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MS OR Multiple Sclerosis

Barry Wolf
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a disorder of the central and peripheral nervous system of young and old adults that is characterized by muscle, coordination and vision abnormalities. Multiple sclerosis is likely due to numerous causes. METHODS: Recently, adolescents and adults with ophthalmological and or neurological findings have been diagnosed with biotinidase deficiency. These individuals have exhibited myelopathy, paresis and/or spastic diplegia/tetraplegia with or without optic neuropathy/vision loss...
November 28, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Linda Rolf, Joost Smolders, Jody van den Ouweland, Raymond Hupperts, Jan Damoiseaux
Different laboratory approaches have been exploited to analyze an effect of vitamin D3 supplements on T cell cytokine profiles in multiple sclerosis, with poorly reproducible results. We assessed the correlation between intra-cellular flowcytometry analysis of CD4 T cell-enriched CD3+ CD8- lymphocytes after PMA/ionomycin stimulation directly ex-vivo or after 72 h pre-stimulation with anti-CD3, and cytokine levels excreted in culture supernatants. Pre-stimulation with anti-CD3 resulted in higher proportions of cells positive for IFN-γ, IL-17 A, IL-4, IL-10 and GM-CSF (all P < 0...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Teresa Fazia, Roberta Pastorino, Serena Notartomaso, Carla Busceti, Tiziana Imbriglio, Milena Cannella, Davide Gentilini, Gabriele Morani, Anna Ticca, Pierpaolo Bitti, Carlo Berzuini, Tamas Dalmay, Giuseppe Battaglia, Luisa Bernardinelli
Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASICs) are proton-gated channels involved in multiple biological functions such as: pain modulation, mechanosensation, neurotransmission and neurodegeneration. Earlier, we described the genetic association, within the Nuoro population, between multiple sclerosis (MS) and rs28936, located in ASIC2 3'UTR. Here we investigated the potential involvement of ASIC2 in MS inflammatory process. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in wild-type (WT), knockout Asic1-/- and Asic2-/- mice and observed a significant reduction of clinical score in Asic1-/- mice and a significant reduction of the clinical score in Asic2-/- mice in a limited time window (i...
December 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Gaelle Saint-Hilary, Valentine Barboux, Matthieu Pannaux, Mauro Gasparini, Veronique Robert, Gianluca Mastrantonio
The predictive probability of success of a future clinical trial is a key quantitative tool for decision-making in drug development. It is derived from prior knowledge and available evidence, and the latter typically comes from the accumulated data on the clinical endpoint of interest in previous clinical trials. However, a surrogate endpoint could be used as primary endpoint in early development and, usually, no or limited data are collected on the clinical endpoint of interest. We propose a general, reliable, and broadly applicable methodology to predict the success of a future trial from surrogate endpoints, in a way that makes the best use of all the available evidence...
December 12, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Sangeetha Srinivasan, Nathan Efron
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established technique for the clinical examination, diagnosis, severity staging and monitoring of ophthalmic disorders. The application of this technology has more recently been extended beyond ophthalmic disease, whereby it has been demonstrated that OCT can serve as an ophthalmic marker for a range of systemic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This review will focus on the clinical utility of OCT-derived retinal measures for the investigation of these conditions...
December 11, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Dylan A Galloway, Stephanie N Blandford, Tangyne Berry, John B Williams, Mark Stefanelli, Michelle Ploughman, Craig S Moore
In the injured central nervous system, myeloid cells, including macrophages and microglia, are key contributors to both myelin injury and repair. This immense plasticity emphasizes the need to further understand the precise molecular mechanisms that contribute to the dynamic regulation of myeloid cell polarization and function. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-223 is upregulated in multiple sclerosis (MS) patient monocytes and the alternatively-activated and tissue-regenerating M2-polarized human macrophages and microglia...
December 11, 2018: Glia
Miriam Scheld, Athanassios Fragoulis, Stella Nyamoya, Adib Zendedel, Bernd Denecke, Barbara Krauspe, Nico Teske, Markus Kipp, Cordian Beyer, Tim Clarner
Widespread inflammatory lesions within the central nervous system grey and white matter are major hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. The development of full-blown demyelinating multiple sclerosis lesions might be preceded by preactive lesions which are characterized by focal microglia activation in close spatial relation to apoptotic oligodendrocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression of signaling molecules of oligodendrocytes that might be involved in initial microglia activation during preactive lesion formation...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Moudi Al-Nashmi, Safa Taha, Abdel Halim Salem, Isa Alsharoqi, Moiz Bakhiet
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has become prevalent in the Arabian Gulf area with high incidence in Bahrain due to environmental influences and genetic susceptibilities, but there is a lack of study into human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types in patients with MS in Bahrain. The present study aimed to study the HLA types expressed in MS patients compared with in control subjects. Blood samples from 50 Bahraini patients with MS and 50 Bahraini control subjects' were subjected to HLA tissue typing by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers...
December 2018: Biomedical Reports
Lan Luan, Yuqiang Sun, Kang Yang
Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Caroline Köhler, Hannes Wahl, Tjalf Ziemssen, Jennifer Linn, Hagen H Kitzler
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to follow-up multiple sclerosis (MS) and evaluate disease progression and therapy response via lesion quantification. However, there is a lack of automated post-processing techniques to quantify individual MS lesion change. OBJECTIVE: The present study developed a secondary post-processing algorithm for MS lesion segmentation routine to quantify individual changes in volume over time. METHODS: An Automatic Follow-up of Individual Lesions (AFIL) algorithm was developed to process time series of pre-segmented binary lesion masks...
