data suggest that chronic acquired toxoplasmosis could be linked to behavioral alterations in humans. The parasite infects neurons, forming immunologically silent cysts. Cerebral microcirculation homeostasis is determinant to brain functions, and pathological states can alter capillarity or blood perfusion, leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Albino mice were infected with Toxoplasma gondii (ME49 strain) and analyzed after 10, 40, and 180 days...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Ahmed El-Sharkawy, Lobna Al Zaidan, Ahmed Malki
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the first herpesvirus identified to be associated with human cancers known to infect the majority of the world population. EBV-associated malignancies are associated with a latent form of infection, and several of the EBV-encoded latent proteins are known to mediate cellular transformation. These include six nuclear antigens and three latent membrane proteins (LMPs). In lymphoid and epithelial tumors, viral latent gene expressions have distinct pattern. In both primary and metastatic tumors, the constant expression of latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) at the RNA level suggests that this protein is the key player in the EBV-associated tumorigenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Dana Šafářová, Karolína Vavroušková, Thierry Candresse, Milan Navrátil
A novel virus infecting elderberry was identified by high-throughput Illumina sequencing of double strand RNAs isolated form elderberry leaves. The complete genome sequence obtained (4512 nucleotides in length) shows an organization typical for aureusviruses, with five open reading frames (ORFs) and the typical ORF1-RT expression by the readthrough of an amber stop codon. The analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and coat protein (CP) sequences showed the highest identity (respectively 75.7% and 55%) with the corresponding amino acid sequences of Pothos latent virus...
2018: PloS One
Samantha Correia, Ray Bridges, Fanny Wegner, Cristina Venturini, Anne Palser, Jaap M Middeldorp, Jeffrey I Cohen, Mario A Lorenzetti, Irene Bassano, Robert E White, Paul Kellam, Judith Breuer, Paul J Farrell
138 new Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome sequences have been determined. 125 of these and 116 from previous reports were combined to produce a multiple sequence alignment of 241 EBV genomes, which we have used to analyze variation within the viral genome. The type 1/type2 classification of EBV remains the major form of variation and is defined mostly by EBNA2 and EBNA3, but the type 2 SNPs at the EBNA3 locus extend into the adjacent gp350 and gp42 genes, whose products mediate infection of B cells by EBV. A small insertion within the BART miRNA region of the genome was present in 21 EBV strains...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Magda Orzechowska, Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak, Mateusz Cybulski, Ewelina Mystkowska, Anna Milewska
INTRODUCTION: Syphilis is a systemic disease with a complex natural history and a diversified clinical symptomology, taking various forms. It is characterized by a long-term course, often asymptomatic. The Global Estimates indicate that Treponema pallidum caused 5.6 million infections per year. AIM: Epidemiological characteristics of patients with syphilis in selected Polish urban agglomerations (Warsaw and Gdańsk) in 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases of syphilis reported by doctors to The Provincial Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations in Gdańsk (50 cases) and in Warsaw (520 cases) in 2016 were analysed...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Qing Yang, Yuyang Ding, Fengling Feng, Enxiang Pan, Xiaozhen Fan, Xiuchang Ma, Ling Chen, Junling Zhao, Caijun Sun
Based on structure modification and a high-throughput Jurkat-Lat cell screening model, we found that GIBH-LRA002, ethyl-2-amino-3-cyano-9-methyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-4,9-dihydropyrano[2,3- b ]indole-4-carboxylate, effectively reactivated the latent proviruses in a Jurkat-Lat cell line and primary CD4+ T cells from both chronic SIV-infected rhesus macaques and HIV-1 patients but without inducing systemic activation, making this compound attractive for potentially treating HIV-1 infection.
