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Karen M Van de Velde-Kossmann
Renal failure patients have an increased risk of infection, including skin and soft tissue infections. This increased susceptibility is multifactorial, due to the conditions causing the renal failure as well as complications of treatment and renal failure's innate effects on patient health. These infections have a significant impact on patient morbidity, increased hospital and procedural demands, and the cost of health care. Many renal failure patients are seen regularly by their nephrology clinic caregivers due to the need for frequent dialysis and transplant monitoring...
December 5, 2018: Blood Purification
Hawa Vahed, Anshu Agrawal, Ruchi Srivastava, Swayam Prakash, Pierre-Gregoire A Coulon, Soumyabrata Roy, Lbachir BenMohamed
A large proportion of the world population harbors herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) a major cause of infectious corneal blindness. HSV-specific CD8+ T cells protect from herpes infection and disease. However, the genomic, phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD8+ T cells associated with the protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals, who despite being infected, never experienced any recurrent herpetic disease, remains to be fully elucidated. In this investigation, we compared the phenotype, function, and level of expression of a comprehensive panel of 579 immune genes of memory CD8+ T cells, sharing the same HSV-1 epitope-specificities, and freshly isolated peripheral blood from well-characterized cohorts of protected ASYMP and non-protected symptomatic (SYMP) individuals, with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent herpetic disease using high throughput digital NanoString nCounter™ system and Flow Cytometry...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
J Y Wang, Y H Wu, S J Liu, Y S Lin, P H Lu
BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most distressful complication of herpes zoster. PHN results in an impaired quality of life and higher healthcare utilization. Vitamin B12 has been proven to be effective in pain relief for various conditions. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin B12 supplementation in PHN patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials...
December 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Farid Azizi Jalilian
INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is among the most common viruses in humans. HSV1 is often responsible for oral and perioral herpetic lesions. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel antimicrobial modality that involves the use of laser and a photosensitizer with a specific wavelength. This study aimed to assess and compare the effect of PDT with 810 and 940 nm diode laser and indocyanine green (ICG) photosensitizer on HSV1. METHODS: In this in vitro study, HSV1 isolated from herpes labialis and there were 6 experimental groups...
November 14, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
L M Hassman, M M Chung, M Gonzalez, A P Bessette
PURPOSE: To describe an uncommon presentation of ocular infection caused by human herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 32-year-old female with no prior history of mucocutaneous herpesvirus infection presented with a minimally painful hypertensive granulomatous panophthalmitis and optic neuropathy that was initially suspected to be orbital cellulitis. Her disease progressed despite antibiotic and steroid treatment, and HSV-2 was ultimately identified in the vitreous...
November 16, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Rui Zhou, Jing Wang, Wenjing Qi, Feng-Yu Liu, Ming Yi, Huailian Guo, You Wan
In acute and ongoing pain, the spontaneous oscillatory activity of electroencephalogram (EEG) has been characterized by suppression of alpha band oscillations and enhancement of gamma band oscillations. In pathological chronic pain which is more severe and common in clinic practice, it is of great interest to investigate the oscillatory activity especially at the broad gamma frequency bands. Our present study explored the resting state oscillatory activities of EEG in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) over 3 months which is a typical neuropathic pain model in clinical researches...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Peter G E Kennedy, Anne A Gershon
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a pathogenic human herpes virus that causes varicella (chickenpox) as a primary infection, following which it becomes latent in peripheral ganglia. Decades later, the virus may reactivate either spontaneously or after a number of triggering factors to cause herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella and its complications are more severe in the immunosuppressed. The most frequent and important complication of VZV reactivation is postherpetic neuralgia, the cause of which is unknown and for which treatment is usually ineffective...
