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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101851/importance-of-radioactive-labelling-to-elucidate-inositol-polyphosphate-signalling
#1
REVIEW
Miranda S C Wilson, Adolfo Saiardi
Inositol polyphosphates, in their water-soluble or lipid-bound forms, represent a large and multifaceted family of signalling molecules. Some inositol polyphosphates are well recognised as defining important signal transduction pathways, as in the case of the calcium release factor Ins(1,4,5)P3, generated by receptor activation-induced hydrolysis of the lipid PtdIns(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C. The birth of inositol polyphosphate research would not have occurred without the use of radioactive phosphate tracers that enabled the discovery of the "PI response"...
February 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101157/functional-analysis-of-keratinocyte-and-fibroblast-gene-expression-in-skin-and-keloid-scar-tissue-based-on-deviation-analysis-of-dynamic-capabilities
#2
Mingming Li, Lei Wu
The aim of the present study was to select key genes that are associated with fibroblasts and keratinocytes during keloid scar progression and development. The gene expression profile of GSE44270, which includes 32 samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in case samples compared with control samples were screened using the Limma R package followed by hierarchical clustering analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the total selected DEGs were constructed using Cytoscape...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100667/the-control-of-translational-accuracy-is-a-determinant-of-healthy-ageing-in-yeast
#3
Tobias von der Haar, Jane E Leadsham, Aimie Sauvadet, Daniel Tarrant, Ilectra S Adam, Kofo Saromi, Peter Laun, Mark Rinnerthaler, Hannelore Breitenbach-Koller, Michael Breitenbach, Mick F Tuite, Campbell W Gourlay
Life requires the maintenance of molecular function in the face of stochastic processes that tend to adversely affect macromolecular integrity. This is particularly relevant during ageing, as many cellular functions decline with age, including growth, mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Protein synthesis must deliver functional proteins at all times, implying that the effects of protein synthesis errors like amino acid misincorporation and stop-codon read-through must be minimized during ageing. Here we show that loss of translational accuracy accelerates the loss of viability in stationary phase yeast...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100076/precuneus-structure-changes-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Robert Haussmann, Annett Werner, Antonia Gruschwitz, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Due to their prominent memory impairment, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often focuses on the hippocampal region. However, recent positron-emission tomography data suggest that within a network of frontal and temporal changes, patients with aMCI show metabolic alterations in the precuneus, a key region for higher cognitive functions. Using high-resolution MRI and whole-brain cortical thickness analyses in 28 patients with aMCI and 25 healthy individuals, we wanted to investigate whether structural changes in the precuneus would be associated with cortical thickness reductions in frontal and temporal brain regions in patients with aMCI...
February 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099843/human-carboxylesterase-2-reverses-obesity-induced-diacylglycerol-accumulation-and-glucose-intolerance
#5
Maxwell A Ruby, Julie Massart, Devon M Hunerdosse, Milena Schönke, Jorge C Correia, Sharon M Louie, Jorge L Ruas, Erik Näslund, Daniel K Nomura, Juleen R Zierath
Serine hydrolases are a large family of multifunctional enzymes known to influence obesity. Here, we performed activity-based protein profiling to assess the functional level of serine hydrolases in liver biopsies from lean and obese humans in order to gain mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. We identified reduced hepatic activity of carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) in human obesity. In primary human hepatocytes, CES2 knockdown impaired glucose storage and lipid oxidation...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098893/systematic-analysis-of-microarray-datasets-to-identify-parkinson-s-disease%C3%A2-associated-pathways-and-genes
#6
Yinling Feng, Xuefeng Wang
In order to investigate commonly disturbed genes and pathways in various brain regions of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), microarray datasets from previous studies were collected and systematically analyzed. Different normalization methods were applied to microarray datasets from different platforms. A strategy combining gene co‑expression networks and clinical information was adopted, using weighted gene co‑expression network analysis (WGCNA) to screen for commonly disturbed genes in different brain regions of patients with PD...
