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Streptomyces coelicolor

Jessy Mariam, Ruchi Anand
Fluorescence spectroscopy is an important analytical tool which is widely employed to study biological systems. This technique can be applied to qualitatively and quantitatively probe protein-ligand interactions primarily because of its sensitivity, selectivity, nondestructive and rapid form of analysis. In this chapter we describe the utility of this technique to establish a label-free, universal screening protocol for putative γ-butyrolactone (GBL) receptors by exploiting the intrinsic fluorescence of a highly conserved tryptophan residue that constitutes the hydrophobic pocket for GBL binding, a unique feature possessed by this family of receptors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marc Biarnes-Carrera, Rainer Breitling, Eriko Takano
In Streptomyces, the onset of antibiotic production and sporulation is coordinated through small diffusible molecules known as γ-butyrolactones (GBLs). These are active in very low amounts, and their extraction and characterization are challenging. Here we describe a rapid, small-scale method for the extraction of GBL from Streptomyces coelicolor, from both solid and liquid cultures, which provides sufficient material for subsequent bioassays and partial characterization. We also present two different bioassay techniques for the detection and quantification of the GBL content in the extracts: the antibiotic bioassay and the kanamycin bioassay...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Feng Xu, Jin Wang, Guo-Ping Zhao
It has been known that some Streptomyces species, including the model strain Streptomyces coelicolor, are vulnerable to visible light. Much evidence demonstrated that the phototoxicity induced by visible light is a consequence of the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are potentially harmful to cells. In this study, we found that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) has a protective role against the phototoxicity in S. coelicolor. It could be because that α-KG can detoxify the ROS with the concomitant formation of succinate, which mediates the cells getting into anaerobiosis to produce more NADH and maintain intracellular redox homeostasis, a situation that was demonstrated by overexpressing gdhA in S...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Seomara Martín-Martín, Antonio Rodríguez-García, Fernando Santos-Beneit, Etelvina Franco-Domínguez, Alberto Sola-Landa, Juan Francisco Martín
Phosphate control of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces is mediated by the two component system PhoR-PhoP. Linked to the phoR-phoP cluster, and expressed in the opposite orientation, is a phoU-like encoding gene with low identity to the phoU gene of Escherichia coli. Expression of this phoU-like gene is strictly dependent on PhoP activation. We have isolated a PhoU-null mutant and used transcriptomic and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) procedures to identify its transcription start site and regulation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
Jae Woong Choi, Sung Sun Yim, Ki Jun Jeong
In the cell surface display, the choice of host cell and anchoring motif are the most crucial for the efficient display of passenger proteins. Corynebacterium glutamicum has mycolic acid layer in outer membrane and the use of protein in the mycolic acid layer as an anchoring motif can provide a potential platform for surface display in C. glutamicum. All 19 mycolic acid layer proteins of C. glutamicum are analyzed, and two proteins, NCgl0535 and NCgl1337, which have a signal peptide and predicted O-mycoloylation site, are selected as anchoring motifs candidates...
October 26, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Jiafang Fu, Gongli Zong, Peipei Zhang, Junxia Ma, Xiuhua Pang, Guangxiang Cao
The xdhR gene encodes a TetR-family regulator in Streptomyces coelicolor. However, little is known about the function of XdhR in regulating actinorhodin production. Here, we report that XdhR negatively regulates actinorhodin biosynthesis in S. coelicolor. Deletion of xdhR resulted in overproduction of actinorhodin by approximately 2.5-fold compared to the wild-type strain. Complementation of the xdhR deletion strain restored actinorhodin production to normal levels. In addition, the relative expression levels of actinorhodin cluster genes were all significantly increased in the xdhR deletion strain compared to the wild-type strain...
October 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Ying Xu, Di You, Bang-Ce Ye
N-Lysine acetylation is a dynamic, reversible and regulatory post-translational modification (PTM) in prokaryotes, which integrates and coordinates metabolisms responding to environmental clues. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the signalling pathway from nutrient sensing to protein acetylation remains incompletely understood in micro-organisms. Here we found that global nitrogen regulator GlnR directly controls transcription of genes encoding lysine deacetylases in Actinobacteria. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in three Actinobacteria species (Saccharopolyspora erythraea, Streptomyces coelicolor and Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that GlnR regulator protein is able to interact with the promoter regions of these genes and activate their transcription...
