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ethylene rate

O J Deane, J R Lovett, O M Musa, A Fernyhough, S P Armes
Poly( N -vinylpyrrolidone) (PNVP) is a well-known, highly polar, nonionic water-soluble polymer. However, N -vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) usually exhibits strongly non-ideal behavior when copolymerized with methacrylic or styrenic monomers. Moreover, NVP is not particularly well-controlled under living radical polymerization conditions. For these reasons, alternative pyrrolidone-based monomers have been investigated. For example, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of 2-( N -methacryloyloxy)ethylpyrrolidone (NMEP) has been recently investigated using various polymerization formulations...
October 9, 2018: Macromolecules
Primiano Pio Di Mauro
A dual-targeting drug delivery system for paclitaxel (PTX) was developed by functionalizing novel polyester-based nanoparticles (NPs) with peptides possessing special affinity for low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), overcoming the limitations of the current chemotherapeutics, to transport drug from blood to brain, and then target glioma cells. Employing novel biodegradable block co-polymers (P and 2P), PTX loaded and peptide-functionalized nanoparticles were prepared by a modified nano-co-precipitation method, carried out in one step only without emulsifier, allowing to obtain spherical nanometric (<200 nm), monodisperse (PDI∼0...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Laixi Sun, Shufan Chen, Fan Yang, Xin Ye, Xiaodong Jiang, Weidong Wu
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film is an attractive candidate for mitigating target debris in high-power laser systems due to its remarkable advantages such as low cost, low absorption, and high damage threshold. However, the inert surface with bad wettability presents an enormous challenge to realize optical antireflection. In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate that broadband antireflection of FEP film can be achieved through combining oxygen plasma treatment and solgel coating techniques. By optimizing the plasma treating time and withdrawal rate during the coating process, the treated FEP film has 4...
October 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Nguyen Duy Quang, Hiromi Eba, Kenji Sakurai
The present paper describes an extremely efficient, reproducible and inexpensive chemical handling method for converting the nuclear wastes contaminated by radioactive cesium to stable inorganic crystal, pollucite (CsAlSi2 O6 ), which is promising as a form of the final storage. In this processing, the clays are used as a source for aluminum and silicon, and it is important to get a well-mixed homogenous solution by the aid of some heat and pressure. The present method proposes the use of ethylene glycol as a solvent, rather than water...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna S Savchenkova, Alexander S Semenikhin, Ivan V Chechet, Sergey G Matveev, Alexander A Konnov, Alexander M Mebel
Ab initio and density functional CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVQZ-f12//B2PLYPD3/6-311G** calculations have been performed to unravel the reaction mechanism of triplet and singlet methylene CH2 with ketene CH2 CO. The computed potential energy diagrams and molecular properties have been then utilized in Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus-Master Equation (RRKM-ME) calculations of the reaction rate constants and product branching ratios combined with the use of nonadiabatic transition state theory for spin-forbidden triplet-singlet isomerization...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Monica M Johnson, Michael A Collier, Ky V Hoang, Erica N Pino, Elizabeth G Graham-Gurysh, Matthew D Gallovic, Md Shamim Hasan Zahid, Naihan Chen, Larry Schlesinger, John S Gunn, Eric M Bachelder, Kristy M Ainslie
Previously we have encapsulated host-directed therapy AR-12 into acetalated dextran (Ace-DEX) microparticles (MPs) to mitigate drug toxicity and passively target phagocytic host cells. Herein, we have improved upon our initial emulsion-based formulation of Ace-DEX MPs encapsulating AR-12 (AR-12/MPs) by improving the drug encapsulation efficiency, evaluating sterilization processes for manufacturing, and understanding cellular and in vivo trafficking of the MPs. By using an alternative solvent system, ethyl acetate, we report an increased encapsulation efficiency of AR-12 while maintaining the pH-responsive degradation kinetics of Ace-DEX MPs...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Wenqiang Liu, Bao-Shiang Lee, William F Mieler, Jennifer J Kang-Mieler
PURPOSE: Current standard of care for neovascular eye diseases require repeated intravitreal bolus injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGFs). The purpose of this study was to validate a degradable microsphere-thermoresponsive hydrogel drug delivery system (DDS) capable of releasing bioactive aflibercept in a controlled and extended manner for six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DDS was fabricated by suspending aflibercept-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres within a biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-co-(L-lactic acid) diacrylate/N-isopropylacrylamide (PEG-PLLA-DA/NIPAAm) thermoresponsive hydrogel...
