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"predictive processing"

Katharina A Schwarz, Sebastian Burger, David Dignath, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
The sense of agency is a pervasive phenomenon that accompanies conscious acting and extends to the consequences of one's actions in the environment. Subjective feelings of agency are typically explained in terms of predictive processes, based on internal forward models inherent to the sensorimotor system, and postdictive processes, i.e., explicit, retrospective judgments by the agent. Only recently, research has begun to elucidate the link between sense of agency and more basic processes of human action control...
October 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Srikanth Kuthuru, William Deaderick, Harrison Bai, Chang Su, Tiep Vu, Vishal Monga, Arvind Rao
Radiomics is a rapidly growing field in which sophisticated imaging features are extracted from radiology images to predict clinical outcomes/responses, genetic alterations, and other outcomes relevant to a patient's prognosis or response to therapy. This approach can effectively capture intratumor phenotypic heterogeneity by interrogating the "larger" image field, which is not possible with traditional biopsy procedures that interrogate specific subregions alone. Most models in radiomics derive numerous imaging features (eg, texture, shape, size) from a radiology data set and then learn complex nonlinear hypotheses to solve a given prediction task...
2018: Cancer Informatics
Esko Lehtonen, Otto Lappi, Noora Koskiahde, Tuomas Mansikka, Jarkko Hietamäki, Heikki Summala
In car driving, gaze typically leads the steering when negotiating curves. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether drivers also use this gaze-leads-steering strategy when time-sharing between driving and a visual secondary task. Fourteen participants drove an instrumented car along a motorway while performing a secondary task: looking at a specified visual target as long and as much as they felt it was safe to do so. They made six trips, and in each trip the target was at a different location relative to the road ahead...
October 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Nan Yang, Yi Li, Wenlong Zhang, Linqiong Wang, Yu Gao
Rivers are extensively regulated by damming, yet the effects of such interruption on bacterial communities have not been assessed quantitatively. To fill this gap, we proposed a bacteria-based index of biotic integrity (Ba-IBI) by using bacterial community dataset collected from the Three Gorges Reservoir and its upper reaches. Stability analysis based on bacterial resistance (RS) and resilience (RL) to external disturbance was conducted to improve the performance of the index. Four core metrics, i.e. the ratio of Bacilli, Bacteroidetes and Clostridia to Alphaproteobacteria (BBC/A), Oxalobacteraceae, Methanotrophs and Thermophiles were selected after range, responsive and redundancy tests...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Satoshi Shioiri, Kotaro Hashimoto, Kazumichi Matsumiya, Ichiro Kuriki, Sheng He
When a rotating object (inducer) is briefly replaced by a static face image (test stimulus), the orientation of the face appears to shift in the rotation direction of the inducer (object orientation induction, OOI). The OOI effect suggests that there is a process to continuously analyze and update the orientation of an object in motion. We investigated the perception of object orientation in motion, examining potential factors that contribute to OOI. Experiment 1 showed that the phenomenon is general to objects rather than specific to faces; OOI could be observed with non-face objects...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Vision
Gábor Csifcsák, Viktória Roxána Balla, Vera Daniella Dalos, Tünde Kilencz, Edit Magdolna Biró, Gábor Urbán, Szilvia Szalóki
This study investigated the influence of action-associated predictive processes on visual ERPs. In two experiments, we sought evidence for sensory attenuation (SA) indexed by ERP amplitude reductions for self-induced stimuli when compared to passive viewing of the same images. We assessed if SA is (a) present for both ecological and abstract stimuli (pictures depicting hands or checkerboards), (b) modulated by the degree of stimulus predictability (certain or uncertain action-effect contingencies), and (c) sensitive to laterality of hand movements (dominant or subdominant hand actions)...
September 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
Pieter Van Dessel, Sean Hughes, Jan De Houwer
Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have shown that the performance of specific actions (e.g., approach and avoidance) in response to a stimulus can lead to changes in how that stimulus is evaluated. In contrast to the reigning idea that these effects are mediated by the automatic formation and activation of associations in memory, we describe an inferential account that specifies the inferences underlying the effects and how these inferences are formed. We draw on predictive processing theories to explain the basic processes underlying inferential reasoning and their main characteristics...
September 19, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Marc Recasens, Joachim Gross, Peter J Uhlhaas
Emerging evidence supports the role of neural oscillations as a mechanism for predictive information processing across large-scale networks. However, the oscillatory signatures underlying auditory mismatch detection and information flow between brain regions remain unclear. To address this issue, we examined the contribution of oscillatory activity at theta/alpha-bands (4-8/8-13 Hz) and assessed directed connectivity in magnetoencephalographic data while 17 human participants were presented with sound sequences containing predictable repetitions and order manipulations that elicited prediction-error responses...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anil K Seth, Manos Tsakiris
Modern psychology has long focused on the body as the basis of the self. Recently, predictive processing accounts of interoception (perception of the body 'from within') have become influential in accounting for experiences of body ownership and emotion. Here, we describe embodied selfhood in terms of 'instrumental interoceptive inference' that emphasises allostatic regulation and physiological integrity. We apply this approach to the distinctive phenomenology of embodied selfhood, accounting for its non-object-like character and subjective stability over time...
September 14, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Turki Turki, Zhi Wei
Cancer is a complex disease that is caused by rapid alteration of genes. Prediction of the state of cancer in advance contributes to a better understanding of its mechanism and improves the cancer therapy process. For example, predicting the malignancy of tumors in advance can prevent the development of cancer through the early treatment and clinical management of tumor progression. Despite generation of extensive clinical data obtained from the high-throughput technologies, it is necessary to develop machine learning algorithms to guide the prediction process...
October 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Michael Osadebey, Marius Pedersen, Douglas Arnold, Katrina Wendel-Mitoraj
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system images are important components in the development of drugs because it can reveal the underlying pathology in diseases. Unfortunately, the processes of image acquisition, storage, transmission, processing, and analysis can influence image quality with the risk of compromising the reliability of MRI-based data. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor image quality throughout the different stages of the imaging workflow. This report describes a new approach to evaluate the quality of an MRI slice in multi-center clinical trials...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Tomislav Hengl, Madlene Nussbaum, Marvin N Wright, Gerard B M Heuvelink, Benedikt Gräler
Random forest and similar Machine Learning techniques are already used to generate spatial predictions, but spatial location of points (geography) is often ignored in the modeling process. Spatial auto-correlation, especially if still existent in the cross-validation residuals, indicates that the predictions are maybe biased, and this is suboptimal. This paper presents a random forest for spatial predictions framework (RFsp) where buffer distances from observation points are used as explanatory variables, thus incorporating geographical proximity effects into the prediction process...
2018: PeerJ
Ni Gao, Li-Xin Tao, Jian Huang, Feng Zhang, Xia Li, Finbarr O'Sullivan, Si-Peng Chen, Si-Jia Tian, Gehendra Mahara, Yan-Xia Luo, Qi Gao, Xiang-Tong Liu, Wei Wang, Zhi-Gang Liang, Xiu-Hua Guo
The study is aimed to assess whether the addition of contourlet-based hippocampal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) texture features to multivariant models improves the classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the prediction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) conversion, and to evaluate whether Gaussian process (GP) and partial least squares (PLS) are feasible in developing multivariant models in this context. Clinical and MRI data of 58 patients with probable AD, 147 with MCI, and 94 normal controls (NCs) were collected...
September 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Nicola Molinaro, Irene F Monsalve
Despite the growing literature on anticipatory language processing, the brain dynamics of this high-level predictive process are still unclear. In the present MEG study, we analyzed pre- and post-stimulus oscillatory activity time-locked to the reading of a target word. We experimentally contrasted the processing of the same target word following two highly constraining sentence contexts, in which the constraint was driven either by the semantic content or by the lexical association between words. Previous research suggests the presence of sensory facilitation for expected words in the latter condition but not in the former...
July 29, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Hamed Heydari, Navid Cheraghi Kazerooni, Mojtaba Zolfaghari, Majid Ghoreishi, Vahid Tahmasbi
Bone drilling process is a prominent step of internal fixation in orthopedic surgeries. Process forces, leading to chip production, produce heat in the vicinity of the drilled bore and increase the probability of necrosis phenomenon. In this article, an analytical model to predict process temperature is presented based on Sui and Sugita model. This heat transfer model is the combination of a heat equilibrium equation for tool-chip system and a heat distribution equation for the bone itself where heat generation in tool's tip is due to cutting frictional forces...
September 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Matthew J Euler
Hierarchical predictive processing (PP) has recently emerged as a candidate theoretical paradigm for neurobehavioral research. To date, PP has found support through its success in offering compelling explanations for a number of perceptual, cognitive, and psychiatric phenomena, as well as from accumulating neurophysiological evidence. However, its implications for understanding intelligence and its neural basis have received relatively little attention. The present review outlines the key tenets and evidence for PP, and assesses its implications for intelligence research...
August 25, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Dong-Sheng Guo, Xiao-Jun Ji, Lu-Jing Ren, Feng-Wei Yin, Xiao-Man Sun, He Huang, Gao Zhen
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has wide-ranging benefits for normal development of the visual and nervous systems in infants. A sustainable source of DHA production through fermentation using Schizochytrium sp. has been developed. In this paper, we present the discovery of growth-uncoupled DHA production by Schizochytrium sp. and the development of corresponding kinetic models of fed-batch fermentations, which can be used to describe and predict the cell growth and substrate utilization as well as lipid and DHA production...
December 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jennifer F Bobb, Birgit Claus Henn, Linda Valeri, Brent A Coull
BACKGROUND: Estimating the health effects of multi-pollutant mixtures is of increasing interest in environmental epidemiology. Recently, a new approach for estimating the health effects of mixtures, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), has been developed. This method estimates the multivariable exposure-response function in a flexible and parsimonious way, conducts variable selection on the (potentially high-dimensional) vector of exposures, and allows for a grouped variable selection approach that can accommodate highly correlated exposures...
August 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Constanze Schmitt, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Frank Bremmer
Interaction with the environment requires fast and reliable sensory processing. The visual system is confronted with a continuous flow of high-dimensional input (e.g. orientation, color, motion). From a theoretical point of view, it would be advantageous if critical information was processed independent of attentional load, i.e. preattentively. Here, we hypothesized that visual motion is such a critical signal and aimed for a neural signature of its preattentive encoding. Furthermore, we were interested in the neural correlates of predictability of linear motion trajectories based on the presence or absence of preceding motion...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cheng-Hong Yang, Kuo-Chuan Wu, Yu-Shiun Lin, Li-Yeh Chuang, Hsueh-Wei Chang
Background: The function of a protein is determined by its native protein structure. Among many protein prediction methods, the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) model, an ab initio method, simplifies the protein folding prediction process in order to reduce the prediction complexity. Results: In this study, the ions motion optimization (IMO) algorithm was combined with the greedy algorithm (namely IMOG) and implemented to the HP model for the protein folding prediction based on the 2D-triangular-lattice model...
2018: BioData Mining
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