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"predictive processing"

Cheng-Hong Yang, Kuo-Chuan Wu, Yu-Shiun Lin, Li-Yeh Chuang, Hsueh-Wei Chang
Background: The function of a protein is determined by its native protein structure. Among many protein prediction methods, the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) model, an ab initio method, simplifies the protein folding prediction process in order to reduce the prediction complexity. Results: In this study, the ions motion optimization (IMO) algorithm was combined with the greedy algorithm (namely IMOG) and implemented to the HP model for the protein folding prediction based on the 2D-triangular-lattice model...
2018: BioData Mining
Tiziana Vercillo, Sean O'Neil, Fang Jiang
The ability to constantly anticipate events in the world is critical to human survival. It has been suggested that predictive processing originates from the motor system and that incoming sensory inputs can be altered to facilitate sensorimotor integration. In the current study, we investigated the role of the readiness potentials, i.e. the premotor brain activity registered within the fronto-parietal areas, in sensorimotor integration. We recorded EEG data during three conditions: a motor condition in which a simple action was required, a visual condition in which a visual stimulus was presented on the screen, and a visuomotor condition wherein the visual stimulus appeared in response to a button press...
August 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Rishabh Sharma, Isaac Chelladurai, Andrew D Orme, Michael P Miles, Christophe Giraud-Carrier, David T Fullwood
Although microscopy is often treated as a quasi-static exercise for obtaining a snapshot of events and structure, it is clear that a more dynamic approach, involving real-time decision making for guiding the investigation process, may provide deeper insights, more efficiently. On the other hand, many applications of machine learning involve the interpretation of local circumstances from experience gained over many observations; that is, machine learning potentially provides an ideal solution for more efficient microscopy...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Rui Zhao, Xinxin Zhang, Yuanqiang Zhu, Ningbo Fei, Jinbo Sun, Peng Liu, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin
Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs the ability of response inhibition. However, few studies have explored the quantitative prediction of performance impairment using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. In this study, structural MRI data were used to predict the change in response inhibition performance (ΔSSRT) measured by a stop-signal task (SST) after 24 h of SD in 52 normal young subjects. For each subject, T1-weighted MRI data were acquired and the gray matter (GM) volumes were calculated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
E Fucci, O Abdoun, A Caclin, A Francis, J D Dunne, M Ricard, R J Davidson, A Lutz
Non-dual meditation aims to undo maladaptive cognitive and affective patterns by recognizing their constructed and transient nature. We previously found high-amplitude spontaneous gamma (25-40 Hz) oscillatory activity during such practice. Nonetheless, it is unclear how this meditation state differs from other practices, in terms of perceptual information processing. Here, we hypothesized that non-dual meditation can downregulate the automatic formation of perceptual habits. To investigate this hypothesis, we recorded EEG from expert Buddhist meditation practitioners and matched novices to measure two components of the auditory evoked response: the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) and the Late Frontal Negativity (LFN), a potential observed at a latency sensitive to attentional engagement to the auditory environment, during the practices of Open Presence (OP) and Focused Attention (FA), as well as during a control state, in the context of a passive oddball paradigm...
July 21, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Guihu Zhao, Kirwan Walsh, Jun Long, Weihua Gui, Kristina Denisova
The cerebellum contains 80% of all neurons in the human brain and contributes prominently to implicit learning and predictive processing across motor, sensory, and cognitive domains. As morphological features of the cerebellum in atypically developing individuals remain unexplored in-vivo, this is the first study to use high-resolution 3D fractal analysis to estimate fractal dimension (FD), a measure of structural complexity of an object, of the left and right cerebellar cortex (automatically segmented from Magnetic Resonance Images using FreeSurfer), in male children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (N = 20; mean age: 8...
2018: PloS One
Dan Wang, Witold Pedrycz, Zhiwu Li
The design of information granules assumes a central position in the discipline of Granular Computing and its applications. The principle of justifiable granularity offers a conceptually and algorithmically attractive way of designing information granule completed on a basis of some experimental evidence (especially present in the form of numeric data). This paper builds upon the existing principle and presents its significant generalization, referred here as an adaptive principle of justifiable information granularity...
January 23, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Zichang Tan, Jun Wan, Zhen Lei, Ruicong Zhi, Guodong Guo, Stan Zq Li
Different ages are closely related especially among the adjacent ages because aging is a slow and extremely non-stationary process with much randomness. To explore the relationship between the real age and its adjacent ages, an age group-n encoding (AGEn) method is proposed in this paper. In our model, adjacent ages are grouped into the same group and each age corresponds to n groups. The ages grouped into the same group would be regarded as an independent class in the training stage. On this basis, the original age estimation problem can be transformed into a series of binary classification sub-problems...
December 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Lisa Quadt, Hugo D Critchley, Sarah N Garfinkel
Interoception is the sensing of internal bodily sensations. Interoception is an umbrella term that encompasses (1) the afferent (body-to-brain) signaling through distinct neural and humoral (including immune and endocrine) channels; (2) the neural encoding, representation, and integration of this information concerning internal bodily state; (3) the influence of such information on other perceptions, cognitions, and behaviors; (4) and the psychological expression of these representations as consciously accessible physical sensations and feelings...
