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Reverse triggering

Enrico Bulleri, Cristian Fusi, Stefano Bambi, Luigi Pisani
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is often employed as partial ventilatory support where both the patient and the ventilator work together. The ventilator settings should be adjusted to maintain a harmonious patient-ventilator interaction. However, this balance is often altered by many factors able to generate a patient ventilator asynchrony (PVA). The aims of this review were: to identify PVAs, their typologies and classifications; to describe how and to what extent their occurrence can affect the patients' outcomes; to investigate the levels of nursing skill in detecting PVAs...
December 7, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Natalia Szpilbarg, Abril Seyahian, Mauricio Di Paola, Mauricio Castro-Parodi, Nora Martinez, Mariana Farina, Alicia E Damiano
RESEARCH QUESTION: We recently reported that blocking of placental aquaporins (AQP) abrogates the apoptotic response of the trophoblast. As trophoblast apoptosis is exacerbated in pre-eclampsia, we hypothesized that changes in AQP in these placentae may trigger programmed cell death. We analysed AQP4 expression in pre-eclamptic placentae and its regulation by oxygen tension. DESIGN: AQP4 expression was studied in placentae from non-pathological and pre-eclamptic pregnancies by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry...
November 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Jing Lin, Lin Ji
MicroRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by dominantly binding to the 3'-UTR regions of target mRNAs in the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), triggering off their sequential cleavage and 3'-uridylation, facilitating their degradation, repressing target gene expression, and leading to a reduced protein output. The miRNA-mediated target mRNA cleavage activity generates cleaved mRNA fragments with varied termini, which creates major technical challenges for the accurate and efficient detection and verification of cleavage sites on target mRNAs and the resulting mRNA fragments in transition...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Juan Zhang, Dake Chu, Takuji Kawamura, Kiyohito Tanaka, Shuixiang He
Hypoxia leads to cancer progression and promotes the metastatic potential of cancer cells. Thereby, the aim of the present study was to investigate the detailed effects of gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines under hypoxia conditions and explore the potential molecular mechanisms. Here, we observed that GRIM-19 expression was downregulated in several CRC cell lines as well as in HCT116 and Caco-2 cells under a hypoxic microenvironment...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Long Yang, Lucas Caire da Silva, Héloïse Thérien-Aubin, Markus B Bannwarth, Katharina Landfester
A reversible polymer photoacid with a thermal on/off switch at physiological temperature able to trigger a large pH modulation of its environment is prepared. Light is used to control the acidity of the solution. Additionally, the temperature could be used to modulate the photoacid efficiency, practically turning on and off the ability of the polymer to produce protons. The behavior of this thermoresponsive photoacid copolymer is the result of the combined action of the temperature-responsive N-isopropylacrylamide and of a reversible photoacid monomer based on a spiropyran derivative...
December 7, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Satoko Oka, Kazuo Ono, Masaharu Nohgawa
Thyroid dysfunction is an important issue in patients receiving autologous and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the exact mechanisms underlying thyrotoxicosis secondary to HSCT remain unclear. The present case exhibited a reversed imbalance in helper/suppressor T-cell populations and B-cell dysregulation for a long time after transplantation, and the reactivation of cytomegalovirus may have been associated with the development of clinical hyperthyroidism. The long-term monitoring of thyroid function, T-cell populations, and cytomegalovirus after HSCT is important...
2019: Leukemia Research Reports
Mengmeng Lu, Hongjing Dong, Dengke Bao, Bin Liu, Hongliang Liu
Despite the triumph of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV infection, more than half of the HIV infection individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy acquire HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Previously researches had reported that the HAART neurotoxicity is implicated in HAND-related morbidity. The molecular mechanism of HAND is not clear. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a novel nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which was recommended as first-line therapeutic schedule for free AIDS antiviral drugs...
