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Ron Neumann, Dana Barequet, Amir Rosenblatt, Radgonde Amer, Yael Ben-Arie-Weintrob, Tamar Hareuveni-Blum, Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai, Eyal Raskin, Oren Blumenfeld, Shiri Shulman, Juan M Sanchez, Victor Flores, Zohar Habot-Wilner
PURPOSE: To describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with herpetic anterior uveitis (HAU), and compare characteristics by pathogen, recurrence, and association to iris atrophy. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study of AU patients diagnosed clinically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The study included 112 eyes in 109 patients: 54 (48.2%) HSV, 34 (30.4%) VZV, 2 (1.8%) CMV, and 22 (19.6%) unspecified diagnosis...
October 12, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Gyu Nam Kim, Woong Sun Yoo, Mi Hwa Park, Jin Kwon Chung, Yong Seop Han, In Young Chung, Seong Wook Seo, Ji Myong Yoo, Seong Jae Kim
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestations of herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) in a tertiary referral center in South Korea and to determine whether ascorbic acid treatment prevents recurrence of herpetic epithelial keratitis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all consecutive patients with herpetic keratitis referred to our center from January 2010 to January 2015. Clinical features, ocular complications, and recurrences were recorded. RESULTS: In total, 149 eyes of the 133 patients (72 male and 61 female) were followed for an average of 24...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Varun Surya, Priya Kumar, Sunita Gupta, Aadithya B Urs
Childhood pemphigus vulgaris (CPV) is a rare entity with clinical features and management primarily similar to those of adults; diagnosis may be difficult due to clinical similarity to other disorders such as herpetic gingivostomatitis which is more prevalent in this age group. We report two cases of CPV with emphasis on diagnostic approach. While treating such patients, it is imperative to diagnose CPV in the early stages to prevent serious morbidity and to adjust drug dosage to minimize side effects.
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Sibyl Wray, Eva Havrdova, David R Snydman, Douglas L Arnold, Jeffrey A Cohen, Alasdair J Coles, Hans-Peter Hartung, Krzysztof W Selmaj, Howard L Weiner, Nadia Daizadeh, David H Margolin, Madalina C Chirieac, D Alastair S Compston
BACKGROUND: Reduced MS disease activity with alemtuzumab versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (SC IFNB-1a) in core phase 2/3 studies was accompanied by increased incidence of infections that were mainly nonserious and responsive to treatment. Alemtuzumab efficacy was durable over 6 years. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate infections over 6 years in alemtuzumab-treated patients. METHODS: Three randomized trials (CAMMS223, Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis (CARE-MS) I, and CARE-MS II) compared two courses of alemtuzumab 12 mg with SC IFNB-1a 44 μg in patients with active relapsing-remitting MS...
October 5, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Alireza Peyman, Mohamadreza Nayebzadeh, Mohamadreza Peyman, Natalie A Afshari, Mohsen Pourazizi
PURPOSE: To compare topical cyclosporine-A 2% eye drop (Cs-A) with prednisolone acetate 1% eye drop for treatment of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 38 eyes of 33 patients with HSK were randomly assigned to receive either 2% Cs-A or 1% prednisolone acetate eye drops. All subjects received oral acyclovir 400 mg twice a day. Slit-lamp examination, Scheimpflug tomography corneal optical densitometry (Pentacam®, Oculus Inc...
October 3, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Marian A Fernandez, Uet Yu, Angela L Ferguson, Dongwei Wang, Elise Francis, Ben Roediger, Wolfgang Weninger, Laurence C Cantrill, Anthony L Cunningham, Stephen I Alexander, Cheryl A Jones
HSV is an important cause of brain infection. Virus entry is often through breeches in the skin. γδT cells play an immunoprotective role in mice after corneal, genital or footpad (subcutaneous) HSV infection. Here we report that the presence of γδT cells in murine skin is associated with increased severity of herpetic disease, reduced protective cytokine responses and increased viral spread from the skin to the sensory ganglia in the zosteriform model. γδT cell-deficient (TCR δ -/-) mice displayed significantly decreased herpetic lesion severity after flank HSV infection compared to WT C57BL/6 controls at both primary and secondary skin infection sites...
