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urine reflux

Seyed Esmail Razavi, Mohammad Jouybar
Two common abnormalities in ureters include primary refluxing megaureter (PRM) and primary obstructed megaureter (POM). The aim of this study was to represent the numerical simulation of the urine flow at the end of the ureter with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and POM during peristalsis. Methodologically, the peristalsis in the ureter wall was created using Gaussian distribution. Fluid--Structure Interaction (FSI) was applied to simulate urine-elastic wall interactions; and governing equations were solved using the arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian method...
September 24, 2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Ge Liu, Adriane Sinclair, Laurence Baskin
The urinary bladder collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until the appropriate moment for voiding. The trigone and ureterovesical junctions are key to bladder function, by allowing one-way passage of urine into the bladder without obstruction. Embryological development of these structures has been studied in multiple animal models as well as humans. In this report we review the existing literature on bladder development and cellular signalling with particular focus on bladder development in humans...
August 28, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
G Lau, R Anderson, P Cartwright, M C Wallis, A Schaeffer, S Oottamasathien, B Snow
INTRODUCTION: Historically, patients with unilateral high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and contralateral low-grade or resolved VUR have been treated with bilateral intravesical ureteral reimplantation, which requires postoperative admission. If the high-grade VUR side is treated alone, then the contralateral side is at risk of developing recurrent or worsening VUR. Bilateral subureteric injection of dextronomer/hyaluronic acid (DHA) is another option that can be performed as an outpatient therapy, but a single injection is less effective for high-grade VUR...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Andreea Nissenkorn, Tomer Erlich, Dorit E Zilberman, Ifat Sarouk, Alexander Krauthammer, Noam D Kitrey, Gali Heimer, Bruria BenZeev, Yoram Mor
BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a neurodegenerative cerebellar disorder, caused by mutations in the ATM gene, involved in DNA repair. Radiosensitivity, progressive ataxia, immune deficiency and malignancies, are well known symptoms, but urological manifestations are scarcely described. OBJECTIVE: To characterize urologic manifestations in a large cohort of AT patients. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional chart study comprising 52 AT patients followed at a National AT Center...
July 26, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Dalia Gobbi, Francesco Fascetti Leon, Michele Gnech, Paola Midrio, Piergiorgio Gamba, Marco Castagnetti
PURPOSE: Infra-vesical obstruction is uncommon in infants and generally due to urethral valves. Congenital urethral strictures (CUS), instead, defined as a concentric narrowing of the urethral lumen, are exceedingly rare in infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed our experience with 7 patients treated at our institution for CUS <age of 1-year. The study is a retrospective review of 7 patients treated for CUS diagnosed <age 1-year during a 10-year period...
July 28, 2018: Urology Journal
Djamal Djeddi, Erwan Stephan-Blanchard, André Léké, Mohamed Ammari, Stephane Delanaud, Anne-Sophie Lemaire-Hurtel, Véronique Bach, Frédéric Telliez
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perinatal smoking exposure is associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER)-related changes in sleep-wakefulness states in neonates. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-one neonates, referred for the investigation of suspected GER, were recruited and underwent multichannel impedance-pH monitoring and synchronized 8- to 12-hour polysomnography. The infants' exposure to tobacco smoke was estimated by means of a urine cotinine assay. The total number, frequency (h-1 ), and mean duration (minutes) of GER-pH (reflux events detected by the pH electrode only) and GER-imp (reflux events with bolus movement detected by impedance) events were determined...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Tobias Klein, Alexandra Winkler, Reza M Vahdad, Alexandra Ekamp, Thomas M Boemers
INTRODUCTION: In children who remain incontinent after reconstruction of bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), continent anal urinary diversion (CAD) is one option to achieve continence. Known problems after CAD are an increased stool frequency and ureterointestinal stenosis. We devised a new surgical technique of CAD that we named the "Cologne pouch procedure" (CPP) that renders the possibility of separate evacuation of urine and feces. Furthermore, we connect the bladder plate to the rectosigmoid pouch instead of performing a ureterosigmoidostomy to reduce the rate of ureterointestinal stenosis...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
İsa Yılmaz, Harun Peru, Fatma H Yılmaz, Tamer Sekmenli, İlhan Çiftçi, Fatih Kara
