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Reverse triggering

Yoonseob Kim, Zhou Lin, Intak Jeon, Troy Van Voorhis, Timothy M Swager
π-Conjugated polyaniline nanofiber networks are an attractive material platform for reversible and selective capture and release of toxic heavy metal ions from water. The nanofiber geometry facilitates fastsorption kinetics, sulfur functionalization of the backbone for improved adsorption, and electrochemical control of the oxidation (charge) state for reversible triggered sorption/desorption of metal ions. These active materials also function as sensors in that the sorption of mercury ions can be detected by analysis of cyclic voltammograms...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Federico Fuchs Wightman, Luciana E Giono, Juan Pablo Fededa, Manuel de la Mata
MicroRNAs are extensively studied regulatory non-coding small RNAs that silence animal genes throughout most biological processes, typically doing so by binding to partially complementary sequences within target RNAs. A plethora of studies has described detailed mechanisms for microRNA biogenesis and function, as well as their temporal and spatial regulation during development. By inducing translational repression and/or degradation of their target RNAs, microRNAs can contribute to achieve highly specific cell- or tissue-specific gene expression, while their aberrant expression can lead to disease...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Wenjuan Zou, Jiajun Fu, Haining Zhang, Kang Du, Wenming Huang, Junwei Yu, Shitian Li, Yuedan Fan, Howard A Baylis, Shangbang Gao, Rui Xiao, Wei Ji, Lijun Kang, Tao Xu
How neurons are capable of decoding stimulus intensity and translate this information into complex behavioral outputs is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that the C. elegans interneuron AIB regulates two types of behaviors: reversal initiation and feeding suppression in response to different concentrations of quinine. Low concentrations of quinine are decoded in AIB by a low-threshold, fast-inactivation glutamate receptor GLR-1 and translated into reversal initiation. In contrast, high concentrations of quinine are decoded by a high-threshold, slow-inactivation glutamate receptor GLR-5 in AIB...
October 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Francisca Taciana Sousa Rodrigues, Marcos Romário Matos de Souza, Camila Nayane de Carvalho Lima, Francisco Eliclécio Rodrigues da Silva, Deiziane Viana da Silva Costa, Cláudio Costa Dos Santos, Fábio Miyajima, Francisca Cléa F de Sousa, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Tatiana Barichello, João Quevedo, Michael Maes, David F de Lucena, Danielle Macedo
Major depressed patients show increased bacterial translocation with elevated plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which may trigger immune-inflammatory and neuro-oxidative responses. Recently, an animal model based on chronic LPS administration was developed which was associated with long-lasting depressive-like and neuro-oxidative alterations in female mice. The aim of the current study was to investigate behavioral, neuroimmune and neuroprogressive alterations in female mice 6 weeks after LPS chronic exposure...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Sadegh Fattahi, Monireh Golpour, Fatemeh Amjadi-Moheb, Marzieh Sharifi-Pasandi, Parastesh Khodadadi, Maryam Pilehchian-Langroudi, Gholam Hossein Ashrafi, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki
Gastric cancer is a major health problem worldwide occupying most frequent causes of cancer-related mortality. In addition to genetic modifications, epigenetic alterations catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are a well-characterized epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The reversible nature of epigenetic alterations and central role of DNA methylation in diverse biological processes provides an opportunity for using DNMT inhibitors to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In this review, we discussed key factors or mechanisms such as SNPs, infections and genetic modifications that trigger DNMTs level modification in gastric cancer, and their potential roles in cancer progression...
October 16, 2018: Epigenomics
Xiufeng Liu, Juanjuan Wu, Menglin Fan, Chen Shen, Wenling Dai, Yini Bao, Ji-Hua Liu, Bo-Yang Yu
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and its analogs are reported to possess selective anticancer activity. Here, we reported a novel DHA derivative DHA-37 that exhibited more potent anticancer activity on the cells tested. Distinct from DHA-induced apoptosis, DHA-37 triggered excessive autophagic cell death, and became the main contributor to DHA-37-induced A549 cell death. Incubation of the cells with DHA-37 but not DHA produced increased dots distribution of GFP-LC3 and expression ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, and enhanced the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by TEM...