October 7, 2018: Current Eye Research
Li Li, Ki Hyun Bae, Shengyong Ng, Atsushi Yamashita, Motoichi Kurisawa
Enzymatic crosslinking chemistry using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been widely utilized as an effective approach to fabricating injectable hydrogels with high efficiency under mild reaction conditions. However, their clinical applications are limited by the immunogenicity of the plant-derived enzyme. Herein we report the design, synthesis and characterization of HRP-immobilized porous silica particles (HRP-particles) and their use for in situ formation of HRP-free hydrogels. HRP was immobilized on aminopropyl-modified porous silica particles of 70-140 µm in diameter via poly(ethylene glycol) spacers of different molecular weights by reductive amination reaction...
September 28, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Mehrdad Taheri, Zahra Azizmohammadi, Mojtaba Ansari, Payman Dadkhah, Kasra Dehghan, Rohollah Valizadeh, Majid Assadi
INTRODUCTION: Bone pain from multifocal blastic or mixed lytic-blastic metastatic lesions can be effectively addressed with radiopharmaceuticals with high affinity for such foci. 153 Sm-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (153 Sm-EDTMP) and 177 Lu-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid) (177 Lu-EDTMP) are two such radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to make a comparison of efficacy between 153 Sm-EDTMP and 177 Lu-EDTMP in terms of palliation of commonly encountered symptoms in cancer patients, functional status, and pain intensity as measured by Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and numeric rating scale (NRS) respectively...
September 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Xiaoyang Zhu, Qiumian Li, Jun Li, Jun Luo, Weixin Chen, Xueping Li
Aromatic compounds are important for fruit quality and can vary among fruit cultivars. Volatile compounds formed during the ripening of two banana cultivars, Brazilian and Fenjiao, were determined using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These two cultivars exhibited different physiological characteristics during storage. Fenjiao fruit exhibited faster yellowing and softening, a higher respiration rate and greater ethylene production...
September 25, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Luciana Sartore, Evelia Schettini, Laura de Palma, Gennaro Brunetti, Claudio Cocozza, Giuliano Vox
Polymeric protein-based biocomposites were used in this work as water dispersions to generate, in situ, biobased mulching coatings by spray technique, as alternative to low density polyethylene films for soil mulching. At the end of their lifetime, these biodegradable coatings degrade in soil thank to the microbial community that mineralizes them. Protein hydrolysates (PH) were derived from waste products of the leather industry, while poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were used to make the biodegradable spray coatings...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
C Reig, A Martínez-Fuentes, C Mesejo, M Agustí
In persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), one to three waves of fruit abscission can occur. The parthenocarpic cv. Rojo Brillante may abscise close to 50% of flowers, which implies a major economic losses. In order to study this process, 700 flowers were labelled, 600 had the lobes of the calyx removed at three stages to promote abscission. Half of them were also treated with gibberellic acid (GA3 ; 10 mg l-1 ) to counteract the effect, and 100 were used as control. In the second year, GA3 (25 mg l-1 ) was applied to whole trees...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Batool Sanaei, Bahar Movaghar, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Bita Ebrahimi, Masood Bazrgar, Farnoosh Jafarpour, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Vitrification affects fertilization ability and developmental competence of mammalian oocytes. This effect may be more closely associated with an intracellular calcium rise induced by cryoprotectants. The present study aimed to assess whether addition of Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic acid (EGTA) to vitrification solution could improve quality and developmental competence of in vitro matured ovine oocytes. Vitrified groups were designed according to the presence or absence of EGTA and/or calcium in base media, including: mPB1+ (modified PBS with Ca2+ ), mPB1- (modified PBS without Ca2+ ), mPB1+ /EGTA (mPB1+ containing EGTA), mPB1- /EGTA (mPB1- containing EGTA)...
