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"predictive processing"

Roope Oskari Kaaronen
This article is a comparative study between predictive processing (PP, or predictive coding) and cognitive dissonance (CD) theory. The theory of CD, one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology, is shown to be highly compatible with recent developments in PP. This is particularly evident in the notion that both theories deal with strategies to reduce perceived error signals. However, reasons exist to update the theory of CD to one of "predictive dissonance." First, the hierarchical PP framework can be helpful in understanding varying nested levels of CD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ludwig Lausser, Lea Siegle, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Derk Frank, Steffen Just, Hans A Kestler
Genetic model organisms have the potential of removing blind spots from the underlying gene regulatory networks of human diseases. Allowing analyses under experimental conditions they complement the insights gained from observational data. An inevitable requirement for a successful trans-species transfer is an abstract but precise high-level characterization of experimental findings. In this work, we provide a large-scale analysis of seven weak contractility/heart failure genotypes of the model organism zebrafish which all share a weak contractility phenotype...
November 26, 2018: Biomolecules
Sigmar Schnutenhaus, Michael Graf, Isabel Doering, Ralph G Luthardt, Heike Rudolph
OBJECTIVE: For correct implant planning based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the bone contour must be accurately determined. Identification of the contour is difficult in bones with incomplete mineralization. In this clinical study, we investigated the intrapersonal and interpersonal reproducibilities of manual bone contour determination on CBCT images using a semi-automated computerized process. METHODS: The bone surface level in the area of the socket in 20 patients who had undergone tooth extraction from the upper jaw at 10 ± 1 weeks previously was determined on CBCT images...
July 27, 2018: Oral Radiology
Lauren L Emberson, Alex M Boldin, Claire E Robertson, Grace Cannon, Richard N Aslin
Recent work provides evidence that the infant brain is able to make top-down predictions, but this has been explored only in limited contexts and domains. We build upon this evidence of predictive processing in infants using a new paradigm to examine auditory repetition suppression (RS). RS is a well-documented neural phenomenon in which repeated presentations of the same stimulus result in reduced neural activation compared to non-repeating stimuli. Many theories explain RS using bottom-up mechanisms, but recent work has posited that top-down expectation and predictive coding may bias, or even explain, RS...
November 13, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Stefan Koelsch, Peter Vuust, Karl Friston
We suggest that music perception is an active act of listening, providing an irresistible epistemic offering. When listening to music we constantly generate plausible hypotheses about what could happen next, while actively attending to music resolves the ensuing uncertainty. Within the predictive coding framework, we present a novel formulation of precision filtering and attentional selection, which explains why some lower-level auditory, and even higher-level music-syntactic processes elicited by irregular events are relatively exempt from top-down predictive processes...
November 21, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Tobias Jakobi, Alexey Uvarovskii, Christoph Dieterich
Motivation: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) originate through back-splicing events from linear primary transcripts, are resistant to exonucleases, are not polyadenylated, and have been shown to be highly specific for cell type and developmental stage. CircRNA detection starts from high-throughput sequencing data and is a multi-stage bioinformatics process yielding sets of potential circRNA candidates that require further analyses. While a number of tools for the prediction process already exist, publicly available analysis tools for further characterization are rare...
November 21, 2018: Bioinformatics
Anastasia Klimovich-Gray, Lorraine K Tyler, Billi Randall, Ece Kocagoncu, Barry Devereux, William D Marslen-Wilson
Spoken word recognition in context is remarkably fast and accurate, with recognition times of around 200ms, typically well before the end of the word. The neurocomputational mechanisms underlying these contextual effects are still poorly understood. This study combines source-localised electro- and magnetoencephalographic (EMEG) measures of real-time brain activity with multivariate Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) to determine directly the timing and computational content of the processes evoked as spoken words are heard in context, and to evaluate the respective roles of bottom-up and predictive processing mechanisms in the integration of sensory and contextual constraints...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kajornvut Ounjai, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Muneyoshi Takahashi, Tetsuya Matsuda, Johan Lauwereyns
Predictive processing is fundamental to many aspects of the human mind, including perception and decision-making. It remains to be elucidated, however, in which way predictive information impacts on evaluative processing, particularly in tasks that employ bivalent stimulus sets. Various accounts, including framing, proactive interference, and cognitive control, appear to imply contradictory proposals on the relation between prediction and preference formation. To disambiguate whether predictive cues produce congruent biases versus opponent mechanisms in evaluative processing, we conducted two experiments in which participants were asked to rate individual food images...
November 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
G Angelotti, P Morandini, L H Lehman, R G Mark, R Barbieri
A life threatening condition in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is the Acute Hypotensive Episode (AHE). Patients experiencing an AHE may suffer from irreversible organ damage associated with increased mortality. Predicting the onset of AHE could be of pivotal importance to establish appropriate and timely interventions. We propose a method that, using waveforms widely acquired in ICU, like Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP) and Electrocardiogram (ECG), will extract features relative to the cardiac system to predict whether or not a patient will experience a hypotensive episode...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Alice Blumenthal-Dramé, Evie Malaia
This review compares how humans process action and language sequences produced by other humans. On the one hand, we identify commonalities between action and language processing in terms of cognitive mechanisms (e.g., perceptual segmentation, predictive processing, integration across multiple temporal scales), neural resources (e.g., the left inferior frontal cortex), and processing algorithms (e.g., comprehension based on changes in signal entropy). On the other hand, drawing on sign language with its particularly strong motor component, we also highlight what differentiates (both oral and signed) linguistic communication from nonlinguistic action sequences...
