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medullary thyroid

Run Yu
OBJECTIVE: Endocrine tumor markers (ETMs) are important and indispensable tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of endocrine tumors. Unexpectedly high level of ETM (UHLETM) is often encountered in clinical practice. The objectives of this article are to discuss the approach to UHLETMs and describe the most common UHLETMs. METHODS: Literature review and personal experience with UHLETMs. RESULTS: A UHLETM is defined as an ETM level much higher than what an endocrinologist would expect based on the patient's clinical information, other biochemical test results, and imaging findings...
August 14, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Thomas Hendrix Beckham, Paul Bernard Romesser, Andries Hijlke Groen, Christopher Sabol, Ashok R Shaha, Mona Sabra, Thomas Brinkman, Daniel J Spielsinger, Sean McBride, Jillian Tsai, Nadeem Riaz, R Michael Tuttle, James A Fagin, Eric J Sherman, Richard J Wong, Nancy Y Lee
BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid cancer typically has an indolent clinical course but can cause significant morbidity by local progression. Surgery can be difficult due to the proximity to critical normal structures in the neck. Our objective was to review the safety, feasibility, and outcomes of definitive-intent intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to analyze whether patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy (CC-IMRT) had higher rates of disease control and survival over IMRT alone in patients with unresectable or gross residual disease (GRD)...
August 14, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Paulo Schiavom Duarte, Luciana Audi de Castroneves, Heitor Naoki Sado, Marcelo Tatit Sapienza, Ana Amélia Fialho de Oliveira Hoff, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel
Herein, we report a case of a 19-year-old man with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) diagnosed when he was 12 years of age. The patient had previously undergone total thyroidectomy, cervical radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. He progressed with known bone, pulmonary, and lymph node metastases and was scanned with 18 F-fluoride (18 F-NaF) and 68 Ga-dotatate whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for metastatic disease monitoring. We found that the MTC bone metastases and soft tissue calcified metastases were better characterized on 18 F-NaF PET/CT than on 68 Ga-dotatate PET/CT...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Daiki Kayano, Seigo Kinuya
Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine and specifically targets neuroendocrine cells including some neuroendocrine tumors. Iodine-131 (I-131)-labeled MIBG (I-131 MIBG) therapy for neuroendocrine tumors has been performed for more than a quarter-century. The indications of I-131 MIBG therapy include treatment-resistant neuroblastoma (NB), unresectable or metastatic pheochromocytoma (PC) and paraganglioma (PG), unresectable or metastatic carcinoid tumors, and unresectable or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC)...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Zaid Al-Qurayshi, Helmi Khadra, Kristi Chang, Nitin Pagedar, Gregory W Randolph, Emad Kandil
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor account for 1-2% of thyroid cancer. In this study, we aim to examine the characteristics and survival of patients with MTC. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study utilizing the National Cancer Data Base, 2004-2014. The study population included adults with either MTC (cases) or with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) (controls). RESULTS: A total of 2,776 MTC and 171,631 DTC patients were included...
August 2018: Oral Oncology
Amanda L Faulkner, Eric Swanson, Thomas L McLarney, Cortney Y Lee, Annette Rebel
Dexmedetomidine is a selective α2-agonist, frequently used in perioperative medicine as anesthesia adjunct. The medication carries a Food and Drug Administration pregnancy category C designation and is therefore rarely used for parturients undergoing nonobstetric surgery. We are reporting the use of dexmedetomidine in the anesthetic management of a parturient undergoing minimally invasive unilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma during the second trimester of pregnancy. Additionally, because of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A constellation with diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer, the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy 1 week after the adrenalectomy...
August 7, 2018: A&A practice
Dilip K Das
Synthesis and storage of thyroglobulin as well as synthesis of thyroid hormones and their release into the circulation are important functions of thyroid, which were studied in fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears from thyroid lesions. Evidence of thyroglobulin synthesis was demonstrated in neoplastic and nonneoplastic follicular cells, especially in Hürthle cells, in the form of colloid inclusions. Whereas the pinocytic vesicles containing colloid at the luminal end of in nonneoplastic and neoplastic follicular cells indicated engulfment of colloid for synthesis of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 ), the marginal vacuoles (MVs) (fire-flare appearance) at the basal aspects of follicular cells suggested their release on way to the interfollicular capillaries...
July 2018: Journal of Cytology
Friedhelm Raue, Karin Frank-Raue
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome caused by missense gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene on chromosome 10. Specific RET mutations can predispose toward a particular phenotype and clinical course, with strong genotype-phenotype correlations. MEN2 is highly penetrant in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), and it can be associated with bilateral pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism. Two different clinical variants of MEN2 are known: MEN2A, which includes the familial subtype, and MEN2B...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Margret Ehlers, Stephanie Allelein, Franziska Schwarz, Hubertus Hautzel, Anne Kuebart, Mathias Schmidt, Matthias Haase, Till Dringenberg, Matthias Schott
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been shown to be a valuable prognostic marker for different solid cancers. Within the present study we quantified CTCs in thyroid cancer (TC) patients. Special focus was given to disease-free PTC patients with undetectable serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels. Altogether, 67 TC patients (33 papillary, 20 follicular, 14 medullary) were included in the study. CTC numbers, which were normalized to 3.3×105 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were correlated with clinical outcome...
