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Motor priming

E L Lane
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease. It has earned that title through its highly effective treatment of some of the motor symptoms in the early stages of the disease but it is a far from perfect drug. The inevitable long term treatment that comes with this chronic neurodegenerative condition raises the risk significantly of the development of motor fluctuations including disabling L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Being unsurpassed as a therapy means that understanding the mechanisms of dyskinesia priming and induction is vital to the search for therapies to treat these side effects and allow optimal use of L-DOPA...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Makito Hirano, Makoto Samukawa, Chiharu Isono, Kazumasa Saigoh, Yusaku Nakamura, Susumu Kusunoki
Objective: To assess the contribution of noncoding repeat expansions in Japanese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: Sporadic ALS in Western countries is frequently associated with noncoding repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) is another noncoding repeat disease caused by expanded CTA/CTG repeats in the ATXN8OS gene. Although the involvement of upper and lower motor neurons in SCA8 has been reported, a positive association between SCA8 and ALS remains unestablished...
August 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Florian Herpich, Federica Contò, Martijn van Koningsbruggen, Lorella Battelli
BACKGROUND: Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) can cause long term increase of corticospinal excitability when used to prime the motor cortex, before measuring the motor response in the hand muscles with TMS (Terney et al., 2008). In cognitive studies, tRNS has been used to improve visual attention and mathematical skills, an enhancement effect that might suggest sustained cortical plasticity changes (Cappelletti et al., 2013; Snowball et al., 2013). However, while the behavioral evidence of increased performance is becoming substantiated by empirical data, it still remains unclear whether tRNS over visual areas causes an increase in cortical excitability similar to what has been found in the motor cortex, and if that increase could be a potential physiological explanation for behavioral improvements found in visual tasks...
August 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
William M Land
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine whether movement contingent sensory effects could be used to prime and facilitate motor performance on a ball-tossing task. DESIGN: The ball-tossing task was performed across two consecutive days, and consisted of an acquisition phase and a test phase. During the acquisition phase, participants (N = 30) practiced an underhanded ball tossing task to a near and far target (N = 360 total, n = 180 each distance)...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
L Quinn, A Miljevic, B K Rurak, W Marinovic, Ann-Maree Vallence
Representations within the primary motor cortex (M1) are capable of rapid functional changes following motor learning, known as use-dependent plasticity. GABAergic inhibition plays a role in use-dependent plasticity. Evidence suggests a different capacity for plasticity of distal and proximal upper limb muscle representations. However, it is unclear whether the motor cortical representations of forearm flexor and extensor muscles also have different capacities for plasticity. The current study used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate motor cortex excitability and inhibition of forearm flexor and extensor representations before and after performance of a visuomotor adaptation task that primarily targeted flexors and extensors separately...
August 7, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Reenu Sarah Kurien, Mousumi Goswami, Sanjay Singh
Background: Maintaining primary teeth in the oral cavity is of prime importance, and grossly carious teeth may require pulp therapy for the same. Pain on injection and incomplete anesthesia causes failure of the procedure and result in fear and anxiety. Various methods have evolved to overcome this; such as distraction, topical anesthesia, etc. A few techniques regaining popularity in dentistry in recent times is the warming or buffering of the solution prior to administration. This study thus aimed to compare and evaluate the anesthetic efficacy and the patient's pain reaction to pre-warmed, buffered and conventional 2% lignocaine for the success of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in mandibular primary molars undergoing pulp therapy...
2018: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Su-Chuan Lin, Yoko Takahashi, Kozo Hatori, Meigen Liu, Ying-Zu Huang
This study explored the effect of corticospinal activity on spinal plasticity by examining the interactions between intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) of the motor cortex and peripheral patterned electrical stimulation (PES) of the common peroneal nerve (CPN). Healthy volunteers ( n = 10) received iTBS to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle zone of the motor cortex and PES of the CPN in three separate sessions: (1) iTBS-before-PES, (2) iTBS-after-PES, and (3) sham iTBS-before-PES...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brenda L Connors, Richard Rende
There is growing recognition of the essential role of sensorimotor processes as not just a supporter of the cognitive aspects of decision making, but rather as a foundation for all the coordinated physical and mental activities that go into how we make decisions. We illuminate concepts and methods for examining embodied decision making through the lens of Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA). MPA is as a prime example of a conceptually rooted observational methodology for deciphering embodied decision making and for decoding how people differ as decision makers with respect to cognitive motivational priorities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Liang Zhao
The action property of an object appears to function as an intrinsic part of its mental representation. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in cases where although the grasp response evoked by a visual object is irrelevant to a participant's task it still appears to be encoded. This is an affordance effect. Recent findings have shown that dangerous objects can modulate the motor system by evoking aversive affordances. However, the way the time course of response activation generated by the dangerous object develops remains unclear...
July 30, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Jonathan S Thacker, Derrick Yeung, Paige J Chambers, A Russell Tupling, W Richard Staines, John G Mielke
Typical responses in muscle following acute aerobic exercise have been well documented, but the responses in brain have remained relatively unexplored. Recent reports suggest that a single bout of aerobic exercise can prime motor regions of the human brain to experience use-dependent plasticity, however, the mechanisms underlying this priming phenomenon are unclear. As a result, we asked whether a graded test to exhaustion (GXT), the most widely employed test to examine relationships between exercise and integrated responses within the musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, and neuropsychological systems, would be able to upregulate the expression of plasticity-related proteins in sensorimotor cortex in rats...
July 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Pan Wang, Kuo-Fu Tseng, Yuan Gao, Michael Cianfrocco, Lijun Guo, Weihong Qiu
Mitotic kinesin-14 homodimers that contain an N-terminal nonmotor microtubule-binding tail contribute to spindle organization by preferentially crosslinking two different spindle microtubules rather than interacting with a single microtubule to generate processive motility. However, the mechanism underlying such selective motility behavior remains poorly understood. Here, we show that when a flexible polypeptide linker is inserted into the coiled-coil central stalk, two homodimeric mitotic kinesin-14s of distinct motility-the processive plus-end-directed KlpA from Aspergillus nidulans [1] and the nonprocessive minus-end-directed Ncd from Drosophila melanogaster [2]-both switch to become processive minus-end-directed motors...
July 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Shambhu Prasad Adhikari, Jarugool Tretriluxana, Pakaratee Chaiyawat, Chutima Jalayondeja
Background: Action-observation-execution (AOE) primes physical training. We examined the immediate effect of AOE with accelerated skill acquisition program (ASAP) on dexterity in subacute stroke. Methods: Twelve individuals from 1 to 6 months after stroke were allocated into two groups by matching age and side of stroke. After AOE of 30 minutes, the experimental group received ASAP for 60 minutes whereas the control group received dose-equivalent usual care. The movement time (MT) and functional ability (FA) of hand items of the Wolf motor function test (WMFT), hand functions and global recovery of stroke impact scale (SIS), and intrinsic motivation items of stroke rehabilitation motivation scale were assessed at baseline, after training, and during one-week follow-up...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Davide Crivelli, Ludovico Pedullà, Ambra Bisio, Miguel David Sabogal Rueda, Giampaolo Brichetto, Marco Bove, Michela Balconi
Action observation is known to enhance sensorimotor system activation, and such effect has been linked to neural priming and response facilitation mechanisms. This facilitation effect, however, has been primarily studied by focusing on high-level motor proficiency, whereas evidence on the effect of observing poorly performed actions is still lacking. We then devised a study to investigate neural correlates of the observation of suboptimal motor acts as mirrored by corticospinal activation (via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Experiment 1) and by modulation of cortical oscillatory activity (via electroencephalography (EEG), Experiment 2)...
August 21, 2018: Neuroscience
Marius Keute, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
OBJECTIVE: Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) has been hypothesized to modulate γ-aminobutyric (GABA) transmission in the human brain. GABA in the motor cortex is highly correlated to measures of automatic motor inhibition that can be obtained in simple response priming paradigms. To test the effects of tVNS on GABA transmission, we measured tVNS-induced alterations in behavioral and electrophysiology during automatic motor inhibition. METHODS: Participants were 16 young, healthy adults (8 female)...
June 27, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Ann-Kathrin Stock, Lorenza Colzato, Christian Beste
Exerting cognitive control is an effortful endeavor that is strongly modulated by the availability of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE), which are both synthesized from the amino acid precursor tyrosine. Supplementing tyrosine may increase the synthesis of both catecholamines. This has been suggested to improve executive functioning and potentially even counteract depletion effects in this domain. Yet, it has remained unclear whether tyrosine also improves interference control and whether subliminally and consciously triggered response conflicts are subject to the same modulation...
July 3, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yudai Takarada, Daichi Nozaki
Previous research has demonstrated that barely visible (subliminal) goal-priming with motivational reward can alter the state of the motor system and enhance motor output. Research shows that these affective-motivational effects result from associations between goal representations and positive affect without conscious awareness. Here, we tested whether motivational priming can increase motor output even if the priming is fully visible (supraliminal), and whether the priming effect occurs through increased cortical excitability...
July 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isabel M Feven-Parsons, Jeremy Goslin
If our central representation of an object is defined through embodied experience, we might expect access to action affordances to be privileged over more abstract concepts. We used event-related potentials to examine the relative time course of access to affordances. Written object names were primed with the name of an object sharing the same affordance as the target (e.g. precision-grip: "grape" primed by "tweezers") or the same taxonomic category (e.g. fruit: "grape" primed by "apple")...
June 20, 2018: Brain and Language
Matthew H Perkins, Elizabeth C Cropper, Klaudiusz R Weiss
Many neural networks are multitasking and receive modulatory input, which configures activity. As a result, these networks can enter a relatively persistent state in which they are biased to generate one type of output as opposed to another. A question we address is as follows: what happens to this type of state when the network is forced to task-switch? We address this question in the feeding system of the mollusc Aplysia This network generates ingestive and egestive motor programs. We focus on an identified neuron that is selectively active when programs are ingestive...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Artur Golas, Adam Maszczyk, Petr Stastny, Michal Wilk, Krzysztof Ficek, Robert George Lockie, Adam Zajac
BACKGROUND: The bench press (BP) is a complex exercise demanding high neuromuscular activity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify the patterns of muscular activity of the prime movers on both sides of an elite powerlifter. METHODS: A World Champion (RAW PR 320 kg) participated in the study (age: 34 years; body mass: 103 kg; body height 1.72 m; one-repetition maximum (1 RM) flat bench press: 220 kg). The subject performed one repetition of the flat bench press with: 70% 1 RM (150 kg) and 90% 1 RM (200 kg) in tempos: 2 s eccentric and 1 s concentric phase; 6 s eccentric and 1 s concentric phase)...
March 28, 2018: Sports
Claire Calmels, Marc Elipot, Lionel Naccache
In this study, we designed a visual short-term priming paradigm to investigate the mechanisms underlying the priming of movements and to probe movement representations in motor experts and matched controls. We employed static visual stimuli that implied or not human whole-body movements, that is, gymnastics movements and static positions. Twelve elite female gymnasts and twelve matched controls performed a speeded two-choice response time task. The participants were presented with congruent and incongruent prime-target pairs and had to decide whether the target stimulus represented a gymnastics movement or a static position...
June 13, 2018: Cognitive Science
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