September 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Martina Donadoni, Rahsan Sariyer, Hassen Wollebo, Anna Bellizzi, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
The human neurotropic polyomavirus JC, JC virus (JCV), infects the majority of human population during early childhood and establishes a latent/persistent infection for the rest of the life. JCV is the etiologic agent of the fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) that is seen primarily in immunocompromised individuals. In addition to the PML, JCV has also been shown to transform cells in culture systems and cause a variety of tumors in experimental animals...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
Adam M Spivak, Racheal A Nell, Mark Petersen, Laura Martins, Paul Sebahar, Ryan E Looper, Vicente Planelles
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of proviruses in long-lived resting T cells. Strategies targeting these latently infected cells will be necessary to eradicate HIV-1 in infected individuals. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation is an effective mechanism to reactivate latent proviruses, and allows for recognition and clearance of infected cells by the immune system. Several ingenol compounds, naturally occurring PKC agonists, have been described to have potent latency reversal activity...
August 13, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Claudette L Poole, Scott H James
PURPOSE: The objective of this review was to summarize the recent literature describing the current burden of disease due to herpesviruses in the antiviral and transplant era; describe mechanisms of action of antiviral agents and the development of resistance; summarize the literature of recent antiviral agents brought to market as well as agents under development; and to present literature on future strategies for herpesvirus therapeutics. METHODS: An extensive search of the medical literature related to antiherpesviral therapy was conducted to compose this narrative review...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
A Lahuerta-Marin, M G Milne, J McNair, R A Skuce, S H McBride, F D Menzies, S J W McDowell, A W Byrne, I G Handel, B M de C Bronsvoort
In the European Union, the recommended ante-mortem diagnostic methods for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin (SICCT) test and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test as an ancillary test. The SICCT test has a moderate sensitivity (Se) and high specificity (Sp), while the IFN-γ test has good Se, but a lower Sp than the SICCT test. A retrospective Bayesian latent class analysis was conducted on 71,185 cattle from 806 herds chronically infected with bTB distributed across Northern Ireland (NI) to estimate the Se and Sp of the common ante-mortem tests and meat inspection...
August 2018: Veterinary Journal
Paige L Williams, Katharine Correia, Brad Karalius, Russell B Van Dyke, James D Wilkinson, William T Shearer, Steven D Colan, Steven E Lipshultz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential adverse associations of individual antiretroviral medications (ARVs) used in combination antiretroviral therapy regimens on cardiac structure and function in youth with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIV). DESIGN: PHIV youth (n = 325) enrolled in a prospective multisite cohort study had a single echocardiogram at age 7-16 years to evaluate cardiac function and structure. METHODS: We applied several statistical approaches to evaluate associations between use of 18 individual ARVs with Z-scores for 11 measures of left ventricular (LV) function and structure...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
Marilia B Antonio, Gabriel T Cuba, Ricardo P Vasconcelos, Ana Paula P S Alves, Bruna Oliveira da Silva, Vivian Iida Avelino-Silva
BACKGROUND: Although doxycycline is widely used as alternative to benzathine penicillin for the treatment of early and late latent syphilis, data on serological response following treatment with doxycycline among HIV-infected patients is limited. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed serological response to syphilis treatment with doxycycline among HIV-infected patients treated during a benzathine penicillin shortage period and compared with treatment response among patients treated with benzathine penicillin...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
Chaofeng Tu, Zhaoyang Zeng, Peng Qi, Xiayu Li, Can Guo, Fang Xiong, Bo Xiang, Ming Zhou, Qianjin Liao, Jianjun Yu, Yong Li, Xiaoling Li, Guiyuan Li, Wei Xiong
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common tumor in Southern China with marked ethnic and geographic distributions and concomitant EBV infection. However, the molecular basis of NPC remains largely unknown and the role of EBV genomic variations in the pathogenesis of NPC is unclear. Whole-genome sequencing of a collection of 12 EBV-positive paired NPC tumor/peripheral blood samples from Hunan province was performed, and the FBXO11 gene was subjected to further functional analyses. We identified 69 missense mutations in signaling pathways typically altered in cancer, including NF-κB and Wnt/Hedgehog/Notch...
