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MS OR Multiple Sclerosis

Anna M Pietroboni, Tiziana Carandini, Annalisa Colombi, Matteo Mercurio, Laura Ghezzi, Giovanni Giulietti, Marta Scarioni, Andrea Arighi, Chiara Fenoglio, Milena A De Riz, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Paola Basilico, Maria Serpente, Marco Bozzali, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti, Giorgio Marotta
PURPOSE: The disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unpredictable, and reliable prognostic biomarkers are needed. Positron emission tomography (PET) with β-amyloid tracers is a promising tool for evaluating white matter (WM) damage and repair. Our aim was to investigate amyloid uptake in damaged (DWM) and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) of MS patients, and to evaluate possible correlations between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ) levels, amyloid tracer uptake, and brain volumes...
October 21, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yaping Liu, Fuxing Dong, Rui Guo, Ying Zhang, Xuebin Qu, Xiuxiang Wu, Ruiqin Yao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is associated with demyelination, neurodegeneration, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) is efficacious in preventive and therapeutic applications for many disorders because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we determined the effect of HRS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is a generally accepted model of the immuno-pathogenic mechanisms underlying MS...
October 20, 2018: Inflammation
Mirla Avila, Arpana Bansal, John Culberson, Alan N Peiris
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelination disorder with an immune-mediated pathophysiology that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Like other autoimmune conditions, it has a predilection for female gender. This suggests a gender bias and a possible hormonal association. Inflammation and demyelination are hallmarks of MS. Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the CNS and these continue to be generated by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). The process of remyelination represents a major form of plasticity in the developing adult CNS...
October 19, 2018: European Neurology
L Lorefice, J Frau, G Coghe, R Pitzalis, I Gessa, F Contu, M A Barracciu, M G Marrosu, E Cocco, G Fenu
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated the importance of considering the presence of vascular comorbidities as negative prognostic factors for MRI outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the possible influence of the most frequent vascular risk factors on brain volume in MS, also exploring the burden of their combined effects. METHODS: MS patients with at least one vascular risk factor and a control group of MS patients were enrolled. Patients underwent brain MRI and the volumes of the whole brain (WB), white matter (WM), grey matter (GM), and cortical GM were estimated by SIENAX...
October 16, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jie Jin, Hui Wang, Xiaoying Hua, Dongjian Chen, Chao Huang, Zhuo Chen
Icariin is a major active component of the traditional herb Epimedium, also known as Horny Goat Weed. It has been extensively studied throughout the past several years and is known to exert anti-oxidative, anti-neuroinflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. It is now being considered as a potential therapeutic agent for a wide variety of disorders, ranging from neoplasm to cardiovascular disease. More recent studies have shown that icariin exhibits potential preventive and/or therapeutic effects in the nervous system...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Olivia Hernández-González, Adolfo Martínez-Palomo, Julio Sotelo, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Graciela Ordoñez, Daniel Talamás-Lara, Benjamin Pineda, José de Jesús Flores-Rivera, Martha Espinosa-Cantellano
BACKGROUND: We have reported the presence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA and viral particles in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients during exacerbation. It is not known whether these viruses are infective. AIM: To determine whether the VZV found in CSF of MS patients in exacerbation phase are infective. METHODS: VZV found in CSF of MS patients was quantified by qPCR. Vero E6 cell cultures were incubated with CSF of five MS cases positive for VZV DNA, containing herpes-like viral particles...
October 17, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Mahnoosh Fazeli, Negin Moradi, Majid Soltani, Ehsan Naderifar, Nastaran Majdinasab, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Maryam Dastoorpour
PURPOSE: In this study, we attempted to assess the phonation and articulation subsystem changes in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy individuals using Dysphonia Severity Index and Formant Centralization Ratio with the aim of evaluating the correlation between these two indexes with neurological status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 47 patients with multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy speakers were evaluated. Patients' disease duration and disability were monitored by a neurologist...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Robert Zivadinov, Jennie Medin, Nasreen Khan, Jonathan R Korn, Tanuja Chitnis, Robert T Naismith, Enrique Alvarez, Michael G Dwyer, Niels Bergsland, Ellen Carl, Diego Silva, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of fingolimod on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been well established in trials and, to a lesser extent, in the real world. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and MRI outcomes in patients with relapsing MS receiving fingolimod in US clinical practice. METHODS: Clinical and MRI data from 590 patients initiating fingolimod treatment at 33 MS centers in the USA were retrospectively analyzed...
October 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Dominique Kinnett-Hopkins, Robert Motl
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is a promising approach for managing multiple sclerosis (MS), but existing research has not focused on black individuals with MS. This is important as black individuals with MS may experience a more aggressive disease course, increased comorbidities, and have a poorer prognosis with disease modifying therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two black adults with mild-to-moderate MS related disability participated in a patient-informed, three-month, home-based, racially tailored, exercise program...
October 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Stanley Cohan, Kyle Smoot, Kiren Kresa-Reahl, Robert Garland, Wei-Shi Yeh, Ning Wu, Crystal Watson
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to assess real-world outcomes of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who were stable on interferon (IFN) beta therapy in the year prior to switching to another IFN beta therapy versus those who continued on the initial treatment. METHODS: This study used administrative claims from MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database, from January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2015, to identify MS patients aged 18-64 years who remained relapse free for at least 1 year while continuously treated with an IFN beta therapy...