October 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Chen Lei, Han Xueming, Duan Ruihang
Diabetes mellitus is known as a main cause to induce osteoporosis. However, the pathogenesis of osteoporosis induced by diabetes has not been fully understood. MLN64 is highly homologous to the steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein, sharing the highly conserved START domain and exhibiting various biological activities. In the study, we attempted to explore the role of MLN64 in osteoporosis progression through the in vitro and in vivo studies. At first, the in vitro study suggested that MLN64 was over-expressed during the osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)...
October 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yogesh W More, Sachin D Padghan, Rajesh S Bhosale, Rajendra P Pawar, Avinash L Puyad, Sidhanath V Bhosale, Sheshanath V Bhosale
Quinoxaline-based novel acid-responsive probe Q1 was designed on the basis of a conjugated donor-acceptor (D-A) subunit. Q1 shows colorimetric and fluorometric changes through protonation and deprotonation in dichloromethane. With the addition of the trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), UV-vis absorption spectral changes in peak intensity of Q1 was observed. Moreover, the appearance of a new peaks at 284 nm 434 nm in absorption spectra with the addition of TFA indicating protonation of quinoxaline nitrogen and form Q1...
October 12, 2018: Sensors
Fang Huang, Minghui Wang, Rong Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Eric Schadt, Vahram Haroutunian, Pavel Katsel, Bin Zhang, Xiaochuan Wang
INTRODUCTION: Altered cell cycle reentry has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). DTL was predicted as the top driver of a cell cycle subnetwork associated with AD. METHODS: We systematically investigated DTL expression in AD and studied the molecular, cellular, and behavioral endophenotypes triggered by DTL overexpression. RESULTS: We experimentally validated that CDT2, the protein encoded by DTL, activated CDKs through downregulating P21, which induced tau hyperphosphorylation and Aβ toxicity, two hallmarks of AD...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Tomohiro Higashino, Atsushi Kumagai, Shigeyoshi Sakaki, Hiroshi Imahori
The concept of chemical topology has generated considerable interest among chemists and one of the state-of-the-art topics is Möbius topology in cyclic π-conjugated molecules. In this regard, expanded porphyrins have been extensively studied because of their facile topological interconversions and attractive optoelectronic properties. A typical example involves [28]hexaphyrins: they show topological conversion between planar Hückel and twisted Möbius topologies owing to their flexible structure. With this in mind, we designed a [28]hexaphyrin where one dimethine pyrrole unit was replaced with dithieno[3,4- b :3',4'- d ]thiophene (β-DTT), aiming at a reversible switching between macrocyclic and cross-conjugated π-systems by a change in molecular topologies...
October 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Wenbin Gao, Zheng Zhou, Birong Liang, Yusheng Huang, Zhongqi Yang, Yang Chen, Lu Zhang, Cui Yan, Jiajia Wang, Lu Lu, Zhaorui Wen, Shaoxiang Xian, Lingjun Wang
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in heart failure (HF) by mediating diverse pathologic processes, including the promotion of inflammation and autophagy. However, the role of RAGE in pressure overload-induced HF is not well understood. We found that stimulation of RAGE triggered the death of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs), while cell death was alleviated by ATG5 knockdown. Using transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice as a model of pressure overload-induced HF, we demonstrated that RAGE knockout or RAGE blockade attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as cardiac dysfunction at 8 weeks after TAC...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jessica Sabbatine Chimini, Jose Sergio Possomato-Vieira, Maria Luiza Santos da Silva, Carlos A Dias-Junior
preeclampsia and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are frequently associated with feto-placental growth restriction and that may be triggered by angiogenic imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. Impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability seems to be involved in these pathophysiological changes observed in hypertensive pregnancy. Pravastatin has shown efficacy and to be safe during hypertension in pregnancy. However, NO involvement in pravastatin effects during maternal hypertension and feto-placental development is unclear...
October 14, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ali Aljohi, Sabine Matou-Nasri, Donghui Liu, Nadia Al-Khafaji, Mark Slevin, Nessar Ahmed
Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia favors formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) capable of triggering vascular complications by interfering with imbalanced inflammation and angiogenesis to eventually impede wound-healing. Momordica charantia (MC, bitter melon) has been shown to prevent AGE formation and to promote angiogenesis in diabetic wounds in animal models. However, the mechanism underlying its effects on angiogenesis is unclear. We investigated the effects of methanolic extracts of MC pulp (MCP), flesh (MCF) and charantin (active component of MC) using an in vitro model of angiogenesis...