December 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
C L Yang, J M Gaffin, D Radhakrishnan
The diagnosis of asthma in children under five years has been controversial due to changing concepts of what true asthma is in this age group. Previous diagnostic algorithms that used clinical indices to predict the persistence of asthma symptoms or phenotypes based on asthma triggers do not predict which children will benefit from asthma medication. A pragmatic approach to asthma diagnosis in this age group is based on identifying signs and symptoms of reversible airflow obstruction and documenting their response to asthma medication...
October 24, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Qi Jin, Qin Luo, Zhihui Zhao, Qing Zhao, Xue Yu, Lu Yan, Liu Gao, Zhihong Liu
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute cardiac condition with reversible heart failure which is often triggered by psychological and physical stressful events. Although pulmonary embolism (PE) was reported as a trigger for TTS, the concurrence of TTS and PE has been rarely reported, let alone that triggered by PE. Here we describe a case of a postmenopausal female presenting with symptoms similar to myocardial ischemia, which may be caused by PE, and review the available literature that may help clinicians with their practice to similar situations since no published guidelines are available...
December 10, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Mingliang Pei, Xu Jia, Guoping Li, Peng Liu
Facile approach has been developed for the versatile polymeric microspheres with tumor-microenvironment bioreducible degradation, pH-activated surface charge-reversal, pH-triggered "off-on" fluorescence and drug release via emulsion copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), N-rhodamine 6G-ethyl-acrylamide (Rh6GEAm) with N,N-bis(acyloyl)cystamine) (BACy) as disulfide crosslinker and functionalization. The final PGMA-DMMA microspheres showed excellent cytocompatibility, pH-triggered surface charge reversal at pH 5-6, strong fluorescence only in acidic media, and bioreducible degradation with high reductant level, indicating their promising application as theranostic nanoplatforms for precise imaging-guided diagnosis and chemotherapy...
December 7, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Lisa M Hochrein, Tianjia J Ge, Maayan Schwarzkopf, Niles A Pierce
Dynamic RNA nanotechnology with small conditional RNAs (scRNAs) offers a promising conceptual approach to introducing synthetic regulatory links into endogenous biological circuits. Here, we use human cell lysate containing functional Dicer and RNases as a testbed for engineering scRNAs for conditional RNA interference (RNAi). scRNAs perform signal transduction via conditional shape change: detection of a subsequence of mRNA input X triggers formation of a Dicer substrate that is processed to yield small interfering RNA (siRNA) output anti-Y targeting independent mRNA Y for destruction...
December 7, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Jimita Toraskar, Synnøve N Magnussen, Konika Chawla, Gunbjørg Svineng, Tonje S Steigedal
Nephronectin (NPNT) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein involved in kidney development. We recently reported intracellular NPNT as a potential prognostic marker in breast cancer and that NPNT promotes metastasis in an integrin-dependent manner. Here, we used reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) to analyze NPNT-triggered intracellular signaling in the 66cl4 mouse breast cancer cell line. The results showed that the integrin-binding enhancer motif is important for the cellular effects upon NPNT interaction with its receptors, including phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)...
December 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Sebastian Vogel, Pranav Murthy, Xiangdong Cui, Michael T Lotze, Herbert J Zeh, Ulka Sachdev
Platelets play a critical role in the pathophysiology of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The mechanisms by which muscle ischemia regulates aggregation of platelets are poorly understood. We have recently identified the Nod-like receptor nucleotide-binding domain leucine rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) expressed by platelets as a critical regulator of platelet activation and aggregation, which may be triggered by activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, we performed femoral artery ligation (FAL) in transgenic mice with platelet-specific ablation of TLR4 (TLR4 PF4) and in NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3-/- ) mice...
December 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Richard Chalwin, Lynne Giles, Amy Salter, Victoria Eaton, Karoline Kapitola, Jonathan Karnon
BACKGROUND: Previous publications noted increased mortality risk in patients subject to repeat rapid response team (RRT) calls. These patients were examined as a homogenous group, but there may be many reasons for repeat calls. Those potentially preventable by the rapid response system have not been investigated. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, patients with potentially preventable repeat calls were classified into two categories: type 1 (patients who had a repeat call following an initial call that ended despite the patient still triggering RRT calling criteria [T1-PRC]) and type 2 (patients with a repeat call within 24 hours of an initial call and for the same reason [T2-PRC])...
