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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338075/immunoadjuvant-therapy-in-sepsis-novel-strategies-for-immunosuppressive-sepsis-coming-down-the-pike
#1
Eizo Watanabe, Lukose K Thampy, Richard S Hotchkiss
Recent efforts have focused on immunoadjuvant therapies for sepsis. The host inflammatory response consequent to initial exposure to pathogens is often followed by anti-inflammatory forces, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality in such critically ill patients. In the subacute stage of sepsis, apoptosis (type I programmed cell death) and subsequently autophagy (type II programmed cell death) have been attracting recent research interest. Although many patients may die during the initial cytokine storm, those who survive this phase might acquire defining characteristics of profound immunosuppression, including failure to clear the primary infection, development of secondary opportunistic infections, and reactivation of latent viruses...
October 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337941/meta-analysis-identification-of-highly-robust-and-differential-immune-metabolic-signatures-of-systemic-host-response-to-acute-and-latent-tuberculosis-in-children-and-adults
#2
Saikou Y Bah, Thorsten Forster, Paul Dickinson, Beate Kampmann, Peter Ghazal
Background: Whole blood expression profiling is a mainstay for delineating differential diagnostic signatures of infection yet is subject to high variability that reduces power and complicates clinical usefulness. To date, confirmatory high confidence expression profiling signatures for clinical use remain uncertain. Here we have sought to evaluate the reproducibility and confirmatory nature of differential expression signatures, comprising molecular and cellular pathways, across multiple international clinical observational studies investigating children and adult whole blood transcriptome responses to tuberculosis (TB)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337565/a-real-time-pcr-based-assay-for-determining-parasite-to-host-ratio-and-parasitaemia-in-the-clinical-samples-of-bovine-theileriosis
#3
Debabrata Dandasena, Vasundhra Bhandari, G S Sreenivasamurthy, Shweta Murthy, Sonti Roy, Vandna Bhanot, Jaspreet Singh Arora, Satparkash Singh, Paresh Sharma
Theileria annulata is an intracellular parasite that causes active and latent forms of bovine theileriosis. Diagnosis of the disease is primarily based on traditional methods such as microscopy, however, PCR based methods have proven to be superior in the absence of clear disease symptoms. However, diagnosis is difficult in cases of lower parasitaemia by conventional PCR. Hence, a rapid and sensitive method which can detect early infection and low parasite load is required. Therefore, we have developed an absolute quantification based real-time PCR (qPCR) assay...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334726/estimating-latent-tuberculosis-infection-using-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-japan
#4
Tomoyasu Nishimura, Masaki Ota, Masaaki Mori, Naoki Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kawabe, Seiya Kato
We estimated the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) rate for foreign-born students at Keio University, Tokyo, Japan, using an interferon-γ release assay. The LTBI rate for students from countries with estimated tuberculosis incidence >100 cases/100,000 persons was high (10.0%). Universities should screen for LTBI in students from countries with high tuberculosis incidence.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334521/two-interferon-gamma-release-assays-for-predicting-active-tuberculosis-the-uk-predict-tb-prognostic-test-study
#5
Ibrahim Abubakar, Ajit Lalvani, Jo Southern, Alice Sitch, Charlotte Jackson, Oluchukwu Onyimadu, Marc Lipman, Jonathan J Deeks, Chris Griffiths, Graham Bothamley, Onn Min Kon, Andrew Hayward, Joanne Lord, Francis Drobniewski
BACKGROUND: Despite a recent decline in the annual incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the UK, rates remain higher than in most Western European countries. The detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) is an essential component of the UK TB control programme. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic value and cost-effectiveness of the current two interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) compared with the standard tuberculin skin test (TST) for predicting active TB among untreated individuals at increased risk of TB: (1) contacts of active TB cases and (2) new entrants to the UK from high-TB-burden countries...