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to investigate the relationship between vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal damage in non-febrile, febrile for the first time and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) patients. The secondary aim was to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) in febrile UTIs could be a predictor of renal scarring. POPULATION AND METHODS: This prospective study included non-febrile, febrile for the first time and recurrent pediatric UTI cases. The routine lab analyses comprised a complete blood count, urea, creatinine, fully automated urinalysis, urine culture and CRP analyses...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Ying-Lun Ou, Chin-Yu Liu, Tai-Lung Cha, Sheng-Tang Wu, Chih-Wei Tsao
RATIONALE: Ketamine abuse is an emerging issue in many countries, and ketamine cystitis (KC) is a growing disease which more and more urologists may encounter with. There was no gold standard diagnostic criteria of ketamine cystits established yet, but well-accepted with the positive substance abuse history and clinical symptoms. The clinical presentation of ketamine cystitis varies and may mimic those presented in interstitial cystitis (IC), such as voiding frequency, urgency with urge incontinence, dysuria, nocturia, burning sensation during urination, post urination pain, painful hematuria, and small bladder capacity, but there are still differences that KC presented with more urgency, hematuria, pyuria and upper urinary tract involvement such as ureteral stenosis, vesico-ureteric reflux, hydronephrosis and renal function impairment...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ryan Butel, Richard Ball
BACKGROUND: We observed in cystoprostatectomy specimens that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) granulomatous prostatitis tended preferentially to affect the peripheral zone (PZ) and aimed to study the matter, postulating that assessment of its distribution might contribute to understanding pathogenetic processes. METHODS: Entire prostate glands from 27 men (47-83 years; mean = 69 years), who had previously received intravesical BCG therapy for non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, were studied as whole-mount sections to determine the anatomical distribution and histopathological characteristics of BCG prostatitis...
November 2018: Prostate
Gheorghe Adrian Bumbu, Mihail Claudius Berechet, Karim Nacer, Gheorghe Bumbu, Nina Ionovici, Bogdan Andrei Bumbu
Congenital hydronephrosis caused by ureteral anomalies, like ureteral duplicity, megaureter, ureteral ectopy and ureterocele, must be differentiated from ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UJO) hydronephrosis and from the hydronephrosis caused by vesicoureteral reflux. These represent a differentiated branch of congenital abnormalities in children even if not so common, but this fact should not be disconsidered. Over a five years period, from 111 operated children in our Clinic, we performed 13 interventions for congenital hydronephrosis, 11 (84...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Katherine M Fischer, Michael Louie, Phillip Mucksavage
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ureteral stent placement is a very common urologic procedure and a necessary component of many minimally invasive surgeries including ureteroscopy. Despite its widespread use, stent placement results in bothersome urinary symptoms and pain in approximately 80% of patients. This review discusses the proposed mechanisms underlying ureteral stent-related symptoms and current approaches to symptom management and the evidence to support them. RECENT FINDINGS: Though it has been extensively studied, the exact cause of stent-related symptoms remains unknown but is likely related to irritation of the bladder by the distal curl of the stent and reflux of urine through the stent up to the renal pelvis and transmission of high pressures associated with this...
June 11, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Michael A Maccini, David J Chalmers, Vijaya M Vemulakonda, Jeffrey B Campbell
PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections are relatively common in pediatric patients. Unrecognized bacteriuria at the time of urologic surgery puts patients at increased risk for perioperative complications. Many pediatric urologists obtain preoperative or intraoperative urine cultures prior to surgery, but data are lacking regarding rates and risk factors for positive intraoperative urine cultures. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing pediatric urologic surgery to examine factors associated with positive intraoperative urine cultures...
June 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Danka Pokrajac, Lejla Kapur-Pojskic, Sandra Vegar-Zubovic, Renata Milardovic
Background: The pathogenesis of renal scarring (RS) after first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is multifactorial. In addition to well-known risk factors, a role for genetic predisposition has been suggested. Aims: To determine whether deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms at the plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) gene were associated with evolution to RS following a febrile UTI in infants. Materials and Methods: Our research included 100 infants, 84 girls and 16 boys, ages up to 1 year with a first febrile UTI, increased inflammatory parameters and positive urine culture treated at the Pediatric Clinic II of the University Clinical Center Sarajevo (UCCS)...
