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Bone biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921292/cranial-joint-histology-in-the-mallard-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-new-insights-on-avian-cranial-kinesis
#1
Alida M Bailleul, Lawrence M Witmer, Casey M Holliday
The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920813/densitometric-evaluation-of-bone-prosthetic-counterface-in-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-with-modern-implants
#2
Andrea Cozzi Lepri, Marco Giorgini, Carla Signorini, Christian Carulli, Roberto Civinini, Maria Luisa Brandi, Massimo Innocenti
INTRODUCTION: Recent acquisitions of the complex mechanisms of osseointegration between implants and host bone have gained attention, accordingly to the methods of evaluation of these interactions. DEXA analysis is considered an useful tool to assess such phenomena, in order to analyse in a quantitative manner the local metabolic activity of the bone, and to evaluate over the time the integration between host bone and prosthetic components. The purpose of the present study is to report about a preliminary experience in the analysis of osseointegration processes of patients undergoing a primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) or a revision Total Knee Arthroplasty (rTKA)...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920804/bone-healing-in-2016
#3
REVIEW
John A Buza, Thomas Einhorn
Delayed fracture healing and nonunion occurs in up to 5-10% of all fractures, and can present a challenging clinical scenario for the treating physician. Methods for the enhancement of skeletal repair may benefit patients that are at risk of, or have experienced, delayed healing or nonunion. These methods can be categorized into either physical stimulation therapies or biological therapies. Physical stimulation therapies include electrical stimulation, low-intensity pulsed ultrasonography, or extracorporeal shock wave therapy...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920802/the-role-of-drugs-in-bone-pain
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Marras, Paolo Tranquilli Leali
: Painful symptomatology in the skeletal system can be found in various pathological conditions and can be either localised or diffused. Bone tenderness is common in those who are of an elderly age. TREATMENT STRATEGY: Patients should be informed of the possible causes of their pain and the different therapies that could alleviate it; furthermore they should be encouraged to have an active role in their therapy. It is necessary to prevent the onset of the pain (by the clock) by considering the biological half-life, the bioavailability and the duration of action of the therapy...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920208/genetic-modification-of-er-hoxb8-osteoclast-precursors-using-crispr-cas9-as-a-novel-way-to-allow-studies-on-osteoclast-biology
#5
Irene Di Ceglie, Guus G H van den Akker, Giuliana Ascone, Bas Ten Harkel, Hans Häcker, Fons A J van de Loo, Marije I Koenders, Peter M van der Kraan, Teun J de Vries, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Peter L E M van Lent
Osteoclasts are cells specialized in bone resorption. Currently, studies on murine osteoclasts are primarily performed on bone marrow-derived cells with the use of many animals and limited cells available. ER-Hoxb8 cells are conditionally immortalized monocyte/macrophage murine progenitor cells, recently described to be able to differentiate toward functional osteoclasts. Here, we produced an ER-Hoxb8 clonal cell line from C57BL/6 bone marrow cells that strongly resembles phenotype and function of the conventional bone marrow-derived osteoclasts...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919734/microdamage-induced-by-in-vivo-reference-point-indentation-in-mice-is-repaired-by-osteocyte-apoptosis-mediated-remodeling
#6
Oran D Kennedy, Matin Lendhey, Peter Mauer, Anaya Philip, Jelena Basta-Pljakic, Mitchell B Schaffler
Reference Point Indentation (RPI) is a technology that is designed to measure mechanical properties that relate to bone toughness, or its ability to resist crack growth, in vivo. Independent of the mechanical parameters generated by RPI, its ability to initiate and propagate microcracks in bone is itself an interesting issue. Microcracks have a crucial biological relevance in bone, are central to its ability to maintain homeostasis. In healthy tissues, a process of targeted remodeling routinely repairs microcracks in a process mediated by osteocyte apoptosis...