December 3, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jessica D Forbes, Chih-Yu Chen, Natalie C Knox, Ruth-Ann Marrie, Hani El-Gabalawy, Teresa de Kievit, Michelle Alfa, Charles N Bernstein, Gary Van Domselaar
BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) represents a substantial health concern. It is widely recognized that IMID patients are at a higher risk for developing secondary inflammation-related conditions. While an ambiguous etiology is common to all IMIDs, in recent years, considerable knowledge has emerged regarding the plausible role of the gut microbiome in IMIDs. This study used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to compare the gut microbiota of patients with Crohn's disease (CD; N = 20), ulcerative colitis (UC; N = 19), multiple sclerosis (MS; N = 19), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA; N = 21) versus healthy controls (HC; N = 23)...
December 13, 2018: Microbiome
Shivaprasad H Venkatesha, Steven Dudics, Yang Song, Anup Mahurkar, Kamal D Moudgil
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease affecting over 2.3 million people worldwide, and it is characterized by inflammation and demyelination of nerve cells. The currently available biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of MS have inherent limitations, therefore, additional new biomarkers are needed. We studied the microRNA (miRNA) profile of splenocytes of mice having experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of human MS. A miRNA-microarray analysis revealed increased expression of nine miRNAs (let-7e, miR-23b, miR-31, miR-99b, miR-125a, miR-146b, miR-155, miR-193b, and miR-221) following EAE development...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniel Mihai Teleanu, Cristina Chircov, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Adrian Volceanov, Raluca Ioana Teleanu
Pathologies of the brain, of which brain cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and multiple sclerosis, are some of the most prevalent, and that presently are poorly treated due to the difficulties associated with drug development, administration, and targeting to the brain. The existence of the blood-brain barrier, a selective permeability system which acts as a local gateway against circulating foreign substances, represents the key challenge for the delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain...
December 11, 2018: Pharmaceutics
David G Hoel, Frank R de Gruijl
There have been many public health recommendations for avoiding UV radiation exposures. This is primarily due to concerns about skin cancer and especially melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer. However, UV radiation is also known as the primary source of vitamin D and other compounds needed for good health. This brief commentary lists several of the many important recent studies of adverse health effects associated with low sun exposure, including some specific cancers, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and age-related macular degeneration...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kazumasa Yokoyama, Davide Cossu, Yasunobu Hoshino, Yuji Tomizawa, Eiichi Momotani, Nobutaka Hattori
Local synthesis of antibodies and presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the frequency of antibodies against mycobacterial and relevant human epitopes in the CSF of patients with MS or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and whether these antibodies differed from those present in the serum. Matched serum and CSF samples from 46 patients with MS, 42 patients with NMOSD, and 29 age-matched and sex-matched control subjects were screened retrospectively for the presence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEThe objective of this study was to assess long-term outcomes of facial pain and numbness after radiosurgery for multiple sclerosis (MS)-related trigeminal neuralgia (MS-TN).METHODSThe authors conducted a retrospective review of their Gamma Knife radiosurgeries (GKRSs) to identify all patients treated for MS-TN (1998-2014) with at least 3 years of follow-up. Treatment and clinical data were obtained via chart review and mailed or telephone surveys. Pain control was defined as a facial pain score of I-IIIb on the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) Facial Pain Intensity Scale...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEAblative procedures are still useful in the treatment of intractable pain despite the proliferation of neuromodulation techniques. In the paper the authors present the results of Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GKT) in various pain syndromes.METHODSBetween 1996 and 2016, unilateral GKT was performed in 30 patients suffering from various severe pain syndromes in whom conservative treatment had failed. There were 20 women and 10 men in the study population, with a median age of 80 years (range 53-89 years)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Yuzhen Wei, Haoxiao Chang, Xindi Li, Huabing Wang, Li Du, Heng Zhou, Wangshu Xu, Yuetao Ma, Linlin Yin, Xinghu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the contribution of several cytokines in the pathogenesis of first-onset neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and determined the differences between aquaporin 4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)-positive and AQP4-IgG-negative subtypes. METHODS: We enrolled 18 NMOSD (10 AQP4-IgG-positive and 8 AQP4-IgG-negative) and 8 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, whose serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected during the acute phase of the first onset before immunotherapy...
December 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Antonia Kaltsatou, Andreas D Flouris
Patients with multiple sclerosis experience many complications that gradually lead them to comorbidity and disability. Exercise could prevent and ameliorate the symptoms that comorbidity or inactivity generate. However, until recently it was suggested that multiple sclerosis patients should not participate in exercise training programs because these patients are characterized by thermoregulatory failure and the heat stress due to physical work could exacerbate the disease symptoms. Furthermore, taken into account that 60-80% of the multiple sclerosis patients present adverse clinical symptoms when their body temperature is increased (not only due to physical working but even when immerse in hot water or by exposure to infrared lamps or to the sun), the need for the development of treatment strategies to overcome the thermoregulatory problem in these patients is crucial...
November 13, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Insun Chong, Kevin Yuqi Wang, Christie M Lincoln
Fingolimod is an oral medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Initial clinical trials did not show a significantly increased rate of serious infections with fingolimod therapy. However, a mildly increased risk of less serious infections, such as varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus, was reported. Recently, however, several instances of serious opportunistic infections have been reported. In the years following approval of fingolimod for use in multiple sclerosis (MS), seven cases of cryptococcal meningitis in patients undergoing treatment have been described in the literature...
November 14, 2018: Clinical Imaging
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