October 1, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Souk Park, Hyun Im Moon, Seo Yeon Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of a conventional fluoroscopy-guided epidural nerve block and an ultrasound (US)-guided intercostal nerve block in patients with thoracic herpes zoster (HZ). METHODS: This work was a comparative study of 38 patients with thoracic HZ pain and a chest wall herpetic eruption, aged 18 years or older, with pain intensity of 5 or greater on a numeric rating scale (NRS) for less than a 1-month duration. Patients were consecutively enrolled and assigned to 2 groups in which the intervention was either the US-guided intercostal nerve block or the fluoroscopy-guided epidural nerve block approach with the addition of a 5-mL mix of 2...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Shoichi Magawa, Hiroaki Tanaka, Fumi Furuhashi, Shintaro Maki, Masafumi Nii, Kuniaki Toriyabe, Tomoaki Ikeda
PURPOSE: Hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) during pregnancy is rare, it is often not included in the differential disease. However, hepatitis leads to maternal death; hence, early diagnosis is necessary. Hepatic enzyme elevation in late pregnancy is often associated with obstetric-related diseases, such as acute gestational fatty liver and HELLP syndrome (hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count). These pregnancy-related diseases often improve maternal condition after completion of pregnancy, but in patients with HSV hepatitis, invasive treatment, such as cesarean section, may lead to deterioration of maternal condition after completion of pregnancy...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Osama G Abdel-Naby Awad, Abdel-Monem H Hamad
PURPOSE: Herpes simplex gingivostomatitis (HSGS) in children is a common painful infectious disease. This study aims to examine the combined efficacy of honey with acyclovir suspension compared to acyclovir alone for treating HSGS in young children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This Randomized double blind placebo controlled study was conducted from June 2015 to September 2017 in a tertiary referral hospital. One hundred children aged 2-8 years with HSGS were randomly classified into 2 groups; study group: treated with honey plus oral acyclovir and control group: treated with oral acyclovir alone...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
O Yu Kuznetzova, O V Nesterov, L N Maksimovskaya
Research ebjective was to study assessment of quality organization of work treatment recurrent herpetic stomatitis in patients of industrial enterprises from employees.172 patients on the industrial enterprises from 25 to 54 year were treated recurrent herpetic stomatitis. Clinical efficiency of immunomodulator quality therapy of recurrent herpetic stomatitis for assessment organization of work in employees industrial is proved by estimation of oral cavity local immunity (SIgA, lisozyme). After treatment of recurrent herpetic stomatitis in employees signifie and (p<0,005) inerease of lisozyme and SIgA...
2018: Stomatologii︠a︡
Ivan Noreña, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, José María Aguado
The development of biologic therapies for treating patients with rheumatic, hematologic, or oncological diseases has increased in the last few years, spreading their use in clinical practice. Areas covered: Clinical experience has evidenced substantial risks for some viral infections and/or reactivations such as viral hepatitis, herpetic infections, and other viruses, as a consequence of specific immune pathway blockages. Biological therapies produce a variable risk of reactivation of viral infections, which is particularly uncertain in the case of the most recently introduced agents...
September 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jaume Miranda-Rius, Lluís Brunet-Llobet, Eduard Lahor-Soler
Introduction: Orofacial pain of periodontal origin has a wide range of causes, and its high prevalence and negative effect on patients' quality of life make intervention mandatory. This review provides a periodontological overview of the field of orofacial pain, focusing on the entities which involve the periodontal tissues and may be the cause of this pain or discomfort. Methods: The study comprised a literature search of these pathologies conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Ian Matthews, Xiaoyan Lu, Hazel Dawson, Hélène Bricout, Helen O'Hanlon, Eric Yu, Bayad Nozad
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (shingles) is a common viral disease increasing in risk and severity with age. Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), a complication of shingles, causes severe pain impacting quality of life (QoL). Zoster Vaccine Live (ZVL), a licensed vaccine for the prevention of shingles in the United Kingdom (UK), is part of the national immunisation programme (NIP) for adults aged 70-79. Public Health England (PHE) reports show shingles vaccine coverage varies, but is typically 50-60% across eligible cohorts...
