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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676642/immunomethylomics-a-novel-cancer-risk-prediction-tool
#1
Karl T Kelsey, John K Wiencke
There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676467/immunophenotypic-analysis-of-cell-cycle-status-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-relationship-to-cytogenetics-genotype-and-clinical-outcome
#2
Rob S Sellar, Rosemary E Gale, Asim Khwaja, Maciej Garbowski, Marco Loddo, Kai Stoeber, Gareth H Williams, David C Linch
Cell cycle status may play an important role in directing patient therapy. We therefore determined the cell cycle status of leukaemic cells by immunophenotypic analysis of bone marrow trephine biopsies from 181 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and correlated the results with biological features and clinical outcome. There was considerable heterogeneity between patients. The presenting white cell count significantly correlated with the proportion of non-quiescent cells (P < 0·0001), of cycling cells beyond G1 (P < 0·0001) and the speed of cycling (P < 0·0001)...
April 20, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675790/patterns-of-breast-cancer-relapse-in-accordance-to-biological-subtype
#3
Atanas Ignatov, Holm Eggemann, Elke Burger, Tanja Ignatov
PURPOSE: To evaluate the pattern of recurrence of breast cancer according to its biological subtype in a large cohort of patients treated with therapy representative of current practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated between 2000 and 2016 with known biological subtype were eligible. Data were prospectively collected. Primary endpoint was the subtype-dependent pattern and time of recurrence. Loco-regional and distant site and time of recurrence were assessed...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675675/adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-correction-by-instrumented-vertebral-arthrodesis-with-autologous-bone-graft-from-local-harvesting-without-bone-substitute-use-results-with-mean-3-year-follow-up
#4
Marco Crostelli, Osvaldo Mazza, Massimo Mariani, Dario Mascello, Carlo Iorio
PURPOSE: Bone substitutes' advantage is enhancing arthrodesis biologic support without further autologous bone graft harvested from other skeleton sites, as from posterior iliac crests; however, in our experience, bone substitutes' integration is often incomplete. METHODS: From 2012 to 2017, we operated 108 patients by posterior instrumented vertebral arthrodesis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) correction, mean main curve 80° Cobb, and mean age 12 years and 6 months, with all pedicle screws instrumentation in main curve/curves area and hooks at upper tip of implant; bone graft has been harvested only at vertebral level, without bone substitutes or autologous graft from other patient sites or allogenic bone graft...
April 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675022/immunoporosis-immunology-of-osteoporosis-role-of-t-cells
#5
REVIEW
Rupesh K Srivastava, Hamid Y Dar, Pradyumna K Mishra
The role of immune system in various bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis is now well established. This had led to the emergence of a modern field of systems biology called as osteoimmunology, an integrated research between fields of immunology and bone biology under one umbrella. Osteoporosis is one of the most common inflammatory bone loss condition with more than 200 million individuals affected worldwide. T helper (Th) cells along with various other immune cells are major players involved in bone homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674497/plasma-cell-proliferative-index-predicts-outcome-in-immunoglobulin-light-chain-amyloidosis-treated-with-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
M Hasib Sidiqi, Mohammed Aljama, Dragan Jevremovic, William G Morice, Michael Timm, Francis K Buadi, Rahma Warsame, Martha Q Lacy, Angela Dispenzieri, David Dingli, Wilson I Gonsalves, Shaji Kumar, Prashant Kapoor, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Nelson Leung, William J Hogan, Morie Gertz
The plasma cell proliferative index provides an insight into plasma cell biology in plasma cell disorders and is an important prognostic marker in myeloma and smoldering myeloma. We analyzed the prognostic impact of the plasma cell proliferative index in 513 patients with systemic AL Amyloidosis undergoing stem cell transplantation at the Mayo Clinic between January 2003 and 31 August 2016. Two cohorts were identified; Low or Elevated plasma cell proliferative index. Patients with an Elevated plasma cell proliferative index had more cardiac involvement (56% vs 44%; p=0...
April 19, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673955/incorporation-of-microfibrillated-cellulose-into-collagen-hydroxyapatite-scaffold-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#7
Xichan He, Xialian Fan, Wenpo Feng, Yifei Chen, Ting Guo, Fang Wang, Jie Liu, Keyong Tang
In this study, the composite of Collagen-Hydroxyapitite (COL-HA) with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was developed as a new bone substitute material. COL-HA was prepared by in-situ method and modified by dehydrothermal treatment. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), a nature polysaccharide with plenty of hydroxyl groups, was incorporated into COL-HA composites to improve the properties. The novel COL-HA-MFC scaffold with different ratios of COL-HA and MFC were fabricated by cold isostatic pressing technique and freeze-drying technology...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673758/measurements-of-the-talus-in-the-assessment-of-population-affinity
#8
Mubarak A Bidmos, Manisha R Dayal, Oyelola A Adegboye
As part of their routine work, forensic anthropologists are expected to report population affinity as part of the biological profile of an individual. The skull is the most widely used bone for the estimation of population affinity but it is not always present in a forensic case. Thus, other bones that preserve well have been shown to give a good indication of either the sex or population affinity of an individual. In this study, the potential of measurements of the talus was investigated for the purpose of estimating population affinity in South Africans...
