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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040781/further-insights-into-the-components-of-resistance-to-ophiostoma-novo-ulmi-in-ulmus-minor-hydraulic-conductance-stomatal-sensitivity-and-bark-dehydration
#1
Pilar Pita, Jesús Rodríguez-Calcerrada, David Medel, Luis Gil
Dutch elm disease (DED) is a vascular disease that has killed over 1 billion elm trees. The pathogen spreads throughout the xylem network triggering vessel blockage, which results in water stress, tissue dehydration and extensive leaf wilting in susceptible genotypes. We investigated the differences between four Ulmus minor Mill. clones of contrasting susceptibility to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier regarding morphological, anatomical and physiological traits affecting water transport, in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying DED susceptibility...
October 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040739/papaya-cpein3a-and-cpnac2-cooperatively-regulate-carotenoid-biosynthesis-related-genes-cppds2-4-cplcy-e-and-cpchy-b-during-fruit-ripening
#2
Chang-Chun Fu, Yan-Chao Han, Jian-Fei Kuang, Jian-Ye Chen, Wang-Jin Lu
Papaya is an important tropical fruit with a rich source of carotenoids. The ripening of papaya is a physiological and metabolic process with remarkable changes including carotenoids accumulation, which depends primarily on the action of ethylene. Ethylene response is mediated by a transcriptional cascade involving the transcription factor families of EIN3/EILs and ERFs. Although ERF members have been reported to control carotenoids production in Arabidopsis and tomato, whether EIN3/EILs are also involved in carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening remains unclear...
October 12, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040409/towards-dynamic-genome-scale-models
#3
David Gilbert, Monika Heiner, Yasoda Jayaweera, Christian Rohr
The analysis of the dynamic behaviour of genome-scale models of metabolism (GEMs) currently presents considerable challenges because of the difficulties of simulating such large and complex networks. Bacterial GEMs can comprise about 5000 reactions and metabolites, and encode a huge variety of growth conditions; such models cannot be used without sophisticated tool support. This article is intended to aid modellers, both specialist and non-specialist in computerized methods, to identify and apply a suitable combination of tools for the dynamic behaviour analysis of large-scale metabolic designs...
October 13, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036515/the-jasmonate-zim-domain-gene-family-mediates-ja-signaling-and-stress-response-in-cotton
#4
Heng Sun, Lin Chen, Jianying Li, Meiling Hu, Abid Ullah, Xin He, Xiyan Yang, Xianlong Zhang
JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) family proteins are involved in regulating diverse biological processes in plants. However, their functions have not been well characterized in cotton (Gossypium spp.). In the present study, 13, 15, 25, and 30 JAZ genes were identified in Gossypium arboretum, Gossypium raimondii, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum respectively, based on gene homology. Selection and variation analyses showed that the SNP density of GhJAZ genes in wild species was much higher than that in domesticated species...
October 3, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036481/identification-of-the-direct-regulon-of-ntca-during-early-acclimation-to-nitrogen-starvation-in-the-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#5
Joaquín Giner-Lamia, Rocío Robles-Rengel, Miguel A Hernández-Prieto, M Isabel Muro-Pastor, Francisco J Florencio, Matthias E Futschik
In cyanobacteria, nitrogen homeostasis is maintained by an intricate regulatory network around transcription factor NtcA. Although mechanisms controlling NtcA activity appear to be well understood, its regulon remains poorly defined. To determine the NtcA regulon during the early stages of nitrogen starvation for the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation, followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq), in parallel with transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Through combining these methods, we determined 51 genes activated and 28 repressed directly by NtcA...