October 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333813/characterization-of-inducible-transcription-and-translation-competent-hiv-1-using-the-rnascope-ish-technology-at-a-single-cell-resolution
#6
Wang Zhang, Sara Svensson Akusjärvi, Anders Sönnerborg, Ujjwal Neogi
Identifying the source and dynamics of persistent HIV-1 at single-cell resolution during cART is crucial for the design of strategies to eliminate the latent HIV-1 reservoir. An assay to measure latent HIV-1 that can distinguish inducible from defective proviruses with high precision is essential to evaluate the efficacy of HIV-1 cure efforts but is presently lacking. The primary aim of this study was therefore to identify transcription and translation competent latently infected cells through detection of biomolecules that are dependent on transcriptional activation of the provirus...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333806/differential-brain-microrna-expression-profiles-after-acute-and-chronic-infection-of-mice-with-toxoplasma-gondii-oocysts
#7
Rui-Si Hu, Jun-Jun He, Hany M Elsheikha, Fu-Kai Zhang, Yang Zou, Guang-Hui Zhao, Wei Cong, Xing-Quan Zhu
Brain microRNAs (miRNAs) change in abundance in response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. However, their precise role in the pathogenesis of cerebral infection with T. gondii oocyst remains unclear. We studied the abundance of miRNAs in the brain of mice on days 11 and 33 post-infection (dpi) in order to identify miRNA pattern specific to early (11 dpi) and late (33 dpi) T. gondii infection. Mice were challenged with T. gondii oocysts (Type II strain) and on 11 and 33 dpi, the expression of miRNAs in mouse brain was investigated using small RNA (sRNA) sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333800/heparin-binding-hemagglutinin-adhesin-hbha-is-involved-in-intracytosolic-lipid-inclusions-formation-in-mycobacteria
#8
Dominique Raze, Claudie Verwaerde, Gaspard Deloison, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Baptiste Coupin, Marc Loyens, Priscille Brodin, Carine Rouanet, Camille Locht
The heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) is an important virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . It is a surface-displayed protein that serves as an adhesin for non-phagocytic cells and is involved in extra-pulmonary dissemination of the tubercle bacillus. It is also an important latency antigen useful for the diagnosis of latently M. tuberculosis -infected individuals. Using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy on mycobacteria that produce HBHA-green fluorescent protein chimera, we show here that HBHA can be found at two different locations and dynamically alternates between the mycobacterial surface and the interior of the cell, where it participates in the formation of intracytosolic lipid inclusions (ILI)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333612/the-value-of-transcriptomics-in-advancing-knowledge-of-the-immune-response-and-diagnosis-in-tuberculosis
#9
REVIEW
Akul Singhania, Robert J Wilkinson, Marc Rodrigue, Pranabashis Haldar, Anne O'Garra
Blood transcriptomics analysis of tuberculosis has revealed an interferon-inducible gene signature that diminishes in expression after successful treatment; this promises improved diagnostics and treatment monitoring, which are essential for the eradication of tuberculosis. Sensitive radiography revealing lung abnormalities and blood transcriptomics have demonstrated heterogeneity in patients with active tuberculosis and exposed asymptomatic people with latent tuberculosis, suggestive of a continuum of infection and immune states...