November 2, 2018: Viruses
Aaron Desai, Yazan Kherallah, Cheryl Szabo, Rohit Marawar
Gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGB) are FDA approved for adjunctive treatment of partial seizures and for treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia. Both drugs are primarily eliminated by renal excretion. However, PGB or GBP induced myoclonus has only been reported infrequently in case reports/series. It is not discussed with patients and its sudden occurrence can lead to anxiety because of "seizure-like" nature. In addition, first-contact physicians might treat it as seizures, leading to unnecessary tests and aggressive management...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
B Milpied, M Janier, J Timsit, N Spenatto, E Caumes, O Chosidow, L Sentilhes, M-V Senat
TREATMENT OF THE INITIAL INFECTION OR FIRST CLINICAL EPISODE OF GENITAL HERPES: An initial infection or first clinical episode of genital herpes is treated with oral aciclovir 200mg×5/d for 5 to 10 days depending on clinical status. The recommended dosage for valaciclovir is 1g×2/d and treatment duration is identical to that for aciclovir. TREATMENT OF HERPES RECURRING DURING PREGNANCY: There are no studies of the efficacy of antiviral therapy on the symptoms of genital recurring during pregnancy. However, initial anti-viral treatment using aciclovir or valaciclovir may be given where warranted by symptoms (i...
October 23, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Andrea C Tricco, Wasifa Zarin, Roberta Cardoso, Areti-Angeliki Veroniki, Paul A Khan, Vera Nincic, Marco Ghassemi, Rachel Warren, Jane P Sharpe, Andrea V Page, Sharon E Straus
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of the herpes zoster live attenuated vaccine with the herpes zoster adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine or placebo for adults aged 50 and older. DESIGN: Systematic review with bayesian meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library (inception to January 2017), grey literature, and reference lists of included studies. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies that compared the live attenuated vaccine with the adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine, placebo, or no vaccine in adults aged 50 and older...
October 25, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Lim Hui Jun, Arvind Gupta, Dan Milea, Fazlur Rehman Jaufeerally
A 67-year-old male patient with poorly controlled type-2 diabetes mellitus developed an orbital apex syndrome and anterior cavernous syndrome secondary to herpetic zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), despite being on oral acyclovir. Urgent treatment with intravenous acyclovir led to improvement of the orbital and ocular inflammation but had no effect on the complete ophthalmoplegia and profound visual loss. At the 9-month follow-up visit, the patient had complete unilateral ophthalmoplegia and monocular blindness due to optic atrophy...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Ron Neumann, Dana Barequet, Amir Rosenblatt, Radgonde Amer, Yael Ben-Arie-Weintrob, Tamar Hareuveni-Blum, Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai, Eyal Raskin, Oren Blumenfeld, Shiri Shulman, Juan M Sanchez, Victor Flores, Zohar Habot-Wilner
PURPOSE: To describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with herpetic anterior uveitis (HAU), and compare characteristics by pathogen, recurrence, and association to iris atrophy. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study of AU patients diagnosed clinically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The study included 112 eyes in 109 patients: 54 (48.2%) HSV, 34 (30.4%) VZV, 2 (1.8%) CMV, and 22 (19.6%) unspecified diagnosis...
October 12, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Gyu Nam Kim, Woong Sun Yoo, Mi Hwa Park, Jin Kwon Chung, Yong Seop Han, In Young Chung, Seong Wook Seo, Ji Myong Yoo, Seong Jae Kim
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestations of herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) in a tertiary referral center in South Korea and to determine whether ascorbic acid treatment prevents recurrence of herpetic epithelial keratitis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all consecutive patients with herpetic keratitis referred to our center from January 2010 to January 2015. Clinical features, ocular complications, and recurrences were recorded. RESULTS: In total, 149 eyes of the 133 patients (72 male and 61 female) were followed for an average of 24...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Varun Surya, Priya Kumar, Sunita Gupta, Aadithya B Urs
Childhood pemphigus vulgaris (CPV) is a rare entity with clinical features and management primarily similar to those of adults; diagnosis may be difficult due to clinical similarity to other disorders such as herpetic gingivostomatitis which is more prevalent in this age group. We report two cases of CPV with emphasis on diagnostic approach. While treating such patients, it is imperative to diagnose CPV in the early stages to prevent serious morbidity and to adjust drug dosage to minimize side effects.
