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respiration rate

Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Michael T Willoughby, Siri M Warkentien, Thomas O'Connor, Douglas A Granger, Clancy Blair
Introduction: Infants and young children may be at an increased risk for second- and thirdhand exposure to tobacco smoke because of increased respiration rate and exposure to surface residue. However, relatively fewer studies have examined biomarkers of exposure (cotinine) in children under age 4 years. This study examines the magnitude and chronicity of exposure across early childhood among children from low-income families in order to better characterize contextual risk factors associated with exposure...
December 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Carlos Rp Dechandt, Tatiane M Vicentini, Guilherme Pauperio Lanfredi, Rui M P da Silva, Enilza Maria Espreafico, José A C de Oliveira, Vitor Marcel Faça, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Luciane C Alberici
The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is an animal model of tonic-clonic epileptic seizures, developed after genetic selection by sister x brother inbreeding of Wistar rats susceptible to sound stimuli. Although metabolic changes have been described in this strain, nothing, however, is known about its mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we addressed mitochondrial aspects of OXPHOS, oxidative stress, biogenesis and dynamics in liver, skeletal muscle and heart of male WAR, correlating then to physiological aspects of body metabolism...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Anna Lagunas, Alejandra Guerra-Castellano, Alba Nin-Hill, Irene Díaz-Moreno, Miguel A De la Rosa, Josep Samitier, Carme Rovira, Pau Gorostiza
Despite the importance of electron transfer between redox proteins in photosynthesis and respiration, the inter-protein electron transfer rate between redox partner proteins has never been measured as a function of their separation in aqueous solution. Here, we use electrochemical tunneling spectroscopy to show that the current between two protein partners decays along more than 10 nm in the solution. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a reduced ionic density and extended electric field in the volume confined between the proteins...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Anna Solokhina, Gernot Bonkat, Ekatherina Kulchavenya, Olivier Braissant
Biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics and antimicrobial stressors than planktonic bacteria; however, only a limited number of standardized assays enable investigation of this phenomenon. Here, we utilized non-invasive and independent techniques, including isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), to measure the effect of isoniazid on metabolic activity and respiratory capability of mature Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (an avirulent strain) and Mycobacterium smegmatis biofilms...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Radius Bhayu Prasetiyo, Kyu-Sang Choi, Gi-Hun Yang
In this work, an algorithm was developed to measure respiration rate for an embedded device that can be used by a field robot for relief operations. With this algorithm, the rate measurement was calculated based on direct influences of respiratory-induced intensity variation (RIIV) on blood flow in cardiovascular pathways. For this, a photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor was used to determine changes in heartbeat frequencies. The PPG sensor readings were filtered using an Information Filter and a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to determine the state of RIIV...
November 30, 2018: Sensors
Gigi Y Lau, Jeffrey G Richards
Environmental hypoxia presents a metabolic challenge for animals because it inhibits mitochondrial respiration and can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the interplay between O2 use for aerobic respiration and ROS generation among sculpin fishes (Cottidae, Actinopterygii) that are known to vary in whole-animal hypoxia tolerance. We hypothesized that mitochondria from hypoxia tolerant sculpins would show more efficient O2 use with a higher phosphorylation efficiency and lower ROS emission...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Chelsea R Abbott, Arnold M Saxton, Louisa A Rispoli, Rebecca R Payton, Ky G Pohler, F Neal Schrick, J Lannett Edwards
Hyperthermia occurring 10-12 h after LH surge reduces quality of maturing oocyte, thereby reducing fertility. Objective was to examine consequences of an acute heat stress and the influence of certain hormones on the thermoregulatory responses of lactating cows during this critical period. Between the months of February through May, cows were transported to a facility and maintained at a temperature-humidity index (THI) of 65.9 ± 0.2 (thermoneutral) or exposed to changes in THI to simulate what may occur during an acute heat stress event (71-86 THI; heat stress); cows were rapidly cooled thereafter...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Takenori Uehara, Shingo Eikawa, Mikako Nishida, Yuki Kunisada, Aki Yoshida, Tomohiro Fujiwara, Toshiyuki Kunisada, Toshifumi Ozaki, Heiichiro Udono
CD11b+ myeloid subpopulations, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), play crucial roles in the suppression of T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Regulation of these cell types is a primary goal for achieving efficient cancer immunotherapy. We found that metformin (Met) induces CD11b+ cell-mediated growth inhibition of a K7M2neo osteosarcoma independent of T cells, as growth inhibition of K7M2neo was still observed in wild type (WT) mice depleted of T cells by antibodies and in SCID; this contrasted with the effect of Met on Meth-A fibrosarcoma, which was entirely T cell-dependent...
