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Motor priming

Simone Schaeffner, Iring Koch, Andrea M Philipp
Sensory-motor modality compatibility is defined as the similarity between the sensory modality and the modality of response-related effects. Previous dual-task and task-switching studies have shown higher performance costs for coordinating relatively incompatible sensory-motor modality mappings (i.e., auditory-manual and visual-vocal) compared to more compatible mappings (i.e., auditory-vocal and visual-manual). Until now, however, little attention has been paid to potential variability in effects of modality compatibility depending on different processing codes...
October 9, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Harry Thomas Jordan, Cathy M Stinear
Bilateral priming is a rehabilitation adjuvant that can improve upper limb motor recovery post-stroke. It uses a table-top device to couple the upper limbs together such that active flexion and extension of one wrist leads to passive movement of the opposite wrist in a mirror symmetric pattern. Bilateral priming increases corticomotor excitability (CME) in the primary motor cortex (M1) of the passively driven wrist, however the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this increase remain unclear. This study explored these mechanisms by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right M1 and recording motor evoked potentials from the passively driven left extensor carpi radialis of healthy adults...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Camila Hillesheim Horst, Franciele Schlemmer, Natália de Aguiar Montenegro, Ana Carolina Martins Domingues, Gabriel Ginani Ferreira, Cínthia Yara da Silva Ribeiro, Rafael Rocha de Andrade, Elaine Del Bel Guimarães, Simoneide Souza Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly complex brain disorder regarding clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and therapeutics. The cardinal motor signs, i.e., rigidity, bradykinesia, and unilateral tremors, arise in consequence of a progressive neuron death during the prodromal phase. Although multiple transmission systems are involved in disease neurobiology, patients will cross the line between the prodromal and early stage of diagnosed PD when they had lost half of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells. As the neurons continue to die ascending the neuroaxis, patients will face a more disabling disease with motor and nonmotor signs...
September 28, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Lina F Chalak, Kim-Anh Nguyen, Chatchay Prempunpong, Roy Heyne, Sudhin Thayyil, Seetha Shankaran, Abbot R Laptook, Nancy Rollins, Athina Pappas, Louise Koclas, Birju Shah, Paolo Montaldo, Benyachalee Techasaensiri, Pablo J Sánchez, Guilherme Sant'Anna
BACKGROUND: Studies of early childhood outcomes of mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) identified in the first 6 h of life are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months of PRIME study. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective study of mild HIE defined as ≥1 abnormality using the modified Sarnat within 6 h of birth and not meeting cooling criteria. Primary outcome was disability with mild: Bayley III cognitive 70-84 or ≥85 and either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) 1 or 2, seizures, or hearing deficit; moderate: cognitive 70-84 and either GMFCS 2, seizures, or hearing deficit; severe: cognitive <70, GMFCS 3-5...
September 13, 2018: Pediatric Research
Theodore E Wiley, Arkaprabha Konar, Nicholas A Miller, Kenneth G Spears, Roseanne J Sension
All isomers of a four stage rotary molecular motor, dimethyl-tetrahydro-bi(cyclopenta[α]napthal-enylidene), are studied with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Single and two pulse excitations (pump and delayed repump with a different wavelength) are used to optically probe the excited state dynamics. These measurements demonstrate that this motor is not only designed for unidirectional isomerization, but is also "primed" for efficient rotary motion. The yield for photoisomerization from the stable P-cis isomer to the metastable M-trans isomer is 85% ± 10%, while the yield for the undesired back reaction is ca...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Ying Zhou, Junchao Wu, Rui Sheng, Mei Li, Yan Wang, Rong Han, Feng Han, Zhong Chen, Zheng-Hong Qin
It is generally believed that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) has been demonstrated to have potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. In the present research, we investigated if NADPH could offer neuroprotection by inhibiting glia-mediated neuroinflammation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a mechanism contributing to PD pathogenesis...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Imke Spöring, Vincent A Martinez, Christian Hotz, Jana Schwarz-Linek, Keara L Grady, Josué M Nava-Sedeño, Teun Vissers, Hanna M Singer, Manfred Rohde, Carole Bourquin, Haralampos Hatzikirou, Wilson C K Poon, Yann S Dufour, Marc Erhardt
Most bacteria swim in liquid environments by rotating one or several flagella. The long external filament of the flagellum is connected to a membrane-embedded basal body by a flexible universal joint, the hook, which allows the transmission of motor torque to the filament. The length of the hook is controlled on a nanometer scale by a sophisticated molecular ruler mechanism. However, why its length is stringently controlled has remained elusive. We engineered and studied a diverse set of hook-length variants of Salmonella enterica...
