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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30554113/manilkara-zapota-l-p-royen-leaf-water-extract-triggered-apoptosis-and-activated-caspase-dependent-pathway-in-ht-29-human-colorectal-cancer-cell-line
#1
Bee Ling Tan, Mohd Esa Norhaizan
Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (Family: Sapotaceae), commonly called as sapodilla, has been applied as traditional folk medicine for diarrhea and pulmonary infections. Conventional therapy in colorectal cancer is not likely effective due to undesirable outcomes. The anti-colon cancer properties of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract have yet to be investigated thus far. Therefore, our present study aimed to evaluate the ability to induce apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract against human colorectal cancer (HT-29) cells...
December 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553949/improving-in-vitro-photodynamic-therapy-through-the-development-of-a-novel-iron-chelating-aminolaevulinic-acid-prodrug
#2
Alison Curnow, Alexis Perry, Mark Wood
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light activated drug therapy that can be used to treat a number of cancers and precancers. It is particularly useful in its topical form in dermatology but improvement of efficacy is required to widen its application. METHODS: An ester between aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) and CP94 was synthesised (AP2-18) and experimentally evaluated to determine whether protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-induced PDT effectiveness could be improved...
December 13, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552463/acetaminophen-cytotoxicity-in-hepg2-cells-is-associated-with-a-decoupling-of-glycolysis-from-the-tca-cycle-loss-of-nadph-production-and-suppression-of-anabolism
#3
Volker Behrends, Guro F Giskeødegård, Natalia Bravo-Santano, Michal Letek, Hector C Keun
Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used analgesics worldwide, and overdoses are associated with lactic acidosis, hepatocyte toxicity, and acute liver failure due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatoma cell lines typically lack the CYP450 activity to generate the reactive metabolite of APAP observed in vivo, but are still subject to APAP cytotoxicity. In this study, we employed metabolic profiling and isotope labelling approaches to investigate the metabolic impact of acute exposure to cytotoxic doses of APAP on the widely used HepG2 cell model...
December 14, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552186/two-photolyases-repair-distinct-dna-lesions-and-reactivate-uvb-inactivated-conidia-of-an-insect-mycopathogen-under-visible-light
#4
Ding-Yi Wang, Bo Fu, Sen-Miao Tong, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Fungal conidia serve as active ingredients of fungal insecticides but are sensitive to solar UV irradiation, which impairs dsDNA by inducing the production of cytotoxic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4)-pyrimidine-pyrimidine photoproducts (6-4PPs). This study aims to elucidate how CPD photolyase (Phr1) and 6-4PP photolyase (Phr2) repair DNA damage and photoreactivate UVB-inactivated cells in Beauveria bassiana , a main source of fungal insecticides. Both Phr1 and Phr2 are proven to exclusively localize in the fungal nuclei...
December 14, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551299/assembled-gold-nanorods-for-the-photothermal-killing-of-bacteria
#5
Tingting Yang, Donghui Wang, Xuanyong Liu
Titanium and its alloys are widely used in many clinical applications, but implant-associated infection may lead to implant failure. Because of the increasing concern about antibiotic resistant pathogen, photothermal therapy (PTT) as a new treatment strategy has received considerable attention. In this work, gold nanorods (GNRs) photoexcited by the near-infrared (NIR) light were immobilized on Ti surface by electrostatic surface self-assembly technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore the morphology and composition of the GNRs-modified surface...
January 1, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551094/hepatoprotective-benefits-of-vitamin-c-against-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-induced-liver-damage-in-mice-through-suppressing-inflammatory-reaction-and-er-stress
#6
Min Su, Xiaoliu Liang, Xiaoxiao Xu, Xinmou Wu, Bin Yang
Our previous studies show that vitamin C (VC) plays promising hepatoprotection in mice. Intrahepatic exposure of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can induce dose-dependent cytotoxicity. However, pharmacology-based assessment of VC on PFOS remains uninvestigated. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic benefits of VC on inhibiting PFOS-induced liver steatosis in mice, followed by representative biochemical analysis and immunoassay. As results, VC was beneficial for reduced PFOS-induced liver damages, as showed in reductions of serological levels of transaminases (ALT and AST), lipids (TG and TC), fasting glucose and insulin, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL6), while content of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in serum was increased...
