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Cytotoxic exposure

S A Salmataj, Shobha U Kamath, V Ramachandra Murty, Sreedhara Ranganath Pai
Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic creates various health problems. Ixora coccinea flower extract was investigated for its ability to protect against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in CHO cell line. MTT assay confirmed the efficacy of the extract in ameliorating arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. The value (48 mM) of 24 h inhibitory concentration (IC50) of sodium arsenate for CHO cells was obtained by MTT assay. Various free radical scavenging assays like DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide scavenging assay confirmed antioxidant activity of the Ixora coccinea flower extract...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Tetsuya Minegaki, Ai Suzuki, Misato Mori, Shiori Tsuji, Satoshi Yamamoto, Airi Watanabe, Tomoyo Tsuzuki, Takaki Tsunoda, Asuka Yamamoto, Masayuki Tsujimoto, Kohshi Nishiguchi
Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a serious problem in cancer therapy and overcoming it is required in order to improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are used in cancer treatments and, recently, it has been reported that HDAC inhibitors can overcome resistance to various anti-cancer drugs in vitro . In the present study, a 5-FU-resistant breast cancer cell line was established, and the effects of HDAC inhibitors in these cells were examined. The 5-FU-resistant cell line MDA-MB-468 (MDA468/FU) was established by continuous exposure of the parental cells to 5-FU...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Shufeng Liu, Ming Wang, Tingting Li, Qian Chen
The cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) to microorganisms has attracted great attention over the past few decades. As an important participator in nitrogen cycle, aerobic denitrifiers have been proven to be negatively affected by TiO2 NPs, but the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study, bacteria-nanoparticle interaction was investigated by exposing an aerobic denitrifier, Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1 to different concentrations of TiO2 NPs at dark condition, in order to investigate the cytotoxicity mechanism...
October 17, 2018: Environmental Technology
Matthew S P Boyles, David Brown, Jilly Knox, Michael Horobin, Mark R Miller, Helinor J Johnston, Vicki Stone
High-Temperature Insulation Wools (HTIW), such as alumino silicate wools (Refractory Ceramic Fibers) and Alkaline Earth Silicate wools, are used in high-temperature industries for thermal insulation. These materials have an amorphous glass-like structure. In some applications, exposure to high temperatures causes devitrification resulting in the formation of crystalline species including crystalline silica. The formation of this potentially carcinogenic material raises safety concerns regarding after-use handling and disposal...
October 17, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Esra Emerce, Özge Çetin
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic chemicals that have been used in industry and consumer products. Because the presence of PFAS has been identified in humans and the environment in the last decade, human exposure to PFAS is a current public health concern. It has been shown that some PFAS lead to adverse health effects in the male reproductive system. However, there is no information about probable genotoxic effects of these chemicals on sperm cells. This study aimed to investigate the possible genotoxic damage on human sperm cells exposed to certain major PFAS compounds that were selected considering their extensive usage, high persistence in the environment, and high bioaccumulation in humans...
October 16, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Christopher Parker, Valerie Lewington, Neal Shore, Clemens Kratochwil, Moshe Levy, Ola Lindén, Walter Noordzij, Jae Park, Fred Saad
Importance: Targeted alpha therapy attempts to deliver systemic radiation selectively to cancer cells while minimizing systemic toxic effects and may lead to additional treatment options for many cancer types. Observations: Theoretically, the high-energy emission of short-range alpha particles causes complex double-stranded DNA breaks, eliciting cell death. No known resistance mechanism to alpha particles has been reported or scientifically established. The short-range emission of alpha particle radiation confines its cytotoxic effect to cancerous lesions and the surrounding tumor microenvironment while limiting toxic effects to noncancerous tissues...