March 29, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672992/life-in-the-fast-lane-settled-pastoralism-in-the-central-eurasian-steppe-during-the-middle-bronze-age
#9
Margaret A Judd, Jessica L Walker, Alicia Ventresca Miller, Dmitry Razhev, Andrey V Epimakhov, Bryan K Hanks
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that the purported unstable climate in the South Urals region during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) resulted in health instability and social stress as evidenced by skeletal response. METHODS: The skeletal sample (n = 99) derived from Kamennyi Ambar 5 (KA-5), a MBA kurgan cemetery (2040-1730 cal. BCE, 2 sigma) associated with the Sintashta culture. Skeletal stress indicators assessed included cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and tibia periosteal new bone growth...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672982/juvenile-divergence-in-adaptive-traits-among-seven-sympatric-fish-eco-morphs-arises-before-moving-to-different-lacustrine-habitats
#10
Evgeny V Esin, Grigorii N Markevich, Michail Yu Pichugin
Identifying the mechanisms initiating sympatric diversification in vertebrates has remained a conceptual challenge. Here we analyze an assemblage of sympatric charr (Salvelinus malma) morphs from landlocked Lake Kronotskoe basin as a model to uncover the divergence pathways in freshwater fishes during the early life history stages. All morphs have distinct developmental biology, but a similar developmental rate retardation compared to the ancestor. Our study reveals that adult morphological differences, which acquire functionality at maturation, originate in the early juvenile stages due to heterochrony in skeletogenesis and allometric changes triggered by variation in metabolic activity...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671926/cancer-as-a-tissue-the-significance-of-cancer-stromal-interactions-in-the-development-morphogenesis-and-progression-of-human-upper-digestive-tract-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yokozaki, Yu-Ichiro Koma, Manabu Shigeoka, Mari Nishio
We review the significance of cancer-stromal interactions (CSIs) in the development, morphogenesis and progression of human gastric and esophageal cancer based on the data obtained from co-culture experiments. Orthotopic fibroblasts in the gastric cancer stroma not only promoted their growth by cancer cells but were also responsible for the mobility, morphogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells through CSI. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells could be part of the origin of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of the gastric cancer providing an advantageous microenvironment for the restoration of cancer stem cells with the induction of the EMT...
April 19, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670736/expression-of-parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-pthrp-in-ameloblastomas
#12
Rafael Zeballos, Ronell Bologna-Molina, Vanesa Pereira-Prado, Mariana Villarroel-Dorrego
Background: Presence of parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) might suggest that ameloblastomas recapitulate features of the enamel epithelium and induce bone resorption, which would facilitate their growth and local invasion. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of PTHrP in ameloblastomas. Material and Methods: An observational research study was designed including 39 cases of histologically diagnosed ameloblastomas (39 out of 42 patients gave consent for the use of their medical records and all data required for this study)...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670635/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-b-cell-normal-cellular-counterpart-clues-from-a-functional-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Walaa Darwiche, Brigitte Gubler, Jean-Pierre Marolleau, Hussein Ghamlouch
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of small mature-looking CD19+ CD23+ CD5+ B-cells that accumulate in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. To date, no consensus has been reached concerning the normal cellular counterpart of CLL B-cells and several B-cell types have been proposed. CLL B-cells have remarkable phenotypic and gene expression profile homogeneity. In recent years, the molecular and cellular biology of CLL has been enriched by seminal insights that are leading to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670288/structural-basis-of-ligand-binding-modes-at-the-neuropeptide-y-y-1-receptor
#14
Zhenlin Yang, Shuo Han, Max Keller, Anette Kaiser, Brian J Bender, Mathias Bosse, Kerstin Burkert, Lisa M Kögler, David Wifling, Guenther Bernhardt, Nicole Plank, Timo Littmann, Peter Schmidt, Cuiying Yi, Beibei Li, Sheng Ye, Rongguang Zhang, Bo Xu, Dan Larhammar, Raymond C Stevens, Daniel Huster, Jens Meiler, Qiang Zhao, Annette G Beck-Sickinger, Armin Buschauer, Beili Wu
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and have important roles in food intake, anxiety and cancer biology 1,2 . The NPY-Y receptor system has emerged as one of the most complex networks with three peptide ligands (NPY, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide) binding to four receptors in most mammals, namely the Y1 , Y2 , Y4 and Y5 receptors, with different affinity and selectivity 3 . NPY is the most powerful stimulant of food intake and this effect is primarily mediated by the Y1 receptor (Y1 R) 4 ...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670035/three-dimensional-architecture-and-mechanical-properties-of-bovine-bone-mixed-with-autologous-platelet-liquid-blood-or-physiological-water-an-in-vitro-study