August 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Rosa M Paragliola, Rosa M Lovicu, Giampaolo Papi, Ettore Capoluongo, Angelo Minucci, Giulia Canu, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Salvatore M Corsello
RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene variants are essential for the development of familial and sporadic forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The most frequent variants are usually located in exons 10, 11, and 13 through 16 of the RET gene. We report two cases of apparently sporadic MTC associated with the variant in exon 2 of RET gene. Patient 1, a 62-year old man who had undergone adrenalectomy for a 5 cm pheochromocytoma, was screened for type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN 2) which showed elevated basal and post-intravenous calcium gluconate calcitonin levels...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sathya Neelature Sriramareddy, Etienne Hamoir, Marcela Chavez, Renaud Louis, Albert Beckers, Luc Willems
Early detection of tumor relapse is a major issue in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Calcitonin has been reported as a sensitive and accurate marker for recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy. Recent evidence nevertheless reveals pitfalls in calcitonin immunoassays due to the presence of heterophilic antibodies or macroaggregates. Calcitonin can also remain undetectable despite metastasis of rare tumor cells in thyroidectomized patients. In this context, we designed a sensitive and specific technique to identify calcitonin-positive circulating tumor cells (CTC) in medullary thyroid carcinoma...
August 2, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Karin Frank-Raue, Matthias Schott, Friedhelm Raue
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) arises from parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland and is characterized by a calcitonin secretion. Basal calcitonin correlates with the tumor mass and is used as highly sensitive and specific tumor marker for MTC. Based on former assays, unspecific calcitonin increase has frequently been seen in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, kidney insufficiency, proton pump inhibitors etc. This phenomenon is now less often seen with modern assays. The consequent use of calcitonin measurement in nodular goiter helps to identify the rare MTC at an early stage...
August 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Lutske Lodewijk, Stefan M Willems, Koen M A Dreijerink, Bart de Keizer, Paul J van Diest, Abbey Schepers, Hans Morreau, Han J Bonenkamp, Ilse A C H Van Engen-van Grunsven, Schelto Kruijff, Bettien M van Hemel, Thera P Links, Els Nieveen van Dijkum, Susanne van Eeden, Gerlof D Valk, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Menno R Vriens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2018: Human Pathology
Yasuhiro Ito, Akira Miyauchi, Minoru Kihara, Takuya Higashiiyama, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Akihiro Miya
BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from calcitonin-producing cells of the thyroid. In 2009, we published our first report on the biological characteristics and prognosis of 118 MTC patients. Herein, we enrolled a larger number of patients with longer follow-up periods to further study the biological characteristics and appropriate therapies for MTC. METHODS: In general, hemithyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed for sporadic MTC confined to the thyroid lobe and for hereditary MTC with central node dissection, respectively...
July 26, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Xiao-Ping Qi, Jian-Zhong Peng, Xiao-Wei Yang, Zhi-Lie Cao, Xiu-Hua Yu, Xu-Dong Fang, Da-Hong Zhang, Jian-Qiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous lichen amyloidosis (CLA) has been reported in some multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) families affected by specific germline RET mutations C634F/G/R/W/Y or V804M, as a characteristic of the clinical manifestation in 'MEN 2A with CLA', one of four variants of MEN 2A, which was strictly located in the scapular region of the upper back. PATIENT FINDINGS: This study reports a large south-eastern Chinese pedigree with 17 individuals carrying the MEN 2A-harbouring germline C611Y (c...
July 26, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Archi Agrawal, Venkatesh Rangarajan, Sneha Shah, Ameya Puranik, Nilendu Purandare
Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) a guanithidine analogue, labelled with 123I and 131I, is used for imaging and therapy of neuroblastomas and various neural crest tumors like paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas, medullary cancer of thyroid and carcinoids since the past three to four decades. In this review article, we shall revisit MIBG as a radiopharmaceutical and its various applications in neural crest tumors.
July 26, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Ashwin Singh Parihar, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Shelvin Kumar Vadi, Rajender Kumar Basher, Anil Bhansali
Ectopic Cushing syndrome constitutes approximately 10% of all patients with Cushing syndrome. The clinical features of hypercortisolism result from elevated levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone produced by a tumor. The present case presented with clinical and biochemical parameters suggestive of Cushing syndrome with normal pituitary and adrenals on imaging. Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT done to localize an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumor revealed metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid as the culprit lesion...
July 21, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Haitao Zheng, Jie Xu, Shaolong Hao, Xincheng Liu, Jinrao Ning, Xicheng Song, Lixin Jiang, Zongying Liu
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common form of non-medullary thyroid cancer, accounting for ~80% of all cases of thyroid cancer. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of BRAF-activated long noncoding RNA (BANCR) in the development of PTC. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the mRNA expression levels of BANCR, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) and cyclin D1 between PTC and benign control thyroid nodule tissue samples from 60 patients were determined...
August 2018: Oncology Letters
Clare Turnbull, Chey Loveday, Louise Izatt, Sian Ellard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sefa Ergün, Ozan Akıncı, Tülin Öztürk, Adem Karataş
Hyalinizing trabecular tumor was first described by Carney et al. (1) in 1987 and is a rare benign tumor of the thyroid gland that shares some of the microscopic features of medullary and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Hyalinizing trabecular tumor derives from follicular cells, and it is characterized by an apparent trabecular pattern and intratrabecular hyalinization. In this study, we present the case of a 40-year-old female patient with thyroid gland nodules, whose ultrasound results, clinical behavior, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy results were suspicious; the pathology after thyroidectomy indicated hyalinizing trabecular tumor...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
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