October 2018: Cryobiology
Fatima Essabti, Alain Guinault, Sébastien Roland, Gilles Régnier, Saïd Ettaqi, Matthieu Gervais
Chitosan (CS) layers are coated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film in order to decrease the oxygen permeability through the polymeric films for food packaging applications. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the 130 μm PET films can be decreased from 11 to only 0.31 cm3 /m².day with a coated layer of 2 μm of CS. Additional decrease is obtained with the addition of vermiculite (VMT) to CS matrix in high proportion (40 to 50 w/w%). The OTR of the coated PET films decreased to very low values, below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation (≤0...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ruifeng Han, Muhammad Khalid, Jiaxiang Juan, Danfeng Huang
Nitrogen (N) supply, including NO3--N and organic N in the form of amino acids can influence the morphological attributes of plants. For example, amino acids contribute to plant nutrition; however, the effects of exogenous amino acids on NO3--N uptake and root morphology have received little attention. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous glycine (Gly) on root growth and NO3--N uptake in pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L.). Addition of Gly to NO3--N agar medium or hydroponic solution significantly decreased pak choi seedling root length; these effects of Gly on root morphology were not attributed to the proportion of N supply derived from Gly...
2018: PloS One
Tristan D Harrison, Paul J Ragogna, Elizabeth R Gillies
We describe the synthesis of three different phosphonium salts and their reaction with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate to create cationic hydrogels. The hydrogels were loaded with an anionic dye and an anionic anti-inflammatory drug through ionic interactions and compared with an analogous ammonium gel. The release rates of these anions depended on their structure and pKa values, as well as the pH and ionic strength of the release medium.
October 2, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kei Hashimoto, Kenta Fujii, Kengo Nishi, Mitsuhiro Shibayama
We report the time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of tetra-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (TetraPEG) polymer network formation in a typical ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([C2 mim][TFSA]). To observe time-dependent SANS profiles, the reaction rate for the AB-type cross-end coupling reaction of TetraPEG macromers was controlled by adding an analogous protic IL, 1-ethylimidazolium TFSA ([C2 imH][TFSA]). At polymer concentrations higher than the overlap concentration ( c*), the SANS profile remained unchanged during the gelation reaction, indicating that the network structure was independent of macromer connectivity in a semidiluted solution...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ruth Appeltant, Tamás Somfai, Kazuhiro Kikuchi
Vitrification reduces the developmental competence of porcine immature oocytes. We investigated the effects of modifying various factors on the viability and development of oocytes after vitrification. These factors included: 1) exposure to the vitrification solution, 2) macromolecule addition (bovine serum albumin (BSA) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)), 3) treatment with cytochalasin B, 4) equilibration temperature, and 5) vitrification method (microdrop or Cryotop). Oocytes were equilibrated and vitrified using medium containing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol...
September 13, 2018: Cryobiology
Lin Chen, Tiantian Cao, Jin Zhang, Yonggen Lou
Gibberellins (GAs) play pivotal roles in plant growth and development, and in defenses against pathogens. Thus far, how the GA-mediated signaling pathway regulates plant defenses against herbivores remains largely unknown. In this study, we cloned the rice GA receptor gene OsGID1 , whose expression was induced by damage from the brown planthopper (BPH) Niaparvata lugens , mechanical wounding, and treatment with salicylic acid (SA), but not jasmonic acid. The overexpression of OsGID1 (oe-GID1) decreased BPH-induced levels of SA, H₂O₂, and three SA-pathway-related WRKY transcripts, but enhanced BPH-induced levels of ethylene...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hiroaki Taketsuru, Takehito Kaneko
Numerous genetically engineered rat strains have been produced via genome editing. Although freezing of embryos is helpful for the production and storage of these valuable strains, the tolerance to freezing of embryos varies at each developmental stage of the embryo. This study examined the tolerance to freezing of rat embryos at various developmental stages, particularly at the pronuclear stage. Embryos that had developed to the pronuclear, 2-cell, and morula stages were frozen via vitrification using ethylene glycol- and propylene glycol-based solutions...
October 2018: Cryobiology
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