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latent infection

Valerie A C M Koeken, Ekta Lachmandas, Anca Riza, Vasiliki Matzaraki, Yang Li, Vinod Kumar, Marije Oosting, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Reinout van Crevel
Background: Rewiring cellular metabolism is important for activation of immune cells during host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Glutamine has been implicated as an immunomodulatory nutrient, but its role in response to M. tuberculosis is unknown. Methods: We assessed expression of glutamine pathway genes in M. tuberculosis infected macrophages and blood transcriptomics from individuals with latent or active tuberculosis. Subsequently, we studied the effect of blocking glutaminolysis on M...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Muhamad Amin, Dian N Adrianti, Ni Luh A Lasmika, Muhamad Ali
Koi herpesvirus (KHV), a member of Hervesviridae, has been frequently reported to cause mass mortality (80-100%) in common carps ( Cyprinus carpio L.). A unique feature of Herverviridae members is latent infection, maintaining their genetic information for an extended period in the absence of productive infection, and reactivate when environmental conditions are favorable for their growth. To prevent this occurs, a monitoring program should be done for early detection. This study aimed at detecting the presence of KHV in healthy common carps reared in West-Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia...
December 2018: Virusdisease
Marcela Rubio-Carrasquilla, Cristian David Santa, Juan Pablo Rendón, Jorge Botero-Garcés, Ernesto Moreno, Luz Elena Cano
Histoplasmosis is the most common endemic mycosis in the Americas. Currently, there is no laboratory test capable to detect subclinical or latent infections by Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc), which might develop as severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. For the first time to our knowledge, we explore the suitability of an interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) to detect latent Hc infection in asymptomatic individuals. A cohort of 126 volunteers was enrolled in the study, 13 of which underwent a Hc infection in the past, and 93 of them showing risk factors for this infection...
December 11, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Karen Cáceres, Rocío Martínez
Syphilis is produced by Treponema pallidum, which is acquired mainly through sexual contact and transplacental, but can also be acquired by transfusion of contaminated human blood and direct accidental inoculation. The natural history of the infection is characterized by three symptomatic clinical stages: primary, secondary and tertiary syphilis; these last two are preceded by asymptomatic or latent stages of the disease: early latent syphilis and late latent syphilis. This report presents the epidemiological situation of syphilis in Chile up to 2016, using as a method the descriptive analysis of cases that entered surveillance...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Christian Wong, Sonu Sahni, Muhammad Azaz I Cheema, Asma Iftikhar
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection is the ninth leading cause of death worldwide, with many individuals with undiagnosed active or latent disease. The presence of parenchymal lung disease, such as interstitial lung disease (ILD), has been suggested to increase the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In the clinical setting of ILD, the diagnosis of an underlying MTB infection may be challenging due to the interstitial process and underlying fibrosis, which may mask the infection. An atypical presentation and misleading radiological patterns may delay the diagnosis of the underlying MTB infection...
October 1, 2018: Curēus
Leonie van den Broek, Jutte van der Werff-Ten Bosch, Pieter-Jan Cortoos, Susanne van Steijn, Machiel van den Akker
Neonatal neutropenia is regularly seen with variable etiology. We describe a breastfed infant with maternal medication use as a probable cause of neonatal neutropenia. An 8 days old exclusively breastfed female infant of Arab-Berber descent was referred to our hospital because of an infection of the umbilicus. Complete blood count showed a picture of severe isolated neutropenia. After initiating intravenous antibiotic treatment, the infection quickly resolved, but the isolated neutropenia persisted. Bone marrow aspiration indicated severe congenital neutropenia...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Alejandro Magallanes-Puebla, Patricia Espinosa-Cueto, Luz M López-Marín, Raul Mancilla
Due to prolonged coevolution with the human being, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has acquired a sophisticated capacity to evade host immunity and persist in a latent state in the infected individual. As part of this evolutive process, mycobacteria have developed a highly complex cell wall that acts as a protective barrier. Herein we studied the effects of Di-O-acyl trehalose, a cell-wall glycolipid of virulent mycobacteria on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. We have demonstrated that Di-O-Acyl-trehalose promotes a tolerogenic phenotype in bone marrow-derived murine DCs activated with mycobacterial antigens and Toll-like receptor agonists...