December 2, 2018: International Immunology
Carla Ribalta, Mar Viana, Ana López-Lilao, Sara Estupiñá, Maria Cruz Minguillón, Joan Mendoza, Jordi Díaz, Dirk Dahmann, Eliseo Monfort
Exposure to ceramic powders, which is frequent during handling operations, is known to cause adverse health effects. Finding proxy parameters to quantify exposure is useful for efficient and timely exposure assessments. Worker exposure during handling of five materials [a silica sand (SI1), three quartzes (Q1, Q2, and Q3), and a kaolin (K1)] with different particle shape (prismatic and platy) and sizes (3.4-120 µm) was assessed. Materials handling was simulated using a dry pendular mill under two different energy settings (low and high)...
December 1, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Carolina Varon, Jesus Lazaro, Juan Bolea, Alberto Hernando, Jordi Aguilo, Eduardo Gil, Sabine Van Huffel, Raquel Bailon
OBJECTIVE: This paper proposes an approach to better estimate the sympathovagal balance (SB) and the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) after separating respiratory influences from the heart rate (HR). METHODS: The separation is performed using orthogonal subspace projections and the approach is first tested using simulated HR and respiratory signals with different spectral properties. Then, RSA and SB are estimated during autonomic blockade and stress using the proposed approach and the classical heart rate variability (HRV) analysis...
December 3, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Meri Eichner, Silke Thoms, Björn Rost, Wiebke Mohr, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Helle Ploug, Marcel Mm Kuypers, Dirk de Beer
To understand the role of micrometer-scale oxygen (O2 ) gradients in facilitating dinitrogen (N2 ) fixation, we characterized O2 dynamics in the microenvironment around free-floating trichomes and colonies of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101. Diurnal and spatial variability in O2 concentrations in the bulk medium, within colonies, along trichomes and within single cells were determined using O2 optodes, microsensors and model calculations. Carbon (C) and N2 fixation as well as O2 evolution and uptake under different O2 concentrations were analyzed by stable isotope incubations and membrane inlet mass spectrometry...
December 3, 2018: New Phytologist
Cathleen Wigand, Elizabeth B Watson, Rose Martin, David S Johnson, R Scott Warren, Alana Hanson, Earl Davey, Roxanne Johnson, Linda Deegan
In a whole-ecosystem, nutrient addition experiment in the Plum Island Sound Estuary (Massachusetts), we tested the effects of nitrogen enrichment on the carbon and nitrogen contents, respiration, and strength of marsh soils. We measured soil shear strength within and across vegetation zones. We found significantly higher soil percent organic matter, carbon, and nitrogen in the long-term enriched marshes and higher soil respiration rates with longer duration of enrichment. The soil strength was similar in magnitude across depths and vegetation zones in the reference creeks, but showed signs of significant nutrient-mediated alteration in enriched creeks where shear strength at rooting depths of the low marsh-high marsh interface zone was significantly lower than at the sub-rooting depths or in the creek bank vegetation zone...