January 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097803/regulation-of-mrna-following-brain-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#7
REVIEW
Donald J DeGracia
There is growing appreciation that mRNA regulation plays important roles in disease and injury. mRNA regulation and ribonomics occur in brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) following stroke and cardiac arrest and resuscitation. It was recognized over 40 years ago that translation arrest (TA) accompanies brain I/R and is now recognized as part of the intrinsic stress responses triggered in neurons. However, neuron death correlates to a prolonged TA in cells fated to undergo delayed neuronal death (DND). Dysfunction of mRNA regulatory processes in cells fated to DND prevents them from translating stress-induced mRNAs such as heat shock proteins...
January 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097538/the-role-of-glutamine-synthetase-in-energy-production-and-glutamine-metabolism-during-oxidative-stress
#8
Nohaiah Aldarini, Azhar A Alhasawi, Sean C Thomas, Vasu D Appanna
Oxidative stress is known to severely impede aerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, the metabolically-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens survives this challenge by invoking alternative ATP-generating networks. When grown in a medium with glutamine as the sole organic nutrient in the presence of H2O2, the microbe utilizes glutamine synthetase (GS) to modulate its energy budget. The activity of this enzyme that mediates the release of energy stored in glutamine was sharply increased in the stressed cells compared to the controls...
January 17, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097092/comparative-interactomics-for-virus-human-protein-protein-interactions-dna-viruses-versus-rna-viruses
#9
Saliha Durmuş, Kutlu Ö Ülgen
Viruses are obligatory intracellular pathogens and completely depend on their hosts for survival and reproduction. The strategies adopted by viruses to exploit host cell processes and to evade host immune systems during infections may differ largely with the type of the viral genetic material. An improved understanding of these viral infection mechanisms is only possible through a better understanding of the pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) that enable viruses to enter into the host cells and manipulate the cellular mechanisms to their own advantage...
January 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096391/network-based-integration-of-systems-genetics-data-reveals-pathways-associated-with-lignocellulosic-biomass-accumulation-and-processing
#10
Eshchar Mizrachi, Lieven Verbeke, Nanette Christie, Ana C Fierro, Shawn D Mansfield, Mark F Davis, Erica Gjersing, Gerald A Tuskan, Marc Van Montagu, Yves Van de Peer, Kathleen Marchal, Alexander A Myburg
As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096192/integrated-physiological-proteomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-uv-stress-responses-and-adaptation-mechanisms-in-pinus-radiata
#11
Jesus Pascual, Maria Jesus Canal, Monica Escandon, Monica Meijon, Wolfram Weckwerth, Luis Valledor
Globally expected changes in environmental conditions, especially the increase of UV irradiation, necessitate extending our knowledge of the mechanisms mediating tree species adaptation to this stress. This is crucial for designing new strategies to maintain future forest productivity. Studies focused on environmentally realistic dosages of UV irradiation in forest species are scarce. Pinus sp. are commercially relevant trees and not much is known about their adaptation to UV. In this work, UV treatment and recovery of Pinus radiata plants with dosages mimicking future scenarios, based on current models of UV radiation, were performed in a time-dependent manner...
January 17, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096131/nutrition-micrornas-and-human-health
#12
REVIEW
Juan Cui, Beiyan Zhou, Sharon A Ross, Janos Zempleni
MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095989/prolonged-k-deficiency-increases-intracellular-atp-cell-cycle-arrest-and-cell-death-in-renal-tubular-cells
#13
Kedsarin Fong-Ngern, Nardtaya Ausakunpipat, Nilubon Singhto, Kanyarat Sueksakit, Visith Thongboonkerd
BACKGROUND: Chronic potassium (K(+)) deficiency can cause renal damage namely hypokalemic nephropathy with unclear pathogenic mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated expression and functional alterations in renal tubular cells induced by prolonged K(+) deficiency. METHODS: MDCK cells were maintained in normal-K(+) (CNK) (K(+)=5.3mmol/L), low-K(+) (CLK) (K(+)=2.5mmol/L), or K(+)-depleted (CKD) (K(+)=0mmol/L) medium for 10days (n=5 independent cultures/condition)...