October 17, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333309/histone-h2a-monoubiquitylation-and-p38-mapks-regulate-immediate-early-gene-like-reactivation-of-latent-retrovirus-htlv-1
#10
Anurag Kulkarni, Graham P Taylor, Robert J Klose, Christopher J Schofield, Charles Rm Bangham
It is not understood how the human T cell leukemia virus human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1), a retrovirus, regulates the in vivo balance between transcriptional latency and reactivation. The HTLV-1 proviral plus-strand is typically transcriptionally silent in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from infected individuals, but after short-term ex vivo culture, there is a strong, spontaneous burst of proviral plus-strand transcription. Here, we demonstrate that proviral reactivation in freshly isolated, naturally infected primary CD4+ T cells has 3 key attributes characteristic of an immediate-early gene...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333308/determinants-of-the-efficacy-of-hiv-latency-reversing-agents-and-implications-for-drug-and-treatment-design
#11
Ruian Ke, Jessica M Conway, David M Margolis, Alan S Perelson
HIV eradication studies have focused on developing latency-reversing agents (LRAs). However, it is not understood how the rate of latent reservoir reduction is affected by different steps in the process of latency reversal. Furthermore, as current LRAs are host-directed, LRA treatment is likely to be intermittent to avoid host toxicities. Few careful studies of the serial effects of pulsatile LRA treatment have yet been done. This lack of clarity makes it difficult to evaluate the efficacy of candidate LRAs or predict long-term treatment outcomes...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333177/acute-infection-and-subsequent-subclinical-reactivation-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-after-vaginal-inoculation-of-rhesus-macaques
#12
Ming Lo, Jia Zhu, Scott G Hansen, Timothy Carroll, Christina Farr Zuend, Laura Nöel-Romas, Zhong-Min Ma, Linda Fritts, Meei-Li Huang, Sijie Sun, Ying Huang, David Koelle, Louis J Picker, Adam Burgener, Lawrence Corey, Christopher J Miller
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a common sexually transmitted infection with a highly variable clinical course. Many infections quickly become subclinical, with episodes of spontaneous virus reactivation. To study the host/HSV-2 interactions an animal model of subclinical HSV-2 infection is needed. In an effort to develop a relevant model, rhesus macaques (RM) were inoculated intravaginally with two or three HSV-2 strains (186, 333 and/or G); total dose 1x107 pfu HSV-2 per animal. Infectious HSV-2 and HSV-2 DNA was consistently shed in vaginal swabs for the first 7-14 days after each inoculation...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333061/endogenous-transplacental-transmission-of-neospora-caninum-during-successive-pregnancies-across-three-generations-of-naturally-infected-sheep
#13
Marta González-Warleta, José Antonio Castro-Hermida, Carmen Calvo, Valentín Pérez, Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Mercedes Mezo
Endogenous transplacental transmission, which occurs during pregnancy as the result of reactivation of a latent infection in the dam, is the main mechanism of propagation of Neospora caninum within cattle herds. However, the importance of this propagation mechanism has not yet been evaluated in relation to ovine neosporosis. In this study, involving three generations of ewes naturally infected by N. caninum, we demonstrated that endogenous transplacental transmission may also be highly efficient in the ovine host since transmission of infection occurred in 96...
October 17, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328408/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-patients-in-pernambuco-brazil
#14
Diego Lins Guedes, Zulma Medeiros, Elis Dionísio da Silva, Audrey Violeta Martins de Vasconcelos, Mariana Santana da Silva, Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho
Common in four continents, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important but neglected disease. HIV infection increases the risk of developing VL in people from leishmaniasis-endemic areas, with worse prognosis when there is coinfection. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of HIV/VL coinfection in patients admitted in three referral hospitals for HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to compare epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics among HIV/VL coinfected and HIV mono-infected individuals...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327124/genome-wide-approaches-discover-novel-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-as-correlates-of-infection-disease-immunity-and-targets-for-vaccination
#15
REVIEW
Mariateresa Coppola, Tom Hm Ottenhoff
Every day approximately six thousand people die of Tuberculosis (TB). Its causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is an ancient pathogen that through its evolution developed complex mechanisms to evade immune surveillance and acquire the ability to establish persistent infection in its hosts. Currently, it is estimated that one-fourth of the human population is latently infected with Mtb and among those infected 3-10% are at risk of developing active TB disease during their lifetime. The currently available diagnostics are not able to detect this risk group for prophylactic treatment to prevent transmission...