September 5, 2018: Vaccine
Istvan A Hargitai
Painful oral vesiculoerosive diseases (OVD) include lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, mucous membrane pemphigoid, erythema multiforme, and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. OVD lesions have an immunopathic cause. Treatment is aimed at reducing the immunologic and the following inflammatory response. The mainstay of OVD management is topical or systemic corticosteroids to include topical triamcinolone, fluocinonide, and clobetasol, whereas systemic medications used in practice can include dexamethasone, prednisone, and prednisolone...
October 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
Francesco Drago, Astrid Herzum, Giulia Ciccarese, Francesco Broccolo, Alfredo Rebora, Aurora Parodi
Herpes zoster (HZ) is typically characterized by pain involving the area of vesicular eruption. Several patients, however, complain of unilateral radicular pain without rash (zoster sine herpete [ZSH]). To evaluate whether the severity and duration of pain and the use of analgesics are greater in ZSH patients than in typical HZ with rash, 16 consecutive patients with acute unilateral pain, without vesicular eruption (ZSH), were compared with 16 controls suffering from typical HZ eruption. Only patients with laboratory evidence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation were selected...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Saad Javed, Uazman Alam, Rayaz A Malik
There are currently no approved disease-modifying therapies for diabetic neuropathy, and there are only 3 US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies (pregabalin, duloxetine, and tapentadol) for painful diabetic neuropathy. They each have moderate efficacy with adverse effects limiting optimal dose titration. There is a considerable need for new therapies for the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. We reviewed the potential role of mirogabalin, which like gabapentin and pregabalin modulates the alpha-2/delta-1 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel, allowing the influx of calcium and release of neurotransmitters at the synaptic cleft in the central nervous system and spinal cord...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Abdulrahman F AlBloushi, Abdullah M Alfawaz, Saad A Al-Dahmash, Adi M Al Owaifeer, Saad H AlEnezi, Abdulmajeed S Al-Fakhri, Priscilla W Gikandi, Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar
PURPOSE: To investigate incidence, risk factors, and surgical outcomes of cataract among uveitis patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of 1000 patients (1582 eyes). RESULTS: At initial presentation, cataract was diagnosed in 290 (18.3%) eyes and was most common in eyes with anterior uveitis. Fuchs' uveitis, herpetic uveitis, and presumed tuberculous uveitis were leading clinical entities associated with cataract at presentation. During follow-up, cataract developed in additional 200 (12...
August 24, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Young Min Park, Jong Soo Lee, Ji-Myong Yoo, Jong Moon Park, Seong-Wook Seo, In-Young Chung, Seong Jae Kim
This study is to investigate the characteristic features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) that differentiating it from herpetic epithelial keratitis (HEK) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Medical records of three eyes of each AK and herpetic keratitis who had AS-OCT examination were reviewed in this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and AS-OCT was performed on the initial visit and on every follow-up visits in all patients. In all three AK cases, reflective bands in the corneal stroma that correspond to the area of radial keratoneuritis were observed...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Chi Chiu Mok
Among the inflammatory rheumatic diseases, SLE is associated with the highest risk of herpes zoster reactivation relative to age. The reported incidence of herpes zoster infection in SLE ranges from 6.4 to 91.4/1000 patient-years, with main risk factors being major organ disease, immunosuppressive and biological therapies. Although herpes zoster in SLE is manageable with anti-viral treatment, complications such as superimposed bacterial infection, post-herpetic neuralgia may ensue. The low rate of herpes zoster vaccination in SLE is related to the lack of awareness, fear of the risk of vaccine-induced infection and disease flare, cost, as well as the lack of explicit recommendations of vaccine use for the paucity of data in immunocompromised and younger subjects...
August 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ann E Cooper, Sara M Thomasy, Tracy L Drazenovich, Philip H Kass, Sanskruti S Potnis, Christian M Leutenegger, David J Maggs
Objectives In humans with herpetic disease, early or pre-emptive famciclovir therapy reduces disease duration and severity. This prospective, masked, placebo-controlled study tested therapeutic and prophylactic effects of two famciclovir doses given to cats for 7 days following shelter entry. Methods Cats were assigned to prophylactic or therapeutic study arms based on clinical evidence of herpetic disease at study entry. Cats in the therapeutic arm received no treatment (n = 19), placebo (lactulose; n = 18) or famciclovir at ~30 (n = 21) or ~90 mg/kg (n = 20) orally q12h for 7 days...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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