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Music AND Cognition

Claudia Meyer, Fleur O'Keefe
OBJECTIVE: Aged care services increasingly respond to the needs of people with dementia. Non-pharmacological approaches are preferable to reduce responsive behaviours, improve/maintain functional capacity and reduce emotional disorders. This rapid review of systematic reviews aimed to consolidate the evidence for non-pharmacological interventions and determine outcome effectiveness. METHODS: Systematic review literature was comprehensively searched for non-pharmacological interventions for dementia in residential care...
December 7, 2018: Dementia
Serap Aydin, Cagdas Güdücü, Firat Kutluk, Adile Öniz, Murat Özgören
In this study, 64-channel single trial auditory brain oscillations (STABO) have been firstly analyzed by using complexity metrics to observe the effect of musical experience on brain functions. Experimental data was recorded from eyes-opened volunteers during listening the musical chords by piano. Complexity estimation methods were compared to each other for classification of groups (professional musicians and non-musicians) by using both classifiers (Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB)) and statistical tests (one-way ANOVA) with respect to electrode locations...
November 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Donovon Thakur, Marilee A Martens, David S Smith, Ed Roth
Background: Researchers and clinicians have often cited a strong relationship between individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and music. This review systematically identified, analyzed, and synthesized research findings related to WS and music. Methods: Thirty-one articles were identified that examined this relationship and were divided into seven areas. This process covered a diverse array of methodologies, with aims to: (1) report current findings; (2) assess methodological quality; and (3) discuss the potential implications and considerations for the clinical use of music with this population...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rafael Román-Caballero, Marisa Arnedo, Mónica Triviño, Juan Lupiáñez
Aging is accompanied by cognitive decline, although recent research indicates that the rate of decline depends on multiple lifestyle factors. One of such factors is musical practice, an activity that involves several sensory and motor systems and a wide range of high-level cognitive processes. This paper describes the first systematic review and meta-analysis, to our knowledge, of the impact of musical practice on healthy neurocognitive aging. The inclusion criteria for the review required that studies were empirical works in English or Spanish that they explored the effects of musical practice on older people; they included an assessment of cognitive functions and/or an assessment of brain status; and they included a sample of participants aged 59 years or older with no cognitive impairment or brain damage...
2018: PloS One
Stefan Gebhardt, Ilka Dammann, Klaus Loescher, Peter M Wehmeier, Helmut Vedder, Richard von Georgi
OBJECTIVES: Music therapy is a well-established non-verbal treatment method in psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine. However, empirical data of its impact on emotion modulation processes and personality dimensions are still sparce. An interesting concept is the use of music for emotion modulation in everyday life. The purpose of this interim study was to assess the interplay of personality dimensions and emotion modulation strategies in patients treated with music therapy versus patients without music therapy...
December 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Gernot Gerger, Matthew Pelowski, Tomohiro Ishizu
An outstanding question in empirical aesthetics concerns whether negative emotions (e.g., fear, disgust) can improve aesthetic judgments of liking. Although negative emotions are sometimes linked with enjoyment in music or visual design/art, emotion priming studies have shown conflicting results, reporting both more negative and more positive assessments. These divergences may be driven by key differences in priming procedures. Specifically, past studies' use of either emotional faces or emotional scenes as primes as well as differing negative emotion content (fear, disgust) may involve differing processes leading to opposing effects, particularly in aesthetic judgments...
November 26, 2018: Emotion
M Winkler, J L Mueller, A D Friederici, C Männel
Human cognition relies on the ability to encode complex regularities in the input. Regularities above a certain complexity level can involve the feature of embedding, defined by nested relations between sequential elements. While comparative studies suggest the cognitive processing of embedding to be human specific, evidence of its ontogenesis is lacking. To assess infants' ability to process embedding, we implemented nested relations in tone sequences, minimizing perceptual and memory requirements. We measured 5-month-olds' brain responses in two auditory oddball paradigms, presenting standard sequences with one or two levels of embedding, interspersed with infrequent deviant sequences violating the established embedding rules...
November 2018: Science Advances
Martina Di Mauro, Enrico Toffalini, Massimo Grassi, Karin Petrini
Long-term music training has been shown to affect different cognitive and perceptual abilities. However, it is less well known whether it can also affect the perception of emotion from music, especially purely rhythmic music. Hence, we asked a group of 16 non-musicians, 16 musicians with no drumming experience, and 16 drummers to judge the level of expressiveness, the valence (positive and negative), and the category of emotion perceived from 96 drumming improvisation clips (audio-only, video-only, and audiovideo) that varied in several music features (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Buddy Marterre
Many of our experiences in hospice and palliative care medicine are challenging. We support dying patients and their families as they struggle with the transition from life to death, and continue to support those in mourning. Many times, in America, it is difficult to even appreciate a glimmer of spiritual grace as our patients die. We easily remain stuck in the material, and distance ourselves from the spiritual. Some exits are quite graceful, however. I present the case of an exceptional person, who enjoyed an exceptional life and had an exceptionally graceful dying process and death, in hopes that his story may encourage other healers as much as he inspired me...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Robin Rio
People with Alzheimer's and related dementias and their family caregivers who reside at home have unique strengths and needs. They have the strengths of being in a place with which they are familiar, with people whom they are in close relationship. Often it is the spouse who provides the primary care of their loved one, and as the disease progresses both members of the couple are at risk for depression, isolation, and decreased contact with peers and community networks that serve to help maintain sociocultural, intellectual, physical, sensory, and spiritual needs...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Heeyoun Kim Cho
Dementia is a clinical syndrome that is progressive and degenerative, affecting memory, behavior, emotion, and personality. Persons with dementia often experience deterioration of cognitive ability, as well as various behavioral and psychological disturbances, which significantly contribute to reduced quality of life and emotional well-being. The demand for long-term care continues to rise rapidly and it is therefore critical to develop effective strategies and evidence-based interventions to improve the quality of life for persons with dementia...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
T-D Dimitriou, Eleni Verykouki, John Papatriantafyllou, A Konsta, D Kazis, M Tsolaki
Agitation/aggressive behaviour is a common behavioural and psychological symptom in people with dementia (PwD), occurring with a frequency of between 13-50.4% according to recent studies, and the rate increases as the severity of cognitive decline increases. The burden on caregivers is considerable. This trial is a randomized controlled crossover trial conducted in Greece. The following measures were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised, Geriatric Depression Scale, Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms in Dementia and Neuropsychiatric Inventory...
