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Pediatrics metabolic syndrome

Yao-Jong Yang, Yen-Hsuan Ni
Huge amount microorganisms resides in human intestine, and many contribute to the maturation and homeostasis of immune system. The diversity of gut ecology are affected by the gestational age, delivery type, feeding sources, and antibiotics use in neonates. Recent studies pointed out that disturbance of gut microbiota, so called dysbiosis, could result in several pediatric diseases including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndromes, allergic diseases, and inflammatory bowel diseases...
November 30, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Sara Karjoo
Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) evaluated by ultrasound are non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis. Increased cIMT in adults has been correlated to early vascular damage. Several studies show similar correlations of elevated cIMT in children with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, several articles have correlated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with elevated cIMT, indicating early atherosclerosis. It is alarming that these vascular changes may be seen in children as young as 10 years of age...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Katarzyna Anna Korzeniowska, Michal Brzezinski, Kamila Szarejko, Marcin Radziwiłł, Tomasz Anyszek, Leszek Czupryniak, Piotr Soszyński, Per-Olof Berggren, Malgorzata Mysliwiec
INTRODUCTION: Obesity has increased rapidly among children and adolescents during the last 30 years. Pediatric patients with a BMI >85th centile are more often diagnosed with increased TSH levels than children with proper body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 961 overweight and obese children, aged 13, recruited in four cities in Poland as part of PoZdro!, a two-year prophylactic program, were analysed to observe the relationship between serum TSH and fT4 concentration and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism parameters, as well as anthropometric parameters...
November 27, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor, Gerardo Mendoza-Lara, Gustavo Gutierrez-DelBosque, Mariana Peschard-Franco, Bianca Nieblas, Gerardo Garcia-Rivas
Exercise-induced irisin, a recently discovered myokine, has been linked to insulin resistance, obesity, and other diseases in adults; however, information in children is scarce and contradictory. We analyzed the limited evidence of irisin's effects in children and adolescents, and its association with body composition, exercise training, cardiovascular risk factors, and metabolic diseases, as well as the results of dietetic interventions. Both positive and negative correlations between irisin concentrations and body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, and other anthropometric parameters were found...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alice Yuxin Wang, Jasbir Dhaliwal, Marialena Mouzaki
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), with its increasing prevalence and association with various co-morbidities, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, is a growing concern. Previously thought to predominantly affect obese individuals, NAFLD has been shown to occur in non-obese subjects. This subset of individuals, known to have 'lean NAFLD' or 'non-obese NAFLD', is also growing increasingly prevalent. We summarize the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology and management of lean NAFLD in both adult and pediatric populations...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Marco Pozzi, Simone Pisano, Giuseppe Marano, Carla Carnovale, Carmela Bravaccio, Concetta Rafaniello, Annalisa Capuano, Francesco Rossi, Renata Rizzo, Renato Bernardini, Maria Nobile, Massimo Molteni, Emilio Clementi, Elia Biganzoli, Sonia Radice
OBJECTIVES: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase appetite and weight, leading toward a metabolic syndrome. Risperidone and aripiprazole, the most widely used pediatric SGAs, have been studied predominantly in short-term clinical trials, where risperidone leads to a rapid weight increase and aripiprazole to a slower one, while long-term effects are not yet elucidated. Factors that may influence weight gain are likewise not clarified, although baseline weight, previous SGA exposure, pubertal status, and type of SGA have been suggested as moderators...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Kristen A Smith, Heidi R Flori
In caring for critically ill children, recognition and management often begins in the pediatric emergency department. A seamless transition in care is needed to ensure appropriate care to the sickest of children. This review covers the management of critically ill children in the pediatric emergency department beyond the initial stabilization for conditions such as acute respiratory failure and pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus, congenital heart disease, and metabolic emergencies...
December 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Cristina Perez
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is defined as a "disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction [hypopnea] and/or intermittent complete obstruction (obstructive apnea) that disrupts normal ventilation during sleep and normal sleep patterns." OSAS is both prevalent and underdiagnosed in children. OSAS has harmful central nervous system, cardiovascular, and metabolic consequences, which can include an inability to concentrate in school, poor academic performance, behavioral problems, cardiovascular effects, and poor growth and development...
November 2018: General Dentistry
Pooneh Angoorani, Majid Khademian, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Ramin Heshmat, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Mahya Vafaeenia, Gita Shafiee, Armita Mahdivi-Gorabi, Mostafa Qorbani, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is considered as a valuable predictor for dyslipidemia and subclinical atherosclerosis which can be an appropriate index for identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between non-HDL-C MetS and determine the optimal cut-points of non-HDL-C fractions for identifying MetS in Iranian children and adolescents. METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fifth survey of a national school-based surveillance program on children and adolescents aged 7-18 years...
November 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
M Vukovic, N Radlovic, Z Lekovic, K Vucicevic, N Maric, N Kotur, V Gasic, M Ugrin, M Stojiljkovic, L Dokmanovic, B Zukic, S Pavlovic
The UGT1A1 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of bilirubin and numerous medications. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, commonly presented as Gilbert syndrome (GS), is a result of decreased activity of the UGT1A1 enzyme, variable number of TA repeats in the promoter of the UGT1A1 gene affects enzyme activity. Seven and eight TA repeats cause a decrease of UGT1A1 activity and risk GS alleles, while six TA repeats contribute to normal UGT1A1 activity and non-risk GS allele. Also, the UGT1A1 (TA)n promoter genotype is recognized as a clinically relevant pharmacogenetic marker...