August 9, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Robert P Igo, Noémi B Hall, LaShaunda L Malone, Jacob B Hall, Barbara Truitt, Feiyou Qiu, Li Tao, Ezekiel Mupere, Audrey Schnell, Thomas R Hawn, William S Bush, Moses Joloba, W Henry Boom, Catherine M Stein
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health burden worldwide, and more effective treatment is sorely needed. Consequently, uncovering causes of resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is of special importance for vaccine design. Resistance to Mtb infection can be defined by a persistently negative tuberculin skin test (PTST-) despite living in close and sustained exposure to an active TB case. While susceptibility to Mtb is, in part, genetically determined, relatively little work has been done to uncover genetic factors underlying resistance to Mtb infection...
August 13, 2018: Genes and Immunity
Saeed Khoshnood, Mohsen Heidary, Mehri Haeili, Michel Drancourt, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Vahid Lohrasbi
Tuberculosis (TB) is now among the top ten causes of mortality worldwide being resulted in 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only available TB vaccine which fails to provide consistent protection against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents despite being efficacious at protecting infants and young children from the most severe, often deadly forms of TB disease. To achieve the goal of global TB elimination by 2050 we will need new interventions including more improved vaccines that are effective in adult individuals who have not been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as latently infected or immunocompromised subjects...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Allison Shelton Rhines, Marcus William Feldman, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We model the epidemiological impact of providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) to South African adolescents, among whom HIV prevalence is low, latent TB prevalence is high, and school-based programs may enable population-level coverage. METHODS: We simulate a dynamic compartmental model of age-structured HIV and TB co-epidemics in South Africa. HIV dynamics are modeled by infection status, CD4 count, and antiretroviral therapy; TB dynamics are modeled by disease stage, diagnosis, treatment, and IPT status...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
Minji Son, Yoon Seon Park, Min Ho Jung, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
OBJECTIVES: In South Korea, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening is a critical strategy associated with efforts to reduce the incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Currently, only children with a known history of TB contact are considered as pediatric high-risk groups for LTBI, and consequently, LTBI screening is only provided to these children. However, to reduce the incidence of TB, the high-risk groups that undergo LTBI screening should be expanded. This study aimed to assess the risk factors for LTBI among children living in South Korea with no known history of TB contact for the identification of additional high-risk groups...
August 10, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Ruth de Francisco, Andrés Castaño-García, Susana Martínez-González, Isabel Pérez-Martínez, Ana J González-Huerta, Lucía R Morais, María S Fernández-García, Santiago Jiménez, Susana Díaz-Coto, Pablo Flórez-Díez, Adolfo Suárez, Sabino Riestra
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection on clinical outcomes in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: To evaluate seroprevalence, seroconversion rate and complications associated with EBV infection in an adult IBD cohort attending a tertiary hospital in Spain between 2006 and 2016. METHODS: EBV serological status was performed. In seronegative patients, the seroconversion rate was evaluated...
August 10, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Rachel C Heenan, Thomas Volkman, Simon Stokes, Shidan Tosif, Hamish Graham, Andrea Smith, David Tran, Georgia Paxton
AIM: To examine refugee health assessments in Syrian and Iraqi children in the context of changes to offshore immigration screening, updated Australian refugee health guidelines and the primary care refugee health model in Victoria. METHODS: This is a retrospective audit of Syrian and Iraqi children aged 0-17 years attending a specialist immigrant health service from January 2015 to September 2017. RESULTS: We saw 128 children (7 months-16 years, 64...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
David J Epstein, Jeffrey Dunn, Stan Deresinski
Multiple sclerosis therapies include interferons, glatiramer, and multiple immunosuppressive drugs. Discerning infectious risks of immunosuppressive drugs requires understanding their mechanisms of action and analyzing interventional studies and postmarketing observational data. Though identical immunosuppressive therapies are sometimes used in non-neurologic conditions, infectious risks may differ in this population. Screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection should be prioritized for patients receiving alemtuzumab; ocrelizumab is likely not associated with an increased risk of TB...
August 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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