#15
Antonio Scarano, Francesco Inchingolo, Giovanna Murmura, Tonino Traini, Adriano Piattelli, Felice Lorusso
In recent years, several techniques and material options have been investigated and developed for bone defect repair and regeneration. The progress in studies of composite graft materials and autologous platelet-derived growth factors for bone regeneration in dentistry and their biological and biomechanical properties has improved clinical strategies and results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the three-dimensional architecture and mechanical properties of three different combinations of composite bovine graft, adding autologous platelet liquid (APL), blood, or physiological water...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670000/bone-cell-activity-in-clinical-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis-and-its-inverse-relation-to-tumor-cell-androgen-receptor-activity
#16
Annika Nordstrand, Erik Bovinder Ylitalo, Elin Thysell, Emma Jernberg, Sead Crnalic, Anders Widmark, Anders Bergh, Ulf H Lerner, Pernilla Wikström
Advanced prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone and induces a mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic bone response. Standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer is androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) that also affects bone biology. Treatment options for patients relapsing after ADT are limited, particularly in cases where castration-resistance does not depend on androgen receptor (AR) activity. Patients with non-AR driven metastases may, however, benefit from therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669391/translational-biomarkers-and-ex-vivo-models-of-joint-tissues-as-a-tool-for-drug-development-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Cecilie F Kjelgaard-Petersen, Adam Platt, Martin Braddock, Martin A Jenkins, Kishwar Musa, Emma Graham, Thorbjørn Gantzel, Gillian Slynn, Michael E Weinblatt, Morten A Karsdal, Christian S Thudium, Anne-C Bay-Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, autoimmune and degenerative joint disease leading to disability, reduced life quality, and increased mortality. Although several synthetic and biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are available, there is still a medical need for novel drugs controlling disease progression. As only 10% of RA drug candidates that enter phase I trials are eventually FDA registered, there is an immediate requirement for translational drug development tools to facilitate early drug development decision making...
April 18, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667905/essential-role-of-mohawk-for-tenogenic-tissue-homeostasis-including-spinal-disc-and-periodontal-ligament
#18
Ryo Nakamichi, Kensuke Kataoka, Hiroshi Asahara
Tendons and ligaments play essential roles in connecting muscle and bone and stabilizing the connections between bones. The damage to tendons and ligaments caused by aging, injury, and arthritis induces the dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system and reduces the quality of life. Current therapy for damaged tendons and ligaments depends on self-repair; however, it is difficult to reconstruct normal tissue. Regeneration therapy for tendons and ligaments has not been achieved, partly because the mechanism, cell biology, and pathophysiology of tendon and ligament development remain unclear...
April 18, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667640/-the-efficiency-of-the-application-of-the-modern-computed-technologies-in-the-clinical-practice-and-the-prospects-for-the-further-use-of-the-biomechanical-3d-models-in-forensic-medicine
#19
I Yu Makarov, A V Svetlakov, A V Sotin, S V Shigeev, A A Gusarov, S A Smirenin, V V Emelin, V B Stragis, V A Fetisov
To-day, the computer-assisted 3D-technologies for the mathematical simulation of the engineering facilities are extensively used for the purpose of technical calculations in all branches of industry and building. The positive experience gained with the application of the 3D-models finds wide application in the joined investigations on the topical problems of the prosthetic and surgical treatment of bones, teeth, joints, cardiac valves, blood vessels, etc. The objective of the present study was the analysis of the positive experience with the involvement of the specialists in the design and practical application of 3D-models for the solution of problems facing the medical prosthetics and the management of various pathological conditions...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667632/-the-peculiar-biochemical-properties-of-the-support-structures-in-the-human-tissues
#20
S G Kuzin, S G Sukhanov, Ya V Kazakov, A V Pyatlin
This article is focused on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the elastic and mechanical strength characteristics of the tissues that form the flexible fibrous and osseous human skeleton. The samples of dura mater and spongy bone (ribs) were subjected to the quantitative analysis for the determination of their bioelemental composition. The study has demonstrated that the force needed to brake dura mater or a rib correlates with the content of biological elements in these tissue, as well as with the age and sex of the human subjects serving as teir sources...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
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