October 15, 2018: Food & Function
Faith A A Kwa, Merrole F Cole-Sinclair, Miroslav K Kapuscinski
BACKGROUND: Treatment of haematological malignancies with conventional DNA-damaging drugs, such as chlorambucil (CLB), commonly results in p53-dependent chemo-resistance. Chromatin modifying agents, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), sodium butyrate (NaBu) and trichostatin A (TSA), may reverse chemo-resistance by modulating the activity of chromatin remodeling enzymes and/or genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the potential use of HDACIs and CLB combination therapies in an in vitro chemo-resistant leukaemia model...
October 10, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Hui Xu, Yang Li, Neng-Jian Huang, Zhi-Ran Yu, Peng-Huan Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhang, Qiao-Qi Xia, Li-Xiu Gong, Shi-Neng Li, Li Zhao, Guo-Dong Zhang, Long-Cheng Tang
Fire prevention and safety of combustible materials is a global challenge. To reduce their high fire risk, traditional smoke detectors are widely used indoor via detecting smoke product after combustion; however, they usually show a long response time and limitation for outdoor use. Herein, we report a temperature-induced electrical resistance transition of graphene oxide wide-ribbon (GOWR) wrapped sponges to reliably monitor fire safety of the combustible materials. Novel rectangle-like GOWR sheets are synthesized from unzipping carbon nanofibers and used to fabricate GOWR wrapped melamine formaldehyde sponges with multi-functionalities, e...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Martin Morovic, Olga Østrup, Frantisek Strejcek, Michal Benc, Matej Murin, Katarina Jedlickova, Alexandra Bartkova, Andrea Lucas-Hahn, Lazo Pendovski, Jozef Laurincik
SummaryThe present study examines the role of RNA polymerase I (RPI)-mediated transcription, maternally inherited rRNA and nucleolar proteins in the resumption of fibrillogranular nucleoli during embryonic genome activation (EGA) in porcine embryos. Late 4-cell embryos were incubated in the absence (control) or presence of actinomycin D (AD) (0.2 μg/ml for inhibition of RPI; 2.0 μg/ml for inhibition of total transcription) and late 2-cell embryos were cultured to the late 4-cell stage with 0.2 μg/ml AD to block EGA...
October 12, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Chen Wang, Michael Fadeev, Junji Zhang, Margarita Vázquez-González, Gilad Davidson-Rozenfeld, He Tian, Itamar Willner
Photoresponsive nucleic acid-based carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogels are synthesized, and their application as shape-memory and self-healing functional matrices are discussed. One system involves the preparation of a carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel crosslinked by self-complementary nucleic acid duplexes and by photoresponsive trans -azobenzene/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) supramolecular complexes. Photoisomerization of the trans -azobenzene to the cis -azobenzene results in a hydrogel exhibiting lower stiffness due to the separation of the azobenzene/β-CD bridging units...
September 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Jana Kleiner, Margrit Hollborn, Peter Wiedemann, Andreas Bringmann
Purpose: Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of neovascular age-related macular degeneration; consumption of dietary salt resulting in extracellular hyperosmolarity is a main cause of hypertension. Extracellular hyperosmolarity was shown to induce expression of angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF), in RPE cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the hyperosmotic expression of growth factor genes in RPE cells is mediated by activator protein-1 (AP-1), and whether c-Fos and c-Jun genes are regulated by extracellular osmolarity...
2018: Molecular Vision
Horacio Medina de Chazal, Marco Giuseppe Del Buono, Lori Keyser-Marcus, Liangsuo Ma, F Gerard Moeller, Daniel Berrocal, Antonio Abbate
Stress cardiomyopathy is an acute reversible heart failure syndrome initially believed to represent a benign condition due to its self-limiting clinical course, but now recognized to be associated with a non-negligible rate of serious complications such as ventricular arrhythmias, systemic thromboembolism, and cardiogenic shock. Due to an increased awareness and recognition, the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy has been rising (15-30 cases per 100,000 per year), although the true incidence is unknown as the condition is likely underdiagnosed...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Jonathan W Nyce
The activation of TP53 is well known to exert tumor suppressive effects. We have detected a primate-specific adrenal androgen-mediated tumor suppression system in which circulating DHEAS is converted to DHEA specifically in cells in which TP53 has been inactivated. DHEA is an uncompetitive inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), an enzyme indispensable for maintaining reactive oxygen species within limits survivable by the cell. Uncompetitive inhibition is otherwise unknown in natural systems because it becomes irreversible in the presence of high concentrations of substrate and inhibitor...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
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