September 20, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Jing Fu, Zhiyuan Gong, Barry C Kelly
Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial and antifungal agent, is ubiquitously detected in the natural environment. There is increasing evidence TCS can produce cytotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disruptor effects in aquatic biota, including algae, crustaceans, and fish. Metabolomics can provide important information regarding molecular-level effects and toxicity of xenobiotic chemicals in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity of TCS in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Vivek B Mathema, Wanna Chaijaroenkul, Kesara Na-Bangchang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cytotoxic activity of atractylodin and its potential effects on heme oxygenase (HO)-1 production, STAT1/3 phosporylation and major NF-κB protein expression in the cholangiocarcinoma-associated cell line CL-6. METHODS: Standard MTT assay was used for accessing antiproliferative activity on CL-6 cells. Normal human embryonic fibroblast (OUMS) cell was taken as control cell line. Colony formation and wound healing assay were conducted to access the effects of atractylodin on cell proliferation and directional migration activity of CL-6 cells...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Edi Simoni, Erica Gentilin, Mariarita Candito, Alessandro Martini, Laura Astolfi
Cochlear implants, the only way to recover from severe/profound hearing loss, may cause adverse effects, among which reactions to silicone materials coating implant electrodes, leading to apoptosis and necrosis of spiral ganglion cells. Our aim was to evaluate whether three polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) compounds (hexadimethylsiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) used in silicone rods could exert toxic effects on an in vitro neuronal cell model (PC12). Cell viability, morphology and mRNA expression levels of apoptotic markers were evaluated on PC12 cells at different PDMS dilutions up to 6 days of exposure...
October 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yu-Lin Pan, Rui Xin, Sheng-Yuan Wang, Yue Wang, Lin Zhang, Cui-Ping Yu, Yong-Hui Wu
Nickel (Ni) is widely present in the occupational environment and causes various adverse effects on the human body. Apoptosis induced by Ni2+ may be a key mechanism underlying its toxic effect. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ni-smelting fumes on cell viability, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis-related proteins in NIH/3T3 cells. The effects of Ni-smelting fumes at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL were tested. Treatment with Ni-smelting fumes for 24 h and 48 h significantly decreased cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared with the blank control group...
October 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Xue Gao, Xi Du, Lijun An, Yangyang Wang, Lili Wang, Zengguang Wu, Cong Huang, Xin He
BACKGROUND: The quality standard of Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) by CFDA can not fully reflect the effectiveness and safety. While, Q-marker was proposed to solve the problem of traditional Chinese medicine. PK-marker is mainly used to reflect the material exposure and the influencing factors of Chinese medicine after administration. PURPOSE: Based on the study of quantitative analysis, cytotoxicity and pharmacokinetics, this study screened out and confirmed whether wilforine could be served as a potential Q-marker and PK-marker of TGT...
March 19, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Xiaolong Gu, Wiebke Albrecht, Karolina Edlund, Franziska Kappenberg, Jörg Rahnenführer, Marcel Leist, Wolfgang Moritz, Patricio Godoy, Cristina Cadenas, Rosemarie Marchan, Tim Brecklinghaus, Laia Tolosa Pardo, José V Castell, Iain Gardner, Bo Han, Jan G Hengstler, Regina Stoeber
Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) remain the gold standard for in vitro testing in the field of pharmacology and toxicology. One crucial parameter influencing the results of in vitro tests is the incubation period with test compounds. It has been suggested that longer incubation periods may be critical for the prediction of repeated dose toxicity. However, a study that systematically analyzes the relationship between incubation period and cytotoxicity in PHHs is not available. To close this gap, 30 compounds were tested in a concentration-dependent manner for cytotoxicity in cultivated cryopreserved PHHs (three donors per compound) for 1, 2 and 7 days...