October 23, 2017: Microbiology
Hu Wang, Guoping Zhao, Xiaoming Ding
Growth of Streptomyces in submerged culture is characterized by the formation of complex mycelial particles, known as pellets or clumps, which strongly influence antibiotic production. Also, many bioactive molecules produced by Streptomyces have great potential to modulate soil bacteria morphological development. However, there has been no effort directed at engineering mycelial morphology using these small molecules. Here, thiostrepton was identified, using a combination of qRT-PCR, semi-preparative HPLC, and MALDI-TOF MS, as a pellet-inducing compound produced by S...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mina Dokouhaki, Andrew Hung, Emma L Prime, Greg G Qiao, Li Day, Sally L Gras
Chaplin E, or Chp E, is a surface active peptide secreted by Streptomyces coelicolor that adopts different structures depending on solution pH but the effect of these structures on the interfacial properties of Chp E is not known. In experiments paired with simulations, Chp E was found to display pH-dependent interfacial assembly and surface activity. At pH 3.0, Chp E formed an ordered non-amyloidal interfacial film with high surface activity; while at pH 10.0, Chp E self-assembled into a heterogeneous film containing randomly arranged fibrils at the interface that was less surface active compared to the film formed at pH 3...
October 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jack E Bowyer, Emmanuel Lc de Los Santos, Kathryn M Styles, Alex Fullwood, Christophe Corre, Declan G Bates
BACKGROUND: The antibiotic methylenomycin A is produced naturally by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), a model organism for streptomycetes. This compound is of particular interest to synthetic biologists because all of the associated biosynthetic, regulatory and resistance genes are located on a single cluster on the SCP1 plasmid, making the entire module easily transferable between different bacterial strains. Understanding further the regulation and biosynthesis of the methylenomycin producing gene cluster could assist in the identification of motifs that can be exploited in synthetic regulatory systems for the rational engineering of novel natural products and antibiotics...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
María Ordóñez-Robles, Fernando Santos-Beneit, Silvia M Albillos, Paloma Liras, Juan F Martín, Antonio Rodríguez-García
In this work, we identified glucose and glycerol as tacrolimus repressing carbon sources in the important species Streptomyces tsukubaensis. A genome-wide analysis of the transcriptomic response to glucose and glycerol additions was performed using microarray technology. The transcriptional time series obtained allowed us to compare the transcriptomic profiling of S. tsukubaensis growing under tacrolimus producing and non-producing conditions. The analysis revealed important and different metabolic changes after the additions and a lack of transcriptional activation of the fkb cluster...
October 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Agnieszka Strzalka, Marcin J Szafran, Terence Strick, Dagmara Jakimowicz
Streptomyces topoisomerase I (TopA) exhibits exceptionally high processivity. The enzyme, as other actinobacterial topoisomerases I, differs from its bacterial homologs in its C-terminal domain (CTD). Here, bioinformatics analyses established that the presence of lysine repeats is a characteristic feature of actinobacterial TopA CTDs. Streptomyces TopA contains the longest stretch of lysine repeats, which terminate with acidic amino acids. DNA-binding studies revealed that the lysine repeats stabilized the TopA-DNA complex, while single-molecule experiments showed that their elimination impaired enzyme processivity...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Junhua Wang, Cheng Wang, Kejing Song, Jianping Wen
BACKGROUND: Ascomycin is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide with high immunosuppressant and antifungal activity. As the lower production in bio-fermentation, global metabolic analysis is required to further explore its biosynthetic network and determine the key limiting steps for rationally engineering. To achieve this goal, an engineering approach guided by a metabolic network model was implemented to better understand ascomycin biosynthesis and improve its production. RESULTS: The metabolic conservation of Streptomyces species was first investigated by comparing the metabolic enzymes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) with those of 31 Streptomyces strains, the results showed that more than 72% of the examined proteins had high sequence similarity with counterparts in every surveyed strain...