October 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036198/the-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-hpk-1-preserves-protein-homeostasis-and-longevity-through-master-regulatory-control-of-the-hsf-1-chaperone-network-and-torc1-restricted-autophagy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Ritika Das, Justine A Melo, Manjunatha Thondamal, Elizabeth A Morton, Adam B Cornwell, Beresford Crick, Joung Heon Kim, Elliot W Swartz, Todd Lamitina, Peter M Douglas, Andrew V Samuelson
An extensive proteostatic network comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms functions collectively to preserve the integrity and resiliency of the proteome. The efficacy of this network deteriorates during aging, coinciding with many clinical manifestations, including protein aggregation diseases of the nervous system. A decline in proteostasis can be delayed through the activation of cytoprotective transcriptional responses, which are sensitive to environmental stress and internal metabolic and physiological cues...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034968/genetics-and-evolution-of-mixta-genes-regulating-cotton-lint-fiber-development
#7
Huaitong Wu, Yue Tian, Qun Wan, Lei Fang, Xueying Guan, Jiedan Chen, Yan Hu, Wenxue Ye, Hua Zhang, Wangzhen Guo, Xiaoya Chen, Tianzhen Zhang
Cotton, with cellulose-enriched mature fibers, is the largest source of natural textiles. Through a map-based cloning strategy, we isolated an industrially important lint fiber development gene (Li3 ) that encodes an MYB-MIXTA-like transcription factor (MML) on chromosome D12 (GhMML4_D12). Virus-induced gene silencing or decreasing the expression of the GhMML4_D12 gene in n2 NSM plants resulted in a significant reduction in epidermal cell prominence and lint fiber production. GhMML4_D12 is arranged in tandem with GhMML3, another MIXTA gene responsible for fuzz fiber development...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034492/transcriptome-analyses-reveal-genes-and-pathways-associated-with-fatty-acid-composition-traits-in-pigs
#8
J Zhang, L Cui, J Ma, C Chen, B Yang, L Huang
Fatty acid composition is associated with meat quality in pigs as well as with obesity- and diabetes-related traits in humans. Liver and muscle are important tissues for fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we evaluated correlations between liver and muscle transcriptomes and fatty acid composition traits in muscle and abdominal fat tissues in 335 F2 pigs from a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 pig resource population. Transcripts significantly correlated with fatty acid composition traits were enriched for genes involved in the categories of triglyceride catabolic process, mitochondrial function, hematological and immune system, and disease such as Type II diabetes...
October 16, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034329/comparative-metabolomics-of-mycoplasma-bovis-and-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-reveals-fundamental-differences-in-active-metabolic-pathways-and-suggests-novel-gene-annotations
#9
Y Masukagami, D P De Souza, S Dayalan, C Bowen, S O'Callaghan, K Kouremenos, B Nijagal, D Tull, K A Tivendale, P F Markham, M J McConville, G F Browning, F M Sansom
Mycoplasmas are simple, but successful parasites that have the smallest genome of any free-living cell and are thought to have a highly streamlined cellular metabolism. Here, we have undertaken a detailed metabolomic analysis of two species, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, which cause economically important diseases in cattle and poultry, respectively. Untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of mycoplasma metabolite extracts revealed significant differences in the steady-state levels of many metabolites in central carbon metabolism, while (13)C stable isotope labeling studies revealed marked differences in carbon source utilization...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034164/aberrant-brain-functional-connectivity-in-newborns-with-congenital-heart-disease-before-cardiac-surgery
#10
Josepheen De Asis-Cruz, Mary T Donofrio, Gilbert Vezina, Catherine Limperopoulos
Newborns with congenital heart disease (CHD) requiring open heart surgery are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities. Recent quantitative MRI studies have reported disrupted growth, microstructure, and metabolism in fetuses and newborns with complex CHD. To date, no study has examined whether functional brain connectivity is altered in this high-risk population after birth, before surgery. Our objective was to compare whole-brain functional connectivity of resting state networks in healthy, term newborns (n = 82) and in term neonates with CHD before surgery (n = 30) using graph theory and network-based statistics...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033968/dancing-with-hormones-a-current-perspective-of-nitrate-signaling-and-regulation-in-arabidopsis
#11
REVIEW
Peizhu Guan
In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033963/convergent-evolution-of-pathogen-effectors-toward-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-networks-in-plants
#12
REVIEW
Nam-Soo Jwa, Byung Kook Hwang
Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033913/biochemical-function-molecular-structure-and-evolution-of-an-atypical-thioredoxin-reductase-from-desulfovibrio-vulgaris
#13
Odile Valette, Tam T T Tran, Christine Cavazza, Elodie Caudeville, Gaël Brasseur, Alain Dolla, Emmanuel Talla, Laetitia Pieulle
Thioredoxin reductase (TR) regulates the intracellular redox environment by reducing thioredoxin (Trx). In anaerobes, recent findings indicate that the Trx redox network is implicated in the global redox regulation of metabolism but also actively participates in protecting cells against O2. In the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH), there is an intriguing redundancy of the Trx system which includes a classical system using NADPH as electron source, a non-canonical system using NADH and an isolated TR (DvTRi)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033849/study-on-the-effect-of-wing-bud-chitin-metabolism-and-its-developmental-network-genes-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-by-knockdown-of-tre-gene