October 13, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Camila Helena Ferreira Cuelho, Geórgia de Assis Dias Alves, Marina Ortiz Lovatto, Iuri França Bonilha, Fernanda Barbisan, Ivana Beatrice Manica da Cruz, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Roselei Fachinetto, Gizele Scotti do Canto, Melânia Palermo Manfron
Ultraviolet B radiation represents 10% of the total UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, being the primary responsible for the biological effects related to skin cancer and photoaging. Ilex Paraguariensis A. St. Hil., known as Yerba mate (YM), is a native tree of South America whose polyphenols in its leaves are described to exhibit photochemoprotective effect and are employed in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, the polyphenols are used to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce the UV-induced damage, which ultimately decreases the oxidative stress...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jeferson Gustavo Henn, Luiza Steffens, Nathalia Denise de Moura Sperotto, Betânia de Souza Ponce, Rodrigo Moisés Veríssimo, Fernanda Brião Menezes Boaretto, Gustavo Hassemer, Valéria Flores Péres, Helena Schirmer, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada, Jenifer Saffi, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plantago australis is a perennial plant widely distributed in Latin America, and its seeds and leaves are used in folk medicine to treat many diseases and conditions. Among its various chemical compounds, verbascoside is one of the most present, and has several pharmacological activities described, but there is not much information about its toxicity. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aims of this study were to optimize the extraction of verbascoside from P...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anna Adamus, Katharina Peer, Iftikhar Ali, Jan Lisec, Abiodun Falodun, Marcus Frank, Guido Seitz, Nadja Engel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Berberis orthobotrys (BORM) is a medical plant with a long history in traditional usage for the treatment of wounds, cancer, gastrointestinal malady and several other diseases. Our previous studies identified the endemic Pakistani plant Berberis orthobotrys Bien. ex Aitch. as promising source for the treatment of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer properties of 26 plant derived extracts and compounds including the methanolic root extract of Berberis orthobotrys (BORM) on pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMA), which is known to develop drug resistance, metastatic invasion and potential tumor progression...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yabin Wang, Li Zhou, Xiaoling Wang, Xiaokun Liu, Liwen Jiang, Jiahui Wang, Hainan Sun, Cuijuan Jiang, Xueci Xing, Yi Zhang, Bingcai Pan, Bing Yan
Nanomaterials, such as ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs), are very effective in water remediation. However, the safety issues related to nanoparticle release and toxicity to humans remain to be resolved. Here we evaluated the cytotoxicity of ZrO2 NPs and their adducts with pollutants using a human cell panel containing stomach, intestine, liver and kidney cells. We found that different pollutants or ZrO2 NP/pollutant adducts targeted cells from different organs, suggesting the necessity of a cell panel to model oral exposures...
December 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Elizabeth C Stahl, Ryan W Bonvillain, Clint D Skillen, Brandon L Burger, Hidetaka Hara, Whayoung Lee, Cynthia B Trygg, Peter J Didier, Brooke F Grasperge, Nicholas C Pashos, Bruce A Bunnell, John Bianchi, David L Ayares, Kelly I Guthrie, Bryan N Brown, Thomas H Petersen
Whole organ tissue engineering is a promising approach to address organ shortages in many applications, including lung transplantation for patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Engineered lungs may be derived from animal sources after removing cellular content, exposing the extracellular matrix to serve as a scaffold for recellularization with human cells. However, the use of xenogeneic tissue sources in human transplantation raises concerns due to the presence of the antigenic Gal epitope. In the present study, lungs from wild type or α-Gal knockout pigs were harvested, decellularized, and implanted subcutaneously in a non-human primate model to evaluate the host immune response...
September 28, 2018: Biomaterials
Enjie Diao, Dongliang Ren, Tingwu Liu, Jianmei Zhang, Weicheng Hu, Hanxue Hou
Patulin often contaminates fruits and fruit-base products, which seriously threats the health of consumers. In this study, ozone was used to degrade patulin in aqueous solution, and investigated the cytotoxicity of patulin after ozone detoxification on human hepatic carcinoma cells (HepG2) using MTT assay and apoptosis assay. Patulin was rapidly degraded from 24.59 mg/L to 9.85 mg/L within 180 s by 10.60 mg/L of ozone at a flow rate of 90 mL/min, and reduced by 59.94%. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of patulin on HepG2 cells was 9...
October 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Haitham Saeed Rahman, Tae-Jin Choi
Background: Saprolegnia parasitica is a fish pathogen that causes severe economic losses worldwide. Virkon-S is a well-known disinfectant known to exhibit antimicrobial activities against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In this study, we tested the anti-fungal activity of Virkon-S against S . parasitica , the major causal agent of saprolegniasis. Methods: The lowest concentration of Virkon-S that prevented germination or the visible growth of spores and the percent spore germination were determined using potato dextrose agar plates containing different concentrations of Virkon-S...
2018: PeerJ
Hizlan H Agus, Cemaynur Sarp, Meryem Cemiloglu
Terpinolene is one of the most abundant monoterpenes used as a food supplement or odorant in cosmetics and the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we aimed to assess apoptotic, oxidative and cytotoxic effects of terpinolene. We used the fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ) as a promising uni-cellular model organism in molecular toxicology and cell death research, due to its resemblance to mammalian cells at the molecular level. After terpinolene exposure (200-800 mg L-1 ), the IC50 and LC50 were calculated as 349...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
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