June 2018: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
Zeinab Hemati, Nafiseh Mozafarian, Ramin Heshmat, Zeinab Ahadi, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Hasan Ziaodini, Majzoubeh Taheri, Tahereh Aminaee, Mostafa Qorbani, Roya Kelishadi
Objective: This study aims to evaluate the association of sleep duration with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in a pediatric population. Methods: This multi-centric cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in 30 provinces of Iran. Participants consisted of 4200 school students aged 7-18 years, studied in a national school-based surveillance program (CASPIAN-V). Physical examinations and laboratory tests were performed using standard protocols. The analysis was conducted based on the propensity score matching and conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of short sleep (less than 8 h a day) and the onset of sleep with MetS and its components...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Faith D Ihekweazu, James Versalovic
The intestinal microbiota are important in human growth and development. Microbial composition may yield insights into the temporal development of microbial communities and vulnerabilities to disorders of microbial ecology such as recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Discoveries of key microbiome features of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism are lending new insights into possible therapies or preventative strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the development of the pediatric gastrointestinal microbiome, the influence of the microbiome on the developing brain through the gut-brain axis, and the impact of dysbiosis on disease development...
November 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Francesco Emma, Giovanni Montini, Antonio Gargiulo
BACKGROUND: In the clinical practice, prednisone (PDN) dose in children is often prescribed using the patient weight, despite dose calculation using body surface area (BSA) is assumed to be preferable, because it parallels better with PDN metabolism in human subjects. METHODS: Calculations based on body weight (W) carry the risk of underdosing, particularly in young children. Conversely, BSA estimation requires knowing the patient height, which is not always available, and more complex calculations...
October 27, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Catalina Marín-Echeverri, Juan C Aristizábal, Natalia Gallego-Lopera, Hugo A Santa-Ramírez, Marcela Hoyos-Gómez, Adriana Marcela Ruiz-Pineda, Andrés A Arias, Jacqueline Barona-Acevedo
Background Abdominal obesity (AO) is linked to inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). However, there is limited information on whether preschoolers with AO present these risk factors. We evaluated the association between AO and cardiovascular risk factors in preschoolers. Methods We enrolled 232 children (2-5 years), of whom 50% had AO. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) and apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo-A1), glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2), leptin, adiponectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1/CD106) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1/CD54) were measured...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Jean-Baptiste Roberge, Andraea Van Hulst, Tracie A Barnett, Vicky Drapeau, Andrea Benedetti, Angelo Tremblay, Mélanie Henderson
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether lifestyle habits and dietary factors at age 8-10 years predict the development of metabolically unhealthy obesity 2 years later among children who were previously metabolically healthy obese. STUDY DESIGN: The QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort comprises 630 youth with a parental history of obesity. Metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy obesity were defined using cut-offs for the components of pediatric metabolic syndrome...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Bardia Nourbakhsh, Pavan Bhargava, Helen Tremlett, Janace Hart, Jennifer Graves, Emmanuelle Waubant
Objective: To determine if altered tryptophan (Trp) metabolism is associated with MS risk or disease severity in children. Methods: Participants with pediatric-onset MS and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) within 4 years of disease onset and healthy controls underwent collection of serum. Longitudinal disability and processing speed measures and relapse data were collected in cases. Global metabolomics were conducted in 69/67 cases/controls. Targeted Trp measurement was performed in a discovery group (82 cases, 50 controls) and a validation group (92 cases, 50 controls), while functional gut microbiome analysis was done in 17 cases...
October 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Annika Mutanen, Paul W Wales
Pediatric intestinal failure is a complex and devastating condition defined as the inability of the intestine to absorb an adequate amount of fluid and nutrients to sustain life. The primary goal of intestinal failure treatment is to achieve enteral autonomy with a customized treatment plan. Although recent improvements in intestinal failure patient care have led to significant improvements in the morbidity and mortality rate, children with intestinal failure are at risk for multiple complications such as intestinal failure associated liver disease, recurrent septic episodes, central line complications, metabolic bone disease, impaired kidney function, and failure to thrive...
August 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Meghan E Byrne, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Nichole M Kelly, Anne Claire Grammer, Manuela Jaramillo, Sarah J Mi, Monika M Stojek, Lisa M Shank, Natasha L Burke, Omni Cassidy, Natasha A Schvey, Sheila M Brady, Andrew P Demidowich, Miranda M Broadney, Susan Z Yanovski, Jack A Yanovski
Objective:  Pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating is associated with, and predictive of, gains in adiposity and adverse metabolic outcomes. In addition, some preliminary data suggest that anxiety may exacerbate the relationship of LOC eating with weight and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related measures. We therefore examined whether anxiety moderated the relationship between LOC eating and body mass index z (BMIz), adiposity, and MetS-related measures in youth. Methods:  A convenience sample of non-treatment-seeking boys and girls of varying weight strata were interviewed to determine the presence of LOC eating and completed a questionnaire assessing trait anxiety...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Vibeke Naeser, Andreas Hjelm Brandt, Bo Nyhuus, Lise Borgwardt, Marianne Hørby Jørgensen, Allan Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases is well described after adult liver transplantation, whereas the risk in the pediatric population still is discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pediatric liver transplant recipients and whether measurements of carotid intima media thickness and pulse wave velocity were increased compared to healthy controls. METHODS: We included 42 pediatric liver transplantation recipients and examined them for markers of metabolic syndrome, liver fibrosis measured by shear wave velocity, body fat measured by DXA scans and carotid intima-media thickness, and pulse wave velocity (n = 41 for the carotid scans)...
December 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Ludwig Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
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