October 3, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
María Ordóñez-Robles, Fernando Santos-Beneit, Antonio Rodríguez-García, Juan F Martín
Phosphate regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces has been studied due to the importance of this genus as a source of secondary metabolites with biological activity. Streptomyces tsukubaensis is the main producer of tacrolimus (or FK506), an immunosuppressant macrolide that generates important benefits for the pharmaceutical market. However, the production of tacrolimus is under a negative control by phosphate and, therefore, is important to know the molecular mechanism of this regulation. Despite its important role, there are no reports about the Pho regulon in S...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
Luis Linares-Otoya, Virginia Linares-Otoya, Lizbeth Armas-Mantilla, Cyntia Blanco-Olano, Max Crüsemann, Mayar L Ganoza-Yupanqui, Julio Campos-Florian, Gabriele M König, Till F Schäberle
The antibiotically bioactive thiopeptide compound kocurin was identified in extracts from a newly isolated Kocuria rosea strain. The axenic strain was retrieved from a soil sample of the intertidal area at the Paracas National Park, Peru. The genetic basis of this promising natural product with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains was revealed by comparative genome analysis of this new isolate and other reported thiopeptide producer strains. The functionality of the predicted gene locus was experimentally proven by heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor M1146...
September 25, 2017: Microbiology
Tetiana Gren, Bohdan Ostash, Volodymyr Babiy, Ihor Rokytskyy, Victor Fedorenko
Streptomyces coelicolor genome carries two apparently paralogous genes, SCO4164 and SCO5854, that encode putative thiosulfate sulfurtransferases (rhodaneses). These genes (and their presumed translation products) are highly conserved and widely distributed across actinobacterial genomes. The SCO4164 knockout strain was unable to grow on minimal media with either sulfate or sulfite as the sole sulfur source. The SCO5854 mutant had no growth defects in the presence of various sulfur sources; however, it produced significantly less amounts of actinorhodin...
September 23, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Mina Dokouhaki, Emma L Prime, Andrew Hung, Greg G Qiao, Li Day, Sally L Gras
Chaplin F (Chp F) is a secreted surface-active peptide involved in the aerial growth of Streptomyces. While Chp E demonstrates a pH-responsive surface activity, the relationship between Chp F structure, function and the effect of solution pH is unknown. Chp F peptides were found to self-assemble into amyloid fibrils at acidic pH (3.0 or the isoelectric point (pI) of 4.2), with ~99% of peptides converted into insoluble fibrils. In contrast, Chp F formed short assemblies containing a mixture of random coil and β-sheet structure at a basic pH of 10...
September 19, 2017: Biomolecules
Stefanie Mak, Justin R Nodwell
Actinorhodin is a blue-pigmented, redox-active secondary metabolite that is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. Although actinorhodin has been used as a model compound for studying secondary metabolism, its biological activity is not well understood. Indeed, redox-active antibiotics in general have not been widely investigated at the mechanistic level. In this work, we have conducted a comprehensive chemical genetic investigation of actinorhodin's antibacterial effect on target organisms. We find that actinorhodin is a potent, bacteriostatic, pH-responsive antibiotic...
September 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Edileusa C M Gerhardt, Vivian R Moure, Andrey W Souza, Fabio O Pedrosa, Emanuel M Souza, Lautaro Diacovich, Hugo Gramajo, Luciano F Huergo
The PII protein family constitutes one of the most conserved and well distributed family of signal transduction proteins in nature. These proteins play key roles in nitrogen and carbon metabolism. PII function has been well documented in Gram-negative bacteria. However, there are very few reports describing the in vitro properties and function of PII derived from Gram-positive bacteria. Here we present the heterologous expression and efficient purification protocols for untagged PII from three Actinobacteria of medical and biotechnological interest namely: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rhodococcus jostii and Streptomyces coelicolor...
2017: EXCLI journal
Nicolle F Som, Daniel Heine, Neil Holmes, Felicity Knowles, Govind Chandra, Ryan F Seipke, Paul A Hoskisson, Barrie Wilkinson, Matthew I Hutchings
MtrAB is a highly conserved two-component system implicated in the regulation of cell division in the Actinobacteria. It coordinates DNA replication with cell division in the unicellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis and links antibiotic production to sporulation in the filamentous Streptomyces venezuelae. Chloramphenicol biosynthesis is directly regulated by MtrA in S. venezuelae and deletion of mtrB constitutively activates MtrA and results in constitutive over-production of chloramphenicol. Here we report that in Streptomyces coelicolor, MtrA binds to sites upstream of developmental genes and the genes encoding ActII-1, ActII-4 and RedZ, which are cluster-situated regulators of the antibiotics actinorhodin (Act) and undecylprodigiosin (Red)...
October 2017: Microbiology
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