November 12, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jelena Mirković, Gerry T M Altmann
How are relationships between concepts affected by the interplay between short-term contextual constraints and long-term conceptual knowledge? Across two studies we investigate the consequence of changes in visual context for the dynamics of conceptual processing. Participants' eye movements were tracked as they viewed a visual depiction of e.g. a canary in a birdcage (Experiment 1), or a canary and three unrelated objects, each in its own quadrant (Experiment 2). In both studies participants heard either a semantically and contextually similar "robin" (a bird; similar size), an equally semantically similar but not contextually similar "stork" (a bird; bigger than a canary, incompatible with the birdcage), or unrelated "tent"...
November 5, 2018: Cognition
Ahmad Abu Turab Naqvi, Taj Mohammad, Gulam Mustafa Hasan, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
Protein-ligand interaction is an imperative subject in structure-based drug design and protein function prediction process. Molecular docking is a computational method which predicts the binding of a ligand molecule to the particular receptor. It predicts the binding pose, strength and binding affinity of the molecules using various scoring functions. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, these two methods are widely used in combination to predict the binding modes, binding affinities and stability of different protein-ligand systems...
October 25, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Georg B Keller, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel
This perspective describes predictive processing as a computational framework for understanding cortical function in the context of emerging evidence, with a focus on sensory processing. We discuss how the predictive processing framework may be implemented at the level of cortical circuits and how its implementation could be falsified experimentally. Lastly, we summarize the general implications of predictive processing on cortical function in healthy and diseased states.
October 24, 2018: Neuron
Haichen Li, Christopher Collins, Matteus Tanha, Geoffrey J Gordon, David J Yaron
Current neural networks for predictions of molecular properties use quantum chemistry only as a source of training data. This paper explores models that use quantum chemistry as an integral part of the prediction process. This is done by implementing self-consistent-charge Density-Functional-Tight-Binding (DFTB) theory as a layer for use in deep learning models. The DFTB layer takes, as input, Hamiltonian matrix elements generated from earlier layers and produces, as output, electronic properties from self-consistent field solutions of the corresponding DFTB Hamiltonian...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Mark Pagkaliwangan, Jonathan Hummel, Xhorxhi Gjoka, Marc Bisschops, Mark Schofield
The advantages of continuous chromatography with respect to increased capacity are well established. However, the impact of different loading scenarios and total number of columns on the process economics has not been addressed. Here four different continuous multicolumn chromatography (MCC) loading scenarios were evaluated for process performance and economics in the context of a Protein A mAb capture step. To do so, a computational chromatography model was validated experimentally. The model was then used to predict process performance for each of the loading methods...
October 23, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Pierre Mahé, Maud Tournoud
BACKGROUND: Several studies demonstrated the feasibility of predicting bacterial antibiotic resistance phenotypes from whole-genome sequences, the prediction process usually amounting to detecting the presence of genes involved in antibiotic resistance mechanisms, or of specific mutations, previously identified from a training panel of strains, within these genes. We address the problem from the supervised statistical learning perspective, not relying on prior information about such resistance factors...
October 17, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Katharina A Schwarz, Sebastian Burger, David Dignath, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
The sense of agency is a pervasive phenomenon that accompanies conscious acting and extends to the consequences of one's actions in the environment. Subjective feelings of agency are typically explained in terms of predictive processes, based on internal forward models inherent to the sensorimotor system, and postdictive processes, i.e., explicit, retrospective judgments by the agent. Only recently, research has begun to elucidate the link between sense of agency and more basic processes of human action control...
October 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Srikanth Kuthuru, William Deaderick, Harrison Bai, Chang Su, Tiep Vu, Vishal Monga, Arvind Rao
Radiomics is a rapidly growing field in which sophisticated imaging features are extracted from radiology images to predict clinical outcomes/responses, genetic alterations, and other outcomes relevant to a patient's prognosis or response to therapy. This approach can effectively capture intratumor phenotypic heterogeneity by interrogating the "larger" image field, which is not possible with traditional biopsy procedures that interrogate specific subregions alone. Most models in radiomics derive numerous imaging features (eg, texture, shape, size) from a radiology data set and then learn complex nonlinear hypotheses to solve a given prediction task...
2018: Cancer Informatics
Esko Lehtonen, Otto Lappi, Noora Koskiahde, Tuomas Mansikka, Jarkko Hietamäki, Heikki Summala
In car driving, gaze typically leads the steering when negotiating curves. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether drivers also use this gaze-leads-steering strategy when time-sharing between driving and a visual secondary task. Fourteen participants drove an instrumented car along a motorway while performing a secondary task: looking at a specified visual target as long and as much as they felt it was safe to do so. They made six trips, and in each trip the target was at a different location relative to the road ahead...
October 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Nan Yang, Yi Li, Wenlong Zhang, Linqiong Wang, Yu Gao
Rivers are extensively regulated by damming, yet the effects of such interruption on bacterial communities have not been assessed quantitatively. To fill this gap, we proposed a bacteria-based index of biotic integrity (Ba-IBI) by using bacterial community dataset collected from the Three Gorges Reservoir and its upper reaches. Stability analysis based on bacterial resistance (RS) and resilience (RL) to external disturbance was conducted to improve the performance of the index. Four core metrics, i.e. the ratio of Bacilli, Bacteroidetes and Clostridia to Alphaproteobacteria (BBC/A), Oxalobacteraceae, Methanotrophs and Thermophiles were selected after range, responsive and redundancy tests...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
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