July 7, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326210/comparative-analysis-and-generation-of-a-robust-hiv-1-dna-quantification-assay
#16
Jordan Thomas, Alessandra Ruggiero, Francesco A Procopio, Giuseppe Pantaleo, William A Paxton, Georgios Pollakis
HIV-1 infection cannot be cured due to the presence of the latent reservoir (LR). Novel cure or treatment strategies, such as "shock and kill" or therapeutic vaccination, aim to reduce or eradicate the LR. Cure strategies utilise robust DNA quantification assays to measure the change in the LR in low copy scenarios. No standard assay exists, which impedes the reliable comparison of results from different therapy and vaccine trials and HIV-1 total DNA quantification methods have not been previously compared...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325763/genetic-complexity-in-the-replication-competent-latent-hiv-reservoir-increases-with-untreated-infection-duration-in-infected-youth
#17
Zabrina Brumme, Hanwei Sudderuddin, Carrie Ziemniak, Katherine Luzuriaga, Bradley R Jones, Jeffrey B Joy, Coleen K Cunningham, Thomas Greenough, Deborah Persaud
OBJECTIVE: Timely initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) limits latent HIV reservoir size and should also limit reservoir genetic complexity. However, the relationship between these two factors remains unclear, particularly among HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of replication-competent latent HIV clones serially isolated by limiting-dilution culture from resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs from ART-suppressed, young adult participants of a historic phase I therapeutic vaccine trial (PACTG/IMPAACT-P1059)...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324720/bonamia-in-ostrea-angasi-diagnostic-performance-field-prevalence-and-intensity
#18
Jessica J Buss, Kathryn H Wiltshire, Thomas A A Prowse, James O Harris, Marty R Deveney
Bonamia spp. parasites threaten flat oyster (Ostrea spp.) farming worldwide. Understanding test performance is important for designing surveillance and interpreting diagnostic results. Following a pilot survey which found low Bonamia sp. intensity in farmed Ostrea angasi, we tested further oysters (n = 100-150) from each of three farms for Bonamia sp. using heart smear, histology and qPCR. We used a Bayesian Latent Class Model to assess diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) of these tests individually or in combination, and to assess prevalence...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323821/defense-compounds-rather-than-nutrient-availability-shape-aggressiveness-trait-variation-along-a-leaf-maturity-gradient-in-a-biotrophic-plant-pathogen
#19
Agathe Maupetit, Romain Larbat, Michaël Pernaci, Axelle Andrieux, Cécile Guinet, Anne-Laure Boutigny, Bénédicte Fabre, Pascal Frey, Fabien Halkett
Foliar pathogens face heterogeneous environments depending on the maturity of leaves they interact with. In particular, nutrient availability as well as defense levels may vary significantly, with opposing effects on the success of infection. The present study tested which of these factors have a dominant effect on the pathogen's development. Poplar leaf disks of eight maturity levels were inoculated with the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina using an innovative single-spore inoculation procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323818/phenotypic-changes-on-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-t-cells-as-surrogate-markers-for-tuberculosis-treatment-efficacy
#20
Mohamed I M Ahmed, Nyanda E Ntinginya, Gibson Kibiki, Bariki A Mtafya, Hadija Semvua, Stellah Mpagama, Charles Mtabho, Elmar Saathoff, Kathrin Held, Rebecca Loose, Inge Kroidl, Mkunde Chachage, Ulrich von Both, Antelmo Haule, Anna-Maria Mekota, Martin J Boeree, Stephen H Gillespie, Michael Hoelscher, Norbert Heinrich, Christof Geldmacher
Background: The analysis of phenotypic characteristics on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific T cells is a promising approach for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (aTB) and for monitoring treatment success. We therefore studied phenotypic changes on MTB-specific CD4 T cells upon anti-tuberculosis treatment initiation in relation to the treatment response as determined by sputum culture. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with latent MTB infection ( n = 16) and aTB ( n = 39) at baseline, weeks 9, 12, and 26 (end of treatment) were analyzed after intracellular interferon gamma staining and overnight stimulation with tuberculin...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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