July 2018: Functional Neurology
Christophe Emmanuel de Bézenac, Rachel Ann Swindells, Rhiannon Corcoran
While distinguishing between the actions and physical boundaries of self and other (non-self) is usually straightforward there are contexts in which such differentiation is challenging. For example, self-other ambiguity may occur when actions of others are similar or complementary to those of the self. Even in the absence of such situational challenges, individuals experiencing hallucinations have difficulties with this distinction, often experiencing thoughts or actions of self as belonging to other agents...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Thierry Bautrant, Michel Grino, Corinne Peloso, Frédéric Schiettecatte, Magali Planelles, Charles Oliver, Caroline Franqui
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether environmental rearrangements of the long-term care nursing home can affect disruptive behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in residents with dementia. DESIGN: Prospective 6-month study. SETTING: The study was conducted before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) environmental rearrangements [skylike ceiling tiles in part of the shared premises, progressive decrease of the illuminance at night together with soothing streaming music, reinforcement of the illuminance during the day, walls painted in light beige, oversized clocks in corridors, and night team clothes color (dark blue) different from that of the day team (sky blue)]...
November 16, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Lucy Gao, Sunny X Tang, James J Yi, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H Zackai, Beverly S Emanuel, Ruben C Gur, Monica E Calkins, Raquel E Gur
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with impairment in multiple domains of cognition and risk for several psychiatric disorders. Musical auditory processing is highly heritable, and is impaired in individuals with schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders, but has never been studied in 22q11DS, notwithstanding anecdotal evidence of its sparing. We aimed to characterize musical auditory processing in 22q11DS and explore potential relationships with other cognitive domains, musical engagement, and psychiatric disorders...
December 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Dibyajyoti Biswal, Joyce Evans, Abhijit Patwardhan
There is growing evidence of palliative effects of listening to songs on neural and cardiovascular function. It is also known that listening to songs can entrain cardiac variability. These results suggest that the neural changes in response to listening to songs in turn affect cardiac rhythm. How these effects come about is less clearly known. Therefore, investigation of the changes in neural rhythms that are synchronous with cardiac rhythm is likely to shed further light on the mechanisms via which songs produce these effects...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Samuel Shagan, Dana Shagan, Brian Shagan, Joanna M Fiszdon, Warren Thime, Lawrence C Haber, Godfrey D Pearlson, Jimmy Choi
Music has been demonstrated to improve cognitive test performance in neuropsychiatric populations. However, the impact of music on cognitive training effects, and the importance of music preference, has yet to be studied. This is an essential oversight because many cognitive training programs play music in the background. We sought to determine if participant-preferred or random music would increase the efficacy of computer-based attention training (AT). Forty-eight patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to 2 weeks of either: 1) AT with participants' choice of background music, 2) AT with random background music, 3) AT without music, or 4) a no training or music control-watching videos without AT or music...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Tamami Nakano, Yuta Miyazaki
The temporal pattern of spontaneous blinks changes greatly depending on an individual's internal cognitive state. For instance, when several individuals watch the same video, blinks can be synchronized at attentional breakpoints. The present study examined the degree of this blink synchronization, as reflecting an interest level, while viewing various video clips. In the first experiment, participants interested in soccer, shogi (Japanese chess), or a specific musical group watched a video clip related to each category and rated their interest level after viewing...
November 11, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Artur C Jaschke, Henkjan Honing, Erik J A Scherder
BACKGROUND: Previous literature has shown a putative relationship between playing a musical instrument and a benefit in various cognitive domains. However, to date it still remains unknown whether the exposure to a musically-enriched environment instead of playing an instrument yourself might also increase cognitive domains such as language, mathematics or executive sub-functions such as for example planning or working memory in primary school children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional...
2018: PloS One
Akinori Futamura, Mitsuru Kawamura, Kenjiro Ono
Musical hallucination is one of the most complex forms of auditory hallucinations, where subjects perceive complex sound in the form of music, in the absence of an acoustic stimulus. It has been reported in patients with diseases such as psychiatric disorders, organic brain diseases, and epilepsy. However, the most common of these are idiopathic musical hallucinations that occur alongside deafness in the elderly. In recent years, there have been many reports of musical hallucination occurring as a result of mild cognitive impairment and dementia...
November 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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