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Sibyl Wray, Eva Havrdova, David R Snydman, Douglas L Arnold, Jeffrey A Cohen, Alasdair J Coles, Hans-Peter Hartung, Krzysztof W Selmaj, Howard L Weiner, Nadia Daizadeh, David H Margolin, Madalina C Chirieac, D Alastair S Compston
BACKGROUND: Reduced MS disease activity with alemtuzumab versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (SC IFNB-1a) in core phase 2/3 studies was accompanied by increased incidence of infections that were mainly nonserious and responsive to treatment. Alemtuzumab efficacy was durable over 6 years. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate infections over 6 years in alemtuzumab-treated patients. METHODS: Three randomized trials (CAMMS223, Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis (CARE-MS) I, and CARE-MS II) compared two courses of alemtuzumab 12 mg with SC IFNB-1a 44 μg in patients with active relapsing-remitting MS...
October 5, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Alireza Peyman, Mohamadreza Nayebzadeh, Mohamadreza Peyman, Natalie A Afshari, Mohsen Pourazizi
PURPOSE: To compare topical cyclosporine-A 2% eye drop (Cs-A) with prednisolone acetate 1% eye drop for treatment of herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 38 eyes of 33 patients with HSK were randomly assigned to receive either 2% Cs-A or 1% prednisolone acetate eye drops. All subjects received oral acyclovir 400 mg twice a day. Slit-lamp examination, Scheimpflug tomography corneal optical densitometry (Pentacam®, Oculus Inc...
October 3, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Marian A Fernandez, Uet Yu, Angela L Ferguson, Dongwei Wang, Elise Francis, Ben Roediger, Wolfgang Weninger, Laurence C Cantrill, Anthony L Cunningham, Stephen I Alexander, Cheryl A Jones
HSV is an important cause of brain infection. Virus entry is often through breeches in the skin. γδT cells play an immunoprotective role in mice after corneal, genital or footpad (subcutaneous) HSV infection. Here we report that the presence of γδT cells in murine skin is associated with increased severity of herpetic disease, reduced protective cytokine responses and increased viral spread from the skin to the sensory ganglia in the zosteriform model. γδT cell-deficient (TCR δ -/-) mice displayed significantly decreased herpetic lesion severity after flank HSV infection compared to WT C57BL/6 controls at both primary and secondary skin infection sites...
October 1, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Souk Park, Hyun Im Moon, Seo Yeon Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of a conventional fluoroscopy-guided epidural nerve block and an ultrasound (US)-guided intercostal nerve block in patients with thoracic herpes zoster (HZ). METHODS: This work was a comparative study of 38 patients with thoracic HZ pain and a chest wall herpetic eruption, aged 18 years or older, with pain intensity of 5 or greater on a numeric rating scale (NRS) for less than a 1-month duration. Patients were consecutively enrolled and assigned to 2 groups in which the intervention was either the US-guided intercostal nerve block or the fluoroscopy-guided epidural nerve block approach with the addition of a 5-mL mix of 2...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Shoichi Magawa, Hiroaki Tanaka, Fumi Furuhashi, Shintaro Maki, Masafumi Nii, Kuniaki Toriyabe, Tomoaki Ikeda
PURPOSE: Hepatitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) during pregnancy is rare, it is often not included in the differential disease. However, hepatitis leads to maternal death; hence, early diagnosis is necessary. Hepatic enzyme elevation in late pregnancy is often associated with obstetric-related diseases, such as acute gestational fatty liver and HELLP syndrome (hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count). These pregnancy-related diseases often improve maternal condition after completion of pregnancy, but in patients with HSV hepatitis, invasive treatment, such as cesarean section, may lead to deterioration of maternal condition after completion of pregnancy...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Osama G Abdel-Naby Awad, Abdel-Monem H Hamad
PURPOSE: Herpes simplex gingivostomatitis (HSGS) in children is a common painful infectious disease. This study aims to examine the combined efficacy of honey with acyclovir suspension compared to acyclovir alone for treating HSGS in young children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This Randomized double blind placebo controlled study was conducted from June 2015 to September 2017 in a tertiary referral hospital. One hundred children aged 2-8 years with HSGS were randomly classified into 2 groups; study group: treated with honey plus oral acyclovir and control group: treated with oral acyclovir alone...
November 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
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