April 2018: Medical Archives
Atsushi Aikawa, Masaki Muramatsu, Yusuke Takahashi, Yuko Hamasaki, Junya Hashimoto, Mai Kubota, Youji Hyoudou, Yoshihiro Itabashi, Takeshi Kawamura, Seiichiro Shishido
Lower urinary tract abnormalities are difficult to resolve in pediatric kidney transplant patients. Measure of residual urine, voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, cystometry, electromyography of urethral external sphincter muscle, urethrometry, and uroflowmetry are the primary methods for evaluation of lower urinary tract abnormalities. Endoscopic resection or ablation of urethral valves is required in children with posterior urethral valve to treat obstruction, but bladder function does not always recover and may deteriorate to end-stage renal failure even after the obstruction is released...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Leah H Hellerstein, Stuart Marshall Sacks, Daniel K Hellerstein
A 59-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, gout and obesity presented to the hospital with a chief complaint of worsening scrotal oedema. The patient endorsed associated symptoms of decreased force of stream on urination, stranguria and hesitancy with slight dysuria. Physical exam showed an effaced umbilicus and phallus with a hidden scrotum estimated to be 30×20×30 cm in size. Imaging and lab findings led to a diagnosis of total bladder herniation within an incarcerated right inguinal hernia...
February 27, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Federico Soria, Esther Morcillo, Alvaro Serrano, Alberto Budia, Inmaculada Fernández, Tomás Fernández-Aparicio, Francisco M Sanchez-Margallo
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects in urinary tract of a new antireflux-biodegradable ureteral stent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty six ureters belonging to 24 pigs were used. The study began with endoscopic, nephrosonographic, and fluoroscopic assessments. Three study groups of ureters (n = 12) were then specified. In group I, a biodegradable antireflux ureteral stent (BDG-ARS) was inserted in the right ureter of 12 pigs. Group II comprised the left ureter of the same animals, in which a double-pigtail stent was placed for 6 weeks...
May 2018: Urology
Scott M Stevenson, Glen A Lau, William C Andolsek, Angela P Presson, Patrick C Cartwright
INTRODUCTION: Debris within the bladder is commonly seen on ultrasound. The etiology of bladder debris is varied and the likelihood that urinary debris represents positive urine culture is under investigation. We hypothesize that bladder debris will increase the likelihood that a urine culture is positive compared to those without bladder debris. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review on children aged 0-17 years who had a voiding cystourethrogram with a catheterized urinalysis or urine culture, and who also had a renal and bladder ultrasound up to 1 week prior, the day of, or up to 2 days after their urine studies...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Brian D Duty, John M Barry
When compared with maintenance dialysis, renal transplantation affords patients with end-stage renal disease better long-term survival and a better quality of life. Approximately 9% of patients will develop a major urologic complication following kidney transplantation. Ureteral complications are most common and include obstruction (intrinsic and extrinsic), urine leak and vesicoureteral reflux. Ureterovesical anastomotic strictures result from technical error or ureteral ischemia. Balloon dilation or endoureterotomy may be considered for short, low-grade strictures, but open reconstruction is associated with higher success rates...
October 2015: Asian Journal of Urology
N Capozza, C Gulia, Z Heidari Bateni, A Zangari, S Gigli, V Briganti, S Tursini, C J Koh, M Gaffi, S Baldassarra, F Signore, A Porrello, R Piergentili
OBJECTIVE: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) affects up to 1% of Caucasian children. Primary VUR is characterized by failure of the ureterovesicular junction to prevent urine from traveling in a retrograde fashion from the bladder to the ureters and the kidneys. Several reports in the literature describe the prevalence of this condition in pediatric patients; overall, VUR affects more males during infancy and with higher grades. However, a thorough consideration of these articles reveals important contradictions regarding the prevalence by gender and age...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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