October 20, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Jacob Lauwring Andersen, Borbala Gesser, Erik Daa Funder, Christine Juul Fælled Nielsen, Helle Gotfred-Rasmussen, Mads Kirchheiner Rasmussen, Rachel Toth, Kurt Vesterager Gothelf, J Simon C Arthur, Lars Iversen, Poul Nissen
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been applied for decades in the treatment of psoriasis and now also multiple sclerosis. However, the mechanism of action has remained obscure and involves high dose over long time of this small, reactive compound implicating many potential targets. Based on a 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal kinase domain of the mouse p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 (RSK2) inhibited by DMF we describe a central binding site in RSKs and the closely related Mitogen and Stress-activated Kinases (MSKs)...
October 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Yolanda S Kap, Carien Bus-Spoor, Nikki van Driel, Marissa L Dubbelaar, Corien Grit, Susanne M Kooistra, Zahra C Fagrouch, Ernst J Verschoor, Jan Bauer, Bart J L Eggen, Hermie J M Harmsen, Jon D Laman, Bert A 't Hart
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in common marmosets is a translationally relevant model of the chronic neurologic disease multiple sclerosis. Following the introduction of a new dietary supplement in our purpose-bred marmoset colony, the percentage of marmosets in which clinically evident EAE could be induced by sensitization against recombinant human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in IFA decreased from 100 to 65%. The reduced EAE susceptibility after the dietary change coincided with reduced Callitrichine herpesvirus 3 expression in the colony, an EBV-related γ1-herpesvirus associated with EAE...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Erika Massicotte, Salima Hassanaly, Marie-Lyne Bélair, Karin Oliver, Eric Fortin
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, aneurysms, and neuroretinitis (IRVAN) syndrome is a rare entity with a potentially poor visual prognosis. Our objective is to review the clinical presentation and long-term outcomes of patients with IRVAN syndrome. DESIGN: This is a retrospective case series. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all the patients diagnosed with IRVAN syndrome at our tertiary care centre from 2002 to 2015. RESULTS: We included the long-term clinical outcomes of 7 eyes (5 patients) diagnosed with IRVAN syndrome...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Yuying Liu, Jane J Alookaran, J Marc Rhoads
Probiotics have been used to ameliorate gastrointestinal symptoms since ancient times. Over the past 40 years, probiotics have been shown to impact the immune system, both in vivo and in vitro. This interaction is linked to gut microbes, their polysaccharide antigens, and key metabolites produced by these bacteria. At least four metabolic pathways have been implicated in mechanistic studies of probiotics, based on mechanistic studies in animal models. Microbial⁻immune system crosstalk has been linked to: short-chain fatty acid production and signaling, tryptophan metabolism and the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors, nucleoside signaling in the gut, and activation of the intestinal histamine-2 receptor...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Sanam Dolati, Majid Ahmadi, Leili Aghebti-Maleki, Abbas Nikmaram, Faroogh Marofi, Reza Rikhtegar, Hormoz Ayromlou, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammation has ever been thought as disadvantageous in the pathophysiology of MS. Nanocurcumin has been used as an anti-inflammatory compound. The aim of this study was to identify effects of nanocurcumin on inflammatory mediators in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Fifty MS patients were randomly divided into two groups...
May 24, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Valerio Castoldi, Silvia Marenna, Roberto Santangelo, Raffaele d'Isa, Marco Cursi, Linda Chaabane, Angelo Quattrini, Giancarlo Comi, Letizia Leocani
Dark-Agouti rats were immunized with spinal cord homogenate to develop Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. We assessed motor signs and recorded VEPs for five or eight weeks with epidural or epidermal electrodes, respectively, with final histopathology of optic nerves (ONs). Injected rats exhibited motor deficits a week after immunization. VEP delays arose from the 2nd to the 5th week, when a recovery occurred in epidermal-recorded rats. ON damage appeared in epidural-, but not in epidermal-recorded rats, probably due to a remyelination process...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
M Ďurfinová, Ľ Procházková, D Petrleničová, Z Bystrická, K Orešanská, Ľ Kuračka, B Líška
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Rose G Mage, Pedro J Esteves, Christoph Rader
This review presents some examples of studies using the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that have led to, and continue to, contribute to advancement of understanding of human diseases as well as therapeutics development. In addition, we tabulate FDA-approved rabbit polyclonal and rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are used for diagnostic applications, as well as an overview of some "humanized" or otherwise altered rabbit mAbs that are in initial phase I, II, or advanced to phase III clinical trials...
October 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
B Li, G-J Tan, H-Q Lin, J-N Zhang, L Guo, L-P Chen
OBJECTIVE: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model commonly used in research on the acute phase of multiple sclerosis (MS), but studies on the pathology and pathogenesis of EAE with a long disease course are seldom conducted. Besides its antioxidant properties, the comprehensive mechanisms through which α-lipoic acid (LA) affects EAE remain obscure. We here conducted the study to explore the possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the following methods were used for investigating the effects of LA on long-term EAE: hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and electron microscopic examinations of pathological changes; Western blotting of β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) and myelin basic protein (MBP); Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as flow cytometry of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Somsankar Dasgupta, Swapan K Ray
Sphingolipids are enriched in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and display multiple biological functions. They participate in tissue development, cell recognition and adhesion, and act as receptors for toxins. During myelination, a variety of interactive molecules such as myelin basic protein, myelin associated glycoprotein, phospholipids, cholesterol, sphingolipids, etc., participate in a complex fashion. Precise roles of some sphingolipids in myelination still remain unexplored. Our investigation delineated participation of several sphingolipids in myelination during rat brain development as well as in human brain demyelination during pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)...
December 2017: Journal of Neurology and Psychology
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