December 2, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918885/mutant-ccl2-protein-coating-mitigates-wear-particle-induced-bone-loss-in-a-murine-continuous-polyethylene-infusion-model
#7
Akira Nabeshima, Jukka Pajarinen, Tzu-Hua Lin, Xinyi Jiang, Emmanuel Gibon, Luis A Córdova, Florence Loi, Laura Lu, Eemeli Jämsen, Kensuke Egashira, Fan Yang, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman
Wear particle-induced osteolysis limits the long-term survivorship of total joint replacement (TJR). Monocyte/macrophages are the key cells of this adverse reaction. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is the most important chemokine regulating trafficking of monocyte/macrophages in particle-induced inflammation. 7ND recombinant protein is a mutant of CCL2 that inhibits CCL2 signaling. We have recently developed a layer-by-layer (LBL) coating platform on implant surfaces that can release biologically active 7ND...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917703/principles-of-the-kenzan-method-for-robotic-cell-spheroid-based-3d-bioprinting
#8
Nicanor I Moldovan, Narutoshi Hibino, Koichi Nakayama
Bioprinting is a technology with the prospect to change the way many diseases are treated, by replacing the damaged tissues with live, de novo created bio-similar constructs. However, after more than a decade of incubation and many proofs-of-concept, the field is still in its infancy. The current stagnation is the consequence of its early success: the first bioprinters, and most of those which followed, were modified versions of the 3D printers used in additive manufacturing, redesigned for layer-by-layer dispersion of biomaterials...
December 4, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917589/the-petale-study-late-adverse-effects-and-biomarkers-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-survivors
#9
Sophie Marcoux, Simon Drouin, Caroline Laverdière, Nathalie Alos, Gregor U Andelfinger, Laurence Bertout, Daniel Curnier, Matthias G Friedrich, Ekaterini A Kritikou, Geneviève Lefebvre, Emile Levy, Sarah Lippé, Valérie Marcil, Marie-Josée Raboisson, Frank Rauch, Philippe Robaey, Mariia Samoilenko, Chantal Séguin, Serge Sultan, Maja Krajinovic, Daniel Sinnett
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivorship issues represent an established public health challenge. Most late adverse effects (LAEs) have been demonstrated to be time and treatment dependent. The PETALE study is a multidisciplinary research project aiming to comprehensively characterize LAEs and identify associated predictive biomarkers in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) survivors. METHODS: cALL survivors treated at Sainte-Justine University Health Center with Dana-Farber Cancer Institution-ALL protocols 87-01 through 2005-01 were eligible...
December 4, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917354/results-of-a-hydroxyapatite-coated-femoral-stem-corail-in-chinese-a-minimum-10-year-follow-up
#10
Jianda Xu, Zikang Xie, Jianning Zhao, Yi Gao, Hong Zhao, Libo Peng, Yuxing Qu
BACKGROUND: Due to the adverse effects of cemented hip arthroplasty, uncemented stems with hydroxyapatite (HA) coating reduces these risks and enhanced integration. The concept of an extensive HA coating for the fixation of a tapered femoral stem (Corail(®)) was introduced, which can achieve durable biological fixation and preserve normal periprosthetic bone activity. Here we describe the clinical and radiological outcome in patients with the Corail(®) stem. METHODS: 92 total hip replacements in 81 patients using the Corail(®) stem were followed-up...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916239/high-doses-of-ionizing-radiation-on-bone-repair-is-there-effect-outside-the-irradiated-site
#11
Flaviana Soares Rocha, Pâmella Coelho Dias, Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira Limirio, Vitor Carvalho Lara, Jonas Dantas Batista, Paula Dechichi
Local ionizing radiation causes damage to bone metabolism, it reduces blood supply and cellularity over time. Recent studies indicate that radiation promotes biological response outside the treatment field. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on bone repair outside the irradiated field. Ten healthy male Wistar rats were used; and five animals were submitted to radiotherapy on the left femur. After 4 weeks, in all animals were created bone defects in the right and left femurs...