January 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095641/melatonin-ameliorates-alcohol-induced-bile-acid-synthesis-by-enhancing-mir-497-expression
#15
Yong Deuk Kim, Seung-Lark Hwang, Eun-Joo Lee, Hyeong-Mi Kim, Myung-Jin Chung, Ahmed K Elfadl, Sung-Eun Lee, Balachandar Nedumaran, Robert A Harris, Kyu-Shik Jeong
Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) is involved in a diverse metabolic diseases. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) and yin yang 1 (YY1) are a potent regulator of biological conditions. Melatonin plays a crucial role in regulating diverse physiological functions and metabolic homeostasis. MicroRNAs are key regulators of various biological processes. Herein, we demonstrate that melatonin improves bile acid synthesis in the liver of alcohol-fed mice by controlling miR-497 expression...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095450/non-lytic-egression-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-ibdv-particles-from-infected-cells
#16
Fernando Méndez, Nicolás Romero, Liliana L Cubas, Laura R Delgui, Dolores Rodríguez, José F Rodríguez
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the Birnaviridae family, is responsible for a devastating immunosuppressive disease affecting juvenile domestic chickens. IBDV particles are naked icosahedrons enclosing a bipartite double-stranded RNA genome harboring three open reading frames (ORF). One of these ORFs codes for VP5, a non-structural polypeptide dispensable for virus replication in tissue culture but essential for IBDV pathogenesis. Using two previously described recombinant viruses, whose genomes differ in a single nucleotide, expressing or not the VP5 polypeptide, we have analyzed the role of this polypeptide during the IBDV replication process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095365/barreloid-borders-and-neuronal-activity-shape-panglial-gap-junction-coupled-networks-in-the-mouse-thalamus
#17
Lena Claus, Camille Philippot, Stephanie Griemsmann, Aline Timmermann, Ronald Jabs, Christian Henneberger, Helmut Kettenmann, Christian Steinhäuser
The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus plays an important role in somatosensory information processing. It contains elongated cellular domains called barreloids, which are the structural basis for the somatotopic organization of vibrissae representation. So far, the organization of glial networks in these barreloid structures and its modulation by neuronal activity has not been studied. We have developed a method to visualize thalamic barreloid fields in acute slices. Combining electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and electroporation in transgenic mice with cell type-specific fluorescence labeling, we provide the first structure-function analyses of barreloidal glial gap junction networks...
November 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093455/genomewide-landscape-of-gene-metabolome-associations-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Tobias Fuhrer, Mattia Zampieri, Daniel C Sévin, Uwe Sauer, Nicola Zamboni
Metabolism is one of the best-understood cellular processes whose network topology of enzymatic reactions is determined by an organism's genome. The influence of genes on metabolite levels, however, remains largely unknown, particularly for the many genes encoding non-enzymatic proteins. Serendipitously, genomewide association studies explore the relationship between genetic variants and metabolite levels, but a comprehensive interaction network has remained elusive even for the simplest single-celled organisms...
January 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092771/plant-peroxisomes-a-nitro-oxidative-cocktail
#19
REVIEW
Francisco J Corpas, Juan B Barroso, José M Palma, Marta Rodriguez-Ruiz
Although peroxisomes are very simple organelles, research on different species has provided us with an understanding of their importance in terms of cell viability. In addition to the significant role played by plant peroxisomes in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), data gathered over the last two decades show that these organelles are an endogenous source of nitric oxide (NO) and related molecules called reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Molecules such as NO and H2O2 act as retrograde signals among the different cellular compartments, thus facilitating integral cellular adaptation to physiological and environmental changes...
January 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092625/adrenergic-control-of-pinealocyte-chondriome-an-in-vitro-study
#20
B Przybylska-Gornowicz, B Lewczuk, N Ziółkowska, M Prusik
Norepinephrine released from sympathetic innervation plays the main role in the regulation of melatonin secretion in mammalian pinealocytes. The present study was conducted for the following reasons: 1) to establish whether the pinealocyte chondriome is controlled by norepinephrine, 2) to determine the effect of adrenergic stimulation on mitochondria, and 3) to characterize adrenoceptors involved in the regulation of the chondriome. The static organ culture of the pineal gland was used. The explants were incubated for 5 consecutive days in control medium and between 20:00 and 08:00 in medium with the presence of 10 μM norepinephrine - adrenergic agonist; isoproterenol - beta-adrenoceptor agonist; cirazoline, methoxamine, M-6364 - alfa1 - adrenoceptors agonists or PMA - activator of PKC...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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