August 2018: Ecosphere
Haotian Li, Xinran Zhang, Xu Zhu, Xi Qi, Kaili Lin, Liming Cheng
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe medical problem leading to crucial life change. Icariin (ICA) is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornum which has neuroprotective effects. But little is known about the relationship between ICA and SCI. We hypothesized ICA may enhance motor recovery through attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mice were randomly assigned to sham, SCI, ICA 20 μmol/kg (low dose) and ICA 50 μmol/kg (high dose) groups...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad Rafiee, Hasti Daraei, Mohammad Ali Amoozegar
Ever-increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) have aroused overarching concerns for their toxic effects on the environment and human. In the present study, the toxic effects of Silver (Ag) and Iron (Fe) NPs on the performance of activated sludge were investigated under continuous aerobic/anoxic/anaerobic conditions in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs).Activated sludge was exposed to various concentrations (5-100 mg/L) of Ag-Fe NPs for 60 days and its response was assessed through the enzymatic activity, COD, nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) removal, toxicity tests, as well as variations in bacterial community...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Emma R Collings, M Carmen Alamar, Sally Redfern, Katherine Cools, Leon A Terry
Withering is considered a crucial stage of black tea processing. In this study, tea shoots from two cultivars (cvs. Yabukita and Clone 2) were stored at 5 °C, in either a low or high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) environment, to determine the impact of different withering rates on physiology (viz. respiration rate [RR], colour and moisture loss) and biochemical profile (viz. individual catechins, methylxanthines) of tea shoots (Camellia sinensis). Low VPD and high VPD conditions during withering increased caffeine levels in Clone 2 and Yabukita, respectively (p < 0...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Rana Abdrabalnabi, Alla Taher, Shantymole Mathew, Kamal Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) caused multiple outbreaks. Such outbreaks increase economic and infection control burdens. We studied the infection control influence of MERS-CoV using a hospital-based analysis. METHODS: Our hospital had 17 positive and 82 negative cases of MERS-CoV between April 1, 2013, and June 3, 2013. The study evaluated the impact of these cases on the use of gloves, surgical masks, N95 respirators, alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and soap, as well as hand hygiene compliance rates...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Veronica Perez Rodriguez, Christopher L Souders, Claire Tischuk, Christopher J Martyniuk
Triazole fungicides are increasingly used in North America to combat mold and fungi, in order to protect vegetables, citrus, ornamental plants and field crops. To determine biological impacts of tebuconazole in non-target aquatic organisms, early life stage zebrafish were exposed to 0.1-100 μM tebuconazole for 120 h (5 dpf). There was a significant increase in mortality over time and at 100 μM, only 50% of the animals survived 96 h compared to >95% for all other experimental groups. There was evidence for increased hatching time with 10 μM tebuconazole compared to the control group (~7 h longer at 50% total hatch) or a lack of hatch observed with 100 μM...
November 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Hacer Gok Ugur, Oya Sevcan Orak, Yesim Yaman Aktas, Ozgür Enginyurt, Okan Saglambilen
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to explore the effects of classical Turkish music therapy on both the caregiver burden and physiological parameters of patients with dementia. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled trial. It was conducted with dementia patients (n = 75) and their caregivers who were registered at in-home care services of the General Secretariat of the Association of Public Hospitals in Ordu. The study sample consisted of 30 control and 30 music group patients and their caregivers who satisfied the inclusion criteria for the study conducted between April 2015 and April 2016...
November 30, 2018: Complementary Medicine Research
Xiufen Wang, Jingjing Miao, Luqing Pan, Yun Li, Yufei Lin, Jiangyue Wu
The environmental risk issues of p-choroaniline have been concerned by the widespread application and transportation of this important chemical intermediate. The information about the toxicity of p-chloroaniline was mainly concentrated on freshwater organisms while the current knowledge on marine organisms was scarce yet. In this study, acute toxicity and toxic physiology characteristic of p-chloroaniline to Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P. tricornutum) were first determined. In the acute experiments, the effect of the p-choroaniline to P...
November 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nils G Løvsletten, Siril S Bakke, Eili T Kase, D Margriet Ouwens, G Hege Thoresen, Arild C Rustan
It has previously been shown that pretreatment of differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) promoted increased uptake of fatty acids and increased triacylglycerol accumulation, compared to pretreatment with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA). The aim of the present study was to examine whether EPA could affect substrate cycling in human skeletal muscle cells by altering lipolysis rate of intracellular TAG and re-esterification of fatty acids. Fatty acid metabolism was studied in human myotubes using a mixture of fatty acids, consisting of radiolabelled oleic acid as tracer (14C-OA) together with EPA or PA...
2018: PloS One
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