2018: PloS One
Katherine M Bruner, Lillian B Cohn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the recent data examining infected CD4+ T cell dynamics during ART and implications for cure strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV-1 cure is a worldwide unmet medical need. Although combination antiretroviral therapies effectively suppress HIV-1 replication in vivo, viral rebound occurs shortly after therapy cessation. The major barrier to HIV-1 cure is a pool of latently infected CD4+ T cells, called the latent reservoir, which is established early during infection, has a long half-life in vivo, and is not eliminated by treatment...
December 10, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Hoang A Hoang, Mai H Yen, Vo T Ngoan, Le P Nga, Dang T H Oanh
Striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farmed in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, represents an important contribution to Vietnamese aquaculture exports. However, these fish are affected by frequent disease outbreaks across the entire region. One of the most common infections involves white spots in the internal organs, caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. In this study, a virulent phage specific to E. ictaluri, designated MK7, was isolated from striped catfish kidney and liver samples and characterized...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
C Schwartz, O Rohr, C Wallet
The DNA-PK complex is the major component of the predominant mechanism of DSB repair in humans. In addition, this complex is involved in many other processes such as DNA recombination, genome maintenance, apoptosis and transcription regulation. Several studies have linked the decrease of the DNA-PK activity with cancer initiation, due to defects in the repair. On another hand, higher DNA-PK expression and activity have been observed in various other tumor cells and have been linked with a decrease of the efficiency of anti-tumor drugs...
December 6, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Hui-Min Zhao, Rui Du, Chun-Ling Li, Ping Ji, Hai-Cong Li, Kang Wu, Zhidong Hu, Shui-Hua Lu, Douglas B Lowrie, Xiao-Yong Fan
The IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) based on region of difference 1 (RD1) antigens have improved diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, IGRAs with these antigens could not distinguish latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) from active tuberculosis (ATB). DosR regulon genes are thought to be important for Mtb dormancy, and their products have higher immunogenicity in LTBI than ATB individuals, suggesting protective immunity mediated by DosR regulon-encoded antigens and potential utility of them for differential diagnostics of Mtb-infected populations or development of therapeutic vaccines against tuberculosis (TB)...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infection
Jie Luo, Mingxu Zhang, Baosong Yan, Fake Li, Shaonian Guan, Kai Chang, Wenbin Jiang, Huan Xu, Tao Yuan, Ming Chen, Shaoli Deng
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify plasma cytokine biomarkers that differentiate the infection stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). METHODS: This study included a total of 227 subjects consisting of active tuberculosis (ATB) patients, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) individuals, and healthy controls (HC). We analyzed the expressions of 38 plasma cytokines in the discovery cohort to identify the biosignatures for differentiating MTB infection states, area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infection
Sebastian J Theobald, Sahamoddin Khailaie, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Valery Volk, Henning Olbrich, Simon Danisch, Laura Gerasch, Andreas Schneider, Christian Sinzger, Dirk Schaudien, Stefan Lienenklaus, Peggy Riese, Carlos A Guzman, Constanca Figueiredo, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Loukia M Spineli, Stephanie Glaesener, Almut Meyer-Bahlburg, Arnold Ganser, Michael Schmitt, Michael Mach, Martin Messerle, Renata Stripecke
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency is typically harmless but reactivation can be largely detrimental to immune compromised hosts. We modeled latency and reactivation using a traceable HCMV laboratory strain expressing the Gaussia luciferase reporter gene (HCMV/GLuc) in order to interrogate the viral modulatory effects on the human adaptive immunity. Humanized mice with long-term (more than 17 weeks) steady human T and B cell immune reconstitutions were infected with HCMV/GLuc and 7 weeks later were further treated with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to induce viral reactivations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Helena Huerga, Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla, Nara Melikyan, Hakob Atshemyan, Armen Hayrapetyan, Ani Ulumyan, Mathieu Bastard, Naira Khachatryan, Catherine Hewison, Francis Varaine, Maryline Bonnet
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the prevalence and incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and tuberculosis (TB) disease in children in close contact with patients with drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) in a country with high DR-TB prevalence. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a prospective cohort study of paediatric contacts of adult patients with pulmonary DR-TB in Armenia. Children were screened using tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay and chest X-ray at the initial consultation, and were reassessed every 3-6 months for a period of 24 months...