July 5, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Matthias K Franken, Frank Eisner, Daniel J Acheson, James M McQueen, Peter Hagoort, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Speaking is a complex motor skill which requires near instantaneous integration of sensory and motor-related information. Current theory hypothesizes a complex interplay between motor and auditory processes during speech production, involving the online comparison of the speech output with an internally generated forward model. To examine the neural correlates of this intricate interplay between sensory and motor processes, the current study uses altered auditory feedback (AAF) in combination with magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Li-Ling Yang, Ming-Yue Zhan, Yu-Li Zhuo, Yue-Min Pan, Yang Xu, Xiu-Hong Zhou, Pei-Jin Yang, Hong-Li Liu, Zi-Hao Liang, Xiao-Dan Huang, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Xiang-Jun Rao
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by the stimulated humoral immune system. Most mature AMPs contain less than 50 amino acid residues. Some of them are generated from proproteins upon microbial challenges. Here, we report the antimicrobial activities of a proline-rich proprotein, named SlLebocin1 (SlLeb1), from the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura. SlLebocin1 cDNA contains a 477-bp open reading frame (ORF). It is mainly expressed in hemocytes and the midgut in naïve larvae. The transcript level was significantly induced in hemocytes but repressed in the midgut and fat body by bacterial challenges...
October 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Suzanne Hoogeveen, Uffe Schjoedt, Michiel van Elk
This study examines the effects of expected transcranial stimulation on the error(-related) negativity (Ne or ERN) and the sense of agency in participants who perform a cognitive control task. Placebo transcranial direct current stimulation was used to elicit expectations of transcranially induced cognitive improvement or impairment. The improvement/impairment manipulation affected both the Ne/ERN and the sense of agency (i.e., whether participants attributed errors to oneself or the brain stimulation device): Expected improvement increased the ERN in response to errors compared with both impairment and control conditions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sonia Singh, Anne M Walk, Christopher M Conway
Previous research suggests that individuals with developmental dyslexia perform below typical readers on non-linguistic cognitive tasks involving the learning and encoding of statistical-sequential patterns. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a deficit have not been well examined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of sequence processing in a sample of children diagnosed with dyslexia using a non-linguistic visual statistical learning paradigm...
July 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Sean C Anderson, Eric J Ward
In ecological systems, extremes can happen in time, such as population crashes, or in space, such as rapid range contractions. However, current methods for joint inference about temporal and spatial dynamics (e.g. spatiotemporal modelling with Gaussian random fields) may perform poorly when underlying processes include extreme events. Here we introduce a model that allows for extremes to occur si-multaneously in time and space. Our model is a Bayesian predictive-process GLMM (generalized linear mixed-effects model) that uses a multivariate-t distribution to describe spatial random effects...
June 14, 2018: Ecology
Shaun Gallagher, Micah Allen
We distinguish between three philosophical views on the neuroscience of predictive models: predictive coding (associated with internal Bayesian models and prediction error minimization), predictive processing (associated with radical connectionism and 'simple' embodiment) and predictive engagement (associated with enactivist approaches to cognition). We examine the concept of active inference under each model and then ask how this concept informs discussions of social cognition. In this context we consider Frith and Friston's proposal for a neural hermeneutics, and we explore the alternative model of enactivist hermeneutics...
2018: Synthese
Micah Allen, Karl J Friston
Predictive processing (PP) approaches to the mind are increasingly popular in the cognitive sciences. This surge of interest is accompanied by a proliferation of philosophical arguments, which seek to either extend or oppose various aspects of the emerging framework. In particular, the question of how to position predictive processing with respect to enactive and embodied cognition has become a topic of intense debate. While these arguments are certainly of valuable scientific and philosophical merit, they risk underestimating the variety of approaches gathered under the predictive label...
2018: Synthese
Valentina Ciullo, Daniela Vecchio, Tommaso Gili, Gianfranco Spalletta, Federica Piras
The ability to generate probabilistic expectancies regarding when and where sensory stimuli will occur, is critical to derive timely and accurate inferences about updating contexts. However, the existence of specialized neural networks for inferring predictive relationships between events is still debated. Using graph theoretical analysis applied to structural connectivity data, we tested the extent of brain connectivity properties associated with spatio-temporal predictive performance across 29 healthy subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shaun Gallagher, Anya Daly
The notion of a self-pattern, as developed in the pattern theory of self (Gallagher, 2013), which holds that the self is best explained in terms of the kind of reality that pertains to a dynamical pattern, acknowledges the importance of neural dynamics, but also expands the account of self to extra-neural (embodied and enactive) dynamics. The pattern theory of self, however, has been criticized for failing to explicate the dynamical relations among elements of the self-pattern (e.g., Kyselo, 2014; Beni, 2016; de Haan et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Shruti Dave, Trevor A Brothers, Matthew J Traxler, Fernanda Ferreira, John M Henderson, Tamara Y Swaab
Young adults show consistent neural benefits of predictable contexts when processing upcoming words, but these benefits are less clear-cut in older adults. Here we disentangle the neural correlates of prediction accuracy and contextual support during word processing, in order to test current theories that suggest that neural mechanisms underlying predictive processing are specifically impaired in older adults. During a sentence comprehension task, older and younger readers were asked to predict passage-final words and report the accuracy of these predictions...
May 28, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Simone J Darling, Cinzia De Luca, Vicki Anderson, Maria McCarthy, Stephen Hearps, Marc L Seal
Little is known about white matter microstructure and its role in information processing abilities of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) early posttreatment. Twenty-one survivors of ALL and 18 controls (7-16 years) underwent neurocognitive assessment. A subsample underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The ALL group performed poorer on measures of processing capacity, and had widespread areas of decreased fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity. Significant group by white matter microstructure interactions was found when predicting processing speed...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
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