November 29, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915982/molecular-cellular-and-pharmaceutical-aspects-of-bone-grafting-materials-and-membranes-during-maxillary-sinus-lift-procedures-part-2-detailed-characteristics-of-the-materials
#12
Giovanna Iezzi, Adriano Piatelli, Alessandra Giuliani, Carlo Mangano, Antonio Barone, Licia Manzon, Marco Degidi, Antonio Scarano, Antonella Filippone, Vittoria Perrotti
Various grafts or combination of bone substitute materials have been used in sinus lift procedures. Currently, ongoing developments in several disciplines, from molecular biology and chemistry to computer science and engineering, have contributed to the understanding of biological processes leading to bone healing after the use of bone substitute materials (BSBs) and therefore of the behavior of BSBs. The understanding of the properties of each graft enables individual treatment concepts and therefore allows shift from a simple replacement material to the modern concept of an individually created composite biomaterial...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914982/nanotopography-controls-cell-cycle-changes-involved-with-skeletal-stem-cell-self-renewal-and-multipotency
#13
Louisa C Y Lee, Nikolaj Gadegaard, María C de Andrés, Lesley-Anne Turner, Karl V Burgess, Stephen J Yarwood, Julia Wells, Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez, Dominic Meek, Richard O C Oreffo, Matthew J Dalby
In culture isolated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (more precisely termed skeletal stem cells, SSCs) spontaneously differentiate into fibroblasts, preventing the growth of large numbers of multipotent SSCs for use in regenerative medicine. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expansion of SSCs, while maintaining multipotency and preventing fibroblastic differentiation are poorly understood. Major hurdles to understanding how the maintenance of SSCs is regulated are (a) SSCs isolated from bone marrow are heterogeneous populations with different proliferative characteristics and (b) a lack of tools to investigate SSC number expansion and multipotency...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914778/familial-haemophagocytosis-lymphohisticytosis-type-3-a-case-report
#14
F Kamoun, M Hsairi, V Grandin, S Ben Ameur, G De Saint Basile, M Hachicha
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of immune regulation. Here, we report on a fatal case of type 3 FHL (FHL3) in a 45-day-old boy. Clinically, the infant presented with fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Biology showed pancytopenia, elevated ferritin, and decreased fibrinogen. Images of hemophagocytosis were found at the bone morrow examination. The diagnosis of FHL type 3 was made by the identification of homozygous mutation in the Munc13-4 gene (UNC13D) located in exon 20: 1822 del 12bp (V608fs)...
November 30, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914255/immobilizing-bacitracin-on-titanium-for-prophylaxis-of-infections-and-for-improving-osteoinductivity-an-in-vivo-study
#15
Bin'en Nie, Haiyong Ao, Teng Long, Jianliang Zhou, Tingting Tang, Bing Yue
Bacitracin immobilized on the titanium (Ti) surface significantly improves anti-bacterial activity and biocompatibility in vitro. In the current study, we investigated the biologic performance (bactericidal effect and bone-implant integration) of bacitracin-modified Ti in vivo. A rat osteomyelitis model with femoral medullary cavity placement of Ti rods was employed to analyze the prophylactic effect of bacitracin-modified Ti (Ti-BC). Thirty-six female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the Ti implant-associated infection...
November 27, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914223/osteogenesis-imperfecta-new-genes-reveal-novel-mechanisms-in-bone-dysplasia
#16
REVIEW
Heeseog Kang, A C S Aryal, Joan C Marini
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by fragile bones and short stature and known for its clinical and genetic heterogeneity which is now understood as a collagen-related disorder. During the last decade, research has made remarkable progress in identifying new OI-causing genes and beginning to understand the intertwined molecular and biochemical mechanisms of their gene products. Most cases of OI have dominant inheritance. Each new gene for recessive OI, and a recently identified gene for X-linked OI, has shed new light on its (often previously unsuspected) function in bone biology...
November 19, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913118/forces-controlling-organ-growth-and-size
#17
REVIEW
Dominik Eder, Christof Aegerter, Konrad Basler
One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912816/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-role-in-dental-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Xueli Mao, Yao Liu, Chider Chen, Songtao Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been discovered in almost every organ and tissue. MSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells with the capacity to self-renew and show multilineage differentiation. MSCs possess immunomodulatory properties by regulating multiple types of immune cells. They are emerging as a promising therapeutic agent, and have been widely used for cell-based tissue regeneration and immune therapies. A further understanding of the biological characteristics of MSCs is a prerequisite to develop more efficient MSC-based therapies...
January 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912680/biomimetic-approaches-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#19
Johnathan Ng, Kara Spiller, Jonathan Bernhard, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Although autologous bone grafts are considered a gold standard for the treatment of bone defects, they are limited by donor site morbidities and geometric requirements. Tissue engineering can overcome such limitations by creating fully viable biological bone grafts. We review here the use of native bone matrix, autologous mesenchymal cells and perfusion bioreactor systems as a tissue-engineering paradigm to grow bone in vitro. We also discuss emergent vascularization strategies to promote graft survival in vivo, and the role of inflammation in bone repair...
December 2, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910940/supportive-angiogenic-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-endothelial-cells-in-monolayer-and-co-cultures
#20
Florian Böhrnsen, Henning Schliephake
Sites of implantation with compromised biology may be unable to achieve the required level of angiogenic and osteogenic regeneration. The specific function and contribution of different cell types to the formation of prevascularized, osteogenic networks in co-culture remains unclear. To determine how bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) contribute to cellular proangiogenic differentiation, we analysed the differentiation of BMSCs and ECs in standardized monolayer, Transwell and co-cultures...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
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