December 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551005/synthesis-photodynamic-activities-and-cytotoxicity-of-new-water-soluble-cationic-gallium-iii-and-zinc-ii-phthalocyanines
#7
Rei Fujishiro, Hayato Sonoyama, Yuki Ide, Takuya Fujimura, Ryo Sasai, Atsushi Nagai, Shigeki Mori, Nichole E M Kaufman, Zehua Zhou, M Graça H Vicente, Takahisa Ikeue
The cationic Ga(III) and Zn(II) phthalocyanines carrying N-methyl-pyridinium groups at eight peripheral β-positionshave been synthesized. These complexes are highly soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and moderately soluble in water and phosphate buffered saline (PBS); both Ga(III)Cl and Zn(II) complexes have shown no aggregation in water up to 1.2 × 10-4 and 1.5 × 10-5  M, respectively. A higher water-solubility of Ga(III)Cl complex as compared to Zn(II) complex is ascribed to the presence of an axially coordinated chloride...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550257/modular-nanoparticulate-prodrug-design-enables-efficient-treatment-of-solid-tumors-using-bioorthogonal-activation
#8
Miles A Miller, Hannes Mikula, Gaurav Luthria, Ran Li, Stefan Kronister, Mark Prytyskach, Rainer H Kohler, Timothy Mitchison, Ralph Weissleder
Prodrug strategies that facilitate localized and controlled activity of small-molecule therapeutics can reduce systemic exposure and improve pharmacokinetics, yet limitations in activation chemistry have made it difficult to assign tunable multifunctionality to prodrugs. Here, we present the design and application of a modular small-molecule caging strategy that couples bioorthogonal cleavage with a self-immolative linker and an aliphatic anchor. This strategy leverages recently discovered in vivo catalysis by a nanoencapsulated palladium compound (Pd-NP), which mediates alloxylcarbamate cleavage and triggers release of the activated drug...
December 14, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548337/effect-of-tribulus-terrestris-saponins-on-proliferation-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Apurva Patel, Anjali Soni, Preeti Sharma
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) transplantation has shown great promise for treating various diseases; however, poor viability of transplanted ASCs because of oxidative stress has limited its therapeutic efficiency. Plant saponins are recently been reported to have antioxidant activity tested in various cancer cell lines. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Tribulus terrestris saponins (TTS) on the proliferation of ASCs. The cytotoxic activity of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) was determined by treating ASCs with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 µM H2 O2 for 2 hours...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547452/in-vitro-methods-for-assessing-nanoparticle-toxicity
#10
Dustin T Savage, J Zach Hilt, Thomas D Dziubla
As a consequence of their increase in annual production and widespread distribution in the environment, nanoparticles potentially pose a significant public health risk. The sought-after catalytic activity granted by their physiochemical properties doubles as a hazard to physiological processes following exposure through inhalation, oral, transdermal, subcutaneous, and intravenous uptake. Upon uptake into the body, their size, morphology, surface charge, coating, and chemical composition augment the response of biological systems to the materials and enhance their toxicity...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547263/polyphenol-associated-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-a-model-of-lps-induced-inflammation-in-glial-cells-do-we-know-enough-for-responsible-compounding
#11
Guillermo Cásedas, Amber C Bennett, E González-Burgos, M P Gómez-Serranillos, Víctor López, Carine Smith
Cyanidin and chlorogenic acid are polyphenols from plant origin that are present in many common fruits, particularly in berries. To corroborate the protective or detrimental effects of both compounds from a neuro-inflammatory perspective, in vitro experiments were carried out in human astrocytes (U-373). Astrocytes were pre-treated with a range of concentrations of either cyanidin, chlorogenic acid or a combined treatment for a period of 30 min, before exposure to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge for 23...
December 13, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546962/characterization-of-zolbetuximab-in-pancreatic-cancer-models
#12
Ӧzlem Türeci, Rita Mitnacht-Kraus, Stefan Wöll, Tomohiro Yamada, Ugur Sahin
In healthy tissue, the tight junction protein Claudin 18.2 (CLDN18.2) is present only in the gastric mucosa. Upon malignant transformation of gastric epithelial tissue, perturbations in cell polarity lead to cell surface exposure of CLDN18.2 epitopes. Moreover, CLDN18.2 is aberrantly expressed in malignancies of several other organs, such as pancreatic cancer (PC). A monoclonal antibody, zolbetuximab (formerly known as IMAB362), has been generated against CLDN18.2. In a phase 2 clinical trial (FAST: NCT01630083), zolbetuximab in conjunction with chemotherapy prolonged overall and progression-free survival over chemotherapy alone and improved quality of life...
2019: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546960/virotherapy-recruited-pmn-mdsc-infiltration-of-mesothelioma-blocks-antitumor-ctl-by-il-10-mediated-dendritic-cell-suppression
#13
Zhiwu Tan, Li Liu, Mei Sum Chiu, Ka-Wai Cheung, Chi Wing Yan, Zhe Yu, Boon Kiat Lee, Wan Liu, Kwan Man, Zhiwei Chen
Antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are essential for immune surveillance, yet the blockade of eliciting such CTLs during oncolytic virotherapy remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that oncolysis of mesothelioma by modified vaccinia Tiantan (MVTT) induces damage-associated molecular patterns exposure. Although MVTT leads to regression of established mesothelioma dose-dependently, antitumor CTLs are rarely induced. Mechanistically, MVTT virotherapy generates C-X-C chemokines that recruit CXCR2-expressing polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) into tumor microenvironment, where they suppress dendritic cells (DCs) by producing IL-10 and halt CTL responses...