December 6, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Shan Lin, Francesca Peduto Hand
Fruit rot of deciduous holly is an emerging fungal disease that is affecting plant production across midwestern and eastern U.S. nurseries. To determine the growth stage(s) of host susceptibility to infection by the major pathogens associated with the disease, Alternaria alternata and Diaporthe ilicicola, and minor pathogens such as Colletotrichum fioriniae and Epicoccum nigrum, we conducted two sets of experiments over two consecutive seasons. In the first case we monitored the presence of the pathogens as well as disease progression in a commercial nursery under natural conditions by collecting plant tissues from the flower bud stage until fruit maturity...
December 5, 2018: Plant Disease
H Luz McNaughton Reyes, Suzanne Maman, Allison K Groves, Dhayendre Moodley, May S Chen
HIV-positive women who engage in postpartum unsafe sex are at risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI), unintended pregnancy, and secondary transmission of HIV to uninfected partners. One factor that may increase risk for postpartum unsafe sex among HIV-positive women is intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization; few studies, however, have examined this association. This longitudinal study examined whether patterns of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV, assessed during pregnancy, predicted unsafe sex at 14 weeks postpartum among South African women diagnosed as HIV-positive during pregnancy (n = 561)...
December 6, 2018: AIDS Care
Q Y Yu, P Xu, P Lin, Y Li, L H Wang, D D Li, P Lyu
Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics and latent classes of non-marital heterosexual transmission among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) individuals in Jiangmen, Guangdong province between 2015 and 2017. Methods: HIV/AIDS cases from Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System were collected from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. Inclusion criteria of HIV/AIDS were heterosexual transmission, non-marital heterosexual contact and older than 15 years...
December 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Dwain G van Zyl, Ming-Han Tsai, Anatoliy Shumilov, Viktor Schneidt, Rémy Poirey, Bettina Schlehe, Herbert Fluhr, Josef Mautner, Henri-Jacques Delecluse
The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is etiologically linked to the development of several malignancies and autoimmune diseases. EBV has a multifaceted life cycle that comprises virus lytic replication and latency programs. Considering EBV infection holistically, we rationalized that prophylactic EBV vaccines should ideally prime the immune system against lytic and latent proteins. To this end, we generated highly immunogenic particles that contain antigens from both these cycles...
December 6, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Tigran Avoundjian, James Stewart, David Peyton, Christie Lewis, Kendra Johnson, Sara N Glick, Matthew R Golden, Christine M Khosropour
BACKGROUND: Mississippi (MS) has the 10th highest rate of new HIV infections in the United States. The Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) integrated partner HIV testing into syphilis partner services (PS) in 2014, but the effectiveness of this as an HIV case-finding strategy has not been evaluated. METHODS: We identified all early syphilis (primary, secondary, and early latent) case records reported from 7/1/2014-12/31/2016, excluding case records for people concurrently newly diagnosed with HIV...
December 3, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Reza Abdolsalehi, Hamid Eshaghi, Setareh Mamishi
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group at increased risk for exposure to various infectious agents including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, there is very limited data on the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among HCWs in Iran. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of LTBI among HCW's of Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital, and to compare the feasibility of using tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube test (QFT-GIT) to screen the LTBI among this population...
December 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
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