December 3, 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Isabel Pérez-Martínez, Luis Rodrigo, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a unique form of non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterised by oesophageal eosinophilic infiltration. The prevalence of EoE has grown to currently represent the first cause of dysphagia and food impaction in children and young adults. Avoiding food triggers is the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease, but none of the currently available food allergy tests adequately predicts food triggers for EoE. Strategies based on the empirical elimination of food are the most effective and convenient in clinical practice...
December 3, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Tamás Gáll, Dávid Pethő, Annamária Nagy, Zoltán Hendrik, Gábor Méhes, László Potor, Magnus Gram, Bo Åkerström, Ann Smith, Péter Nagy, György Balla, József Balla
Accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins resulted from oxidative protein modification induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by activating the pathways of unfolded protein response. In pathologic hemolytic conditions, extracellular free hemoglobin is submitted to rapid oxidation causing heme release. Resident cells of atherosclerotic lesions, after intraplaque hemorrhage, are exposed to heme leading to oxidative injury. Therefore, we raised the question whether heme can also provoke ER stress. Smooth muscle cells are one of the key players of atherogenesis; thus, human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) were selected as a model cell to reveal the possible link between heme and ER stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xingguang Liu, Peng Zhang, Yunkai Zhang, Zheng Wang, Sheng Xu, Yingke Li, Wanwan Huai, Qingqing Zhou, Xiang Chen, Xi Chen, Nan Li, Peng Wang, Yunsen Li, Xuetao Cao
The cross-talk between cellular lipid metabolism and the innate immune responses remains obscure. In addition to presenting lipid antigens to Natural Killer T-cells (NKT cells), the Cluster of Differentiation 1D Glycoprotein (CD1d) might mediate reverse signaling in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Here we found CD1d deficiency attenuated Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered inflammatory innate responses in macrophages and dendritic cells, protecting mice from endotoxin shock. TLR activation in macrophages induced metabolic changes of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), among which glycolipid isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3) was rapidly produced...
December 4, 2018: Cell Research
Daohua Shi, Di Zhao, Peiguang Niu, Yanting Zhu, Jintuo Zhou, Huajiao Chen
BACKGROUND: Autophagy occurs in cells that undergoing nutrient deprivation. Glycolysis rapidly supplies energy for the proliferation of cancer cells. Cardamonin inhibits proliferation and enhances autophagy by mTORC1 suppression in ovarian cancer cells. Here, we investigate the relationship between cardamonin-triggered autophagy and glycolysis inhibition via mTORC1 suppression. METHODS: Treated with indicated compounds, ATP content and the activity of hexokinase (HK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were analyzed by the assay kits...
December 4, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Dieniffer Peixoto-Neves, Hitesh Soni, Adebowale Adebiyi
Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), promotes vasodilation and reduces blood pressure, mechanisms of which are not fully resolved. Recent reports suggested that EGCG can activate heterologously expressed mouse and zebrafish TRPA1 channels. Activation of TRPA1 in sensory neurons triggers the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator. Whether CGRP-containing (CGRPergic) sensory nerves contribute to EGCG-induced reduction in vascular resistance remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that intravenous infusion of EGCG elevated the plasma level of CGRP in mice, an effect that was attenuated by TRPA1 channel blocker A-967079...
December 4, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Xu Si, Yibo Li, Wenting Shang, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Christopher L Blanchard, Padraig Strappe, Zhongkai Zhou
Long term high-fat diet triggered cerebral oxidative stress, reflected by reactive oxygen species accumulation and antioxidant decline in peripheral and cerebral tissues, together with hippocampal lipid disturbance particularly for triglyceride accumulation and sulfatide deficiency. Hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex also exhibited pathological changes, characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and reduced Nisslbodies. Sulfatides was noted to protect hippocampal neurons from oxidative damage through the clearance of Aβ with apolipoprotein E transportating and low density lipoprotein receptor binding...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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