2019: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544766/the-investigation-of-the-antitumor-agent-toxicity-and-capsaicin-effect-on-the-electron-transport-chain-enzymes-catalase-activities-and-lipid-peroxidation-levels-in-lung-heart-and-brain-tissues-of-rats
#14
Gizem Kursunluoglu, Dilek Taskiran, Hulya Ayar Kayali
Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in cancer treatment. To clarify the interaction with mitochondria, we hypothesize that the activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX), nucleotide levels, as well as levels of catalase (CAT) enzyme and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) can be affected by cisplatin. There was a significant decrease of both SDH and COX activities in the lung, heart, and brain tissues at the 1st day after cisplatin exposure, and the observed decreased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in comparison with the control could be because of cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction...
December 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30544062/anticancer-effects-of-alloxanthoxyletin-and-fatty-acids-esters-in-vitro-study-on-cancer-htb-140-and-a549-cells
#15
Michał Jóźwiak, Marta Struga, Piotr Roszkowski, Agnieszka Filipek, Grażyna Nowicka, Wioletta Olejarz
Alloxanthoxyletin, a natural occurring pyranocoumarin isolated from a number of plant sources, such as family of Rutaceae, and its synthetic derivatives show cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In the present study new eleven esters of alloxanthoxyletin and fatty acids were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer toxicity. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1 H NMR), Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13 C NMR) and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) analyses...
December 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542769/gemcitabine-and-metabolite-pharmacokinetics-in-advanced-nsclc-patients-after-bronchial-artery-infusion-and-intravenous-infusion
#16
Abeer F Alharbi, Robert A Kratzke, Jonathan D'Cunha, Michael Anthony Maddaus, Kinjal Sanghavi, Mark N Kirstein
PURPOSE: We investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of gemcitabine administered via bronchial artery infusion (BAI) and IV infusion in advanced NSCLC patients. METHODS: Patients were eligible if they had received at least two prior cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. Gemcitabine was administered via BAI as 600 mg/m2 on day one of cycle one, followed by IV as 1000 mg/m2 on day eight of cycle one, and IV on days one and eight of all subsequent cycles...
December 12, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30542346/enhancing-the-activation-and-releasing-the-brakes-a-double-hit-strategy-to-improve-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-against-multiple-myeloma
#17
Sara Tognarelli, Sebastian Wirsching, Ivana von Metzler, Bushra Rais, Benedikt Jacobs, Hubert Serve, Peter Bader, Evelyn Ullrich
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with a strong antitumor ability. In tumor patients, such as multiple myeloma (MM) patients, an elevated number of NK cells after stem cell transplantation (SCT) has been reported to be correlated with a higher overall survival rate. With the aim of improving NK cell use for adoptive cell therapy, we also addressed the cytotoxicity of patient-derived, cytokine-stimulated NK cells against MM cells at specific time points: at diagnosis and before and after autologous stem cell transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541882/cytomegalovirus-exposure-in-the-elderly-does-not-reduce-cd8-t-cell-repertoire-diversity
#18
Paul Lindau, Rithun Mukherjee, Miriam V Gutschow, Marissa Vignali, Edus H Warren, Stanley R Riddell, Karen W Makar, Cameron J Turtle, Harlan S Robins
With age, the immune system becomes less effective, causing increased susceptibility to infection. Chronic CMV infection further impairs immune function and is associated with increased mortality in the elderly. CMV exposure elicits massive CD8+ T cell clonal expansions and diminishes the cytotoxic T cell response to subsequent infections, leading to the hypothesis that to maintain homeostasis, T cell clones are expelled from the repertoire, reducing T cell repertoire diversity and diminishing the ability to combat new infections...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541850/influenza-infection-enhances-antibody-mediated-nk-cell-functions-via-type-i-interferon-dependent-pathways
#19
Sinthujan Jegaskanda, Hillary A Vanderven, Hyon-Xhi Tan, Sheilajen Alcantara, Kathleen Wragg, Matthew S Parsons, Amy Chung, Jennifer A Juno, Stephen J Kent
NK cells are an important component in the control of influenza infection, acting to both clear virus-infected cells and release antiviral cytokines. Engagement of CD16 on NK cells by antibody-coated influenza-infected cells results in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Increasing the potency of antibody-mediated NK cell activity could ultimately lead to improved control of influenza infection. To understand if NK cells can be functionally enhanced following exposure to influenza virus-infected cells, we co-cultured human PBMCs with influenza-infected human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells and evaluated the capacity of NK cells to mediate antibody-dependent functions...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30539386/a-new-insight-on-activation-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-hervs-in-malignant-melanoma-upon-exposure-to-cuso4
#20
Abbas Karimi, Roghayeh Sheervalilou, Houman Kahroba
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are semi-conserved subtypes of long-terminal repeats containing retrotransposons that constitute approximately 8% of the genome. Under pathological conditions, the expression of HERVs is also affected by epigenetic modifications. The extent to which the activation of human endogenous retroviruses can be influenced upon exposure to copper remains to be evaluated. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of CuSO4 administration on the transcriptional activity of three HERV families (H, K, and W) in human malignant melanoma cells...
December 11, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
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