#14
Lu Zhang, Ling-Yu Qiu, Hui-Li Yang, Hui-Juan Wang, Min Zhou, Shi-Gui Wang, Bin Tang
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most serious pests of rice, and there is so far no effective way to manage this pest. However, RNA interference not only can be used to study gene function, but also provide potential opportunities for novel pest management. The development of wing plays a key role in insect physiological activities and mainly involves chitin. Hence, the regulating role of trehalase (TRE) genes on wing bud formation has been studied by RNAi. In this paper, the activity levels of TRE and the contents of the two sugars trehalose and glucose were negatively correlated indicating the potential role of TRE in the molting process...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033691/identification-of-genes-and-pathways-potentially-related-to-phf20-by-gene-expression-profile-analysis-of-glioblastoma-u87-cell-line
#15
Tianlong Liu, Tiejun Zhang, Feng Zhou, Jitao Wang, Xiaohu Zhai, Nan Mu, Jongsun Park, Minna Liu, Wenxing Liu, Peijin Shang, Yi Ding, Aidong Wen, Yuwen Li
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive brain tumor associated with a poor prognosis. Plant homeodomain finger protein 20 (PHF20) is highly expressed in primary human gliomas and its expression is associated with tumor grade. However, the molecular mechanism by which PHF20 regulates glioblastoma remains poorly understood. METHODS: Genome wide gene expression analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in U87 cells with PHF20 gene knockdown...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031897/smart-electrical-bi-layers-lipopeptides-novel-peptidic-chains-like-zigzag-map-esterified-with-phospho-glyceride-as-mono-layer-moieties-capable-in-forming-a-meso-sphere-envelop-with-scaffold-ability-to-cellular-impurities
#16
REVIEW
Sami Saadi, Nazamid Saari, Abdulkarim Sabo Mohammed, Hasanah Mohd Ghazali, Farooq Anwar
Cell impurities are an emerging nucleating molecular barriers having the capability in disordering the metabolic chain reactions of proteolysis, glycolysis and lipolysis. Their massive effects induced by copolymer crystal growth in compaction with metal and mineral transients are extended as well as in damaging DNA and mRNA structure motif and other molecular assembly e.g. histones structure unites. Their polycrystalline packing modes, polydispersity and their tendency to surface and interface adhesion prompted us in structuring scaffold biomaterials enriched with biopeptides, layered by phospho-glycerides ester-forms...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031807/cytochrome-c-peroxidase-regulates-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species-and-methylglyoxal-via-enzyme-activities-of-erythroascorbate-peroxidase-and-glutathione-related-enzymes-in-candida-albicans
#17
YoungHo Shin, Sungkyoung Lee, MyungHee Ku, Min-Kyu Kwak, Sa-Ouk Kang
D-erythroascorbate peroxidase (EAPX1) deficiency causes glutathione deprivation, leading to the accumulation of methylglyoxal and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and especially, induction of cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1) in Candida albicans. Nevertheless, reciprocal effects between changes in Ccp1 activity and the antioxidative D-erythroascorbic acid- and glutathione-dependent redox status, which reflects methylglyoxal biosynthesis altering pathophysiology are unclear in eukaryotes. To elucidate the effect of CCP1 expression on EAPX1 and glutathione reductase (Glr1) activity-mediated D-erythroascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, the CCP1 gene was disrupted and overexpressed...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#18
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031613/pathogenic-mutations-of-the-human-mitochondrial-citrate-carrier-slc25a1-lead-to-impaired-citrate-export-required-for-lipid-dolichol-ubiquinone-and-sterol-synthesis
#19
Homa Majd, Martin S King, Anthony C Smith, Edmund R S Kunji
Missense mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier, encoded by the SLC25A1 gene, lead to an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterised by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development, often resulting in early death. Here, we have measured the effect of all twelve known pathogenic mutations on the transport activity. The results show that nine mutations abolish transport of citrate completely, whereas the other three reduce the transport rate by more than 70%, indicating that impaired citrate transport is the most likely primary cause of the disease...
October 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031098/stepwise-construction-of-a-metabolic-network-in-event-b-the-heat-shock-response
#20
Usman Sanwal, Luigia Petre, Ion Petre
There is a high interest in constructing large, detailed computational models for biological processes. This is often done by putting together existing submodels and adding to them extra details/knowledge. The result of such approaches is usually a model that can only answer questions on a very specific level of detail, and thus, ultimately, is of limited use. We focus instead on an approach to systematically add details to a model, with formal verification of its consistency at each step. In this way, one obtains a set of reusable models, at different levels of abstraction, to be used for different purposes depending on the question to address...
September 30, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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