September 2018: PLoS Biology
Manuel G Calvo, Aida Gutiérrez-García, David Beltrán
Prior research has shown that the more (or less) attractive a face is judged, the more (or less) trustworthy the person is deemed and that some common neural networks are recruited during facial attractiveness and trustworthiness evaluation. To interpret the relationship between attractiveness and trustworthiness (e.g., whether perception of personal trustworthiness may depend on perception of facial attractiveness), we investigated their relative neural processing time course. An event-related potential (ERP) paradigm was used, with localization of brain sources of the scalp neural activity...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Guillermo Recio, Werner Sommer
In social situations facial expressions are often strategically employed. Despite the many research on motor control of limb movements, little is known about the control over facial expressions. Using a response-priming task, we investigated motor control over three facial expressions, smiles, disgust and emotionally neutral jaw drops. Prime stimuli consisted of videos of a facial expression to be prepared or - as a neutral prime - an abstract symbol superimposed to a scrambled face. In valid trials an equal symbol (=) indicated to produce the primed expression...
October 2018: Neuropsychologia
Brian C Horslen, Martin Zaback, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Mark G Carpenter
KEY POINTS: Threats to standing balance (postural threat) are known to facilitate soleus tendon-tap reflexes, yet the mechanisms driving reflex changes are unknown. Scaling of ramp-and-hold dorsiflexion stretch reflexes to stretch velocity and amplitude were examined as indirect measures of changes to muscle spindle dynamic and static function with height-induced postural threat. Overall, stretch reflexes were larger with threat. Furthermore, the slope (gain) of the stretch-velocity vs...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Owen O'Neil, Manuel Maurie Fernandez, Jürgen Herzog, Marta Beorchia, Valerio Gower, Furio Gramatica, Klaus Starrost, Lorenz Kiwull
Virtual reality for the treatment of motor impairment is a burgeoning application of digital technology in neurorehabilitation. Virtual reality systems pose an opportunity for health care providers to augment the dose of task-oriented exercises delivered both in the clinic, and via telerehabilitation models in the home. The technology is almost exclusively applied as an adjunct to traditional approaches and is typically characterized by the use of gamified exergames which feature task-oriented physiotherapy exercises...
August 16, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
E L Lane
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease. It has earned that title through its highly effective treatment of some of the motor symptoms in the early stages of the disease but it is a far from perfect drug. The inevitable long term treatment that comes with this chronic neurodegenerative condition raises the risk significantly of the development of motor fluctuations including disabling L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Being unsurpassed as a therapy means that understanding the mechanisms of dyskinesia priming and induction is vital to the search for therapies to treat these side effects and allow optimal use of L-DOPA...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Makito Hirano, Makoto Samukawa, Chiharu Isono, Kazumasa Saigoh, Yusaku Nakamura, Susumu Kusunoki
Objective: To assess the contribution of noncoding repeat expansions in Japanese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: Sporadic ALS in Western countries is frequently associated with noncoding repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) is another noncoding repeat disease caused by expanded CTA/CTG repeats in the ATXN8OS gene. Although the involvement of upper and lower motor neurons in SCA8 has been reported, a positive association between SCA8 and ALS remains unestablished...
August 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Florian Herpich, Federica Contò, Martijn van Koningsbruggen, Lorella Battelli
BACKGROUND: Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) can cause long term increase of corticospinal excitability when used to prime the motor cortex, before measuring the motor response in the hand muscles with TMS (Terney et al., 2008). In cognitive studies, tRNS has been used to improve visual attention and mathematical skills, an enhancement effect that might suggest sustained cortical plasticity changes (Cappelletti et al., 2013; Snowball et al., 2013). However, while the behavioral evidence of increased performance is becoming substantiated by empirical data, it still remains unclear whether tRNS over visual areas causes an increase in cortical excitability similar to what has been found in the motor cortex, and if that increase could be a potential physiological explanation for behavioral improvements found in visual tasks...
October 2018: Neuropsychologia
William M Land
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine whether movement contingent sensory effects could be used to prime and facilitate motor performance on a ball-tossing task. DESIGN: The ball-tossing task was performed across two consecutive days, and consisted of an acquisition phase and a test phase. During the acquisition phase, participants (N = 30) practiced an underhanded ball tossing task to a near and far target (N = 360 total, n = 180 each distance)...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
L Quinn, A Miljevic, B K Rurak, W Marinovic, Ann-Maree Vallence
Representations within the primary motor cortex (M1) are capable of rapid functional changes following motor learning, known as use-dependent plasticity. GABAergic inhibition plays a role in use-dependent plasticity. Evidence suggests a different capacity for plasticity of distal and proximal upper limb muscle representations. However, it is unclear whether the motor cortical representations of forearm flexor and extensor muscles also have different capacities for plasticity. The current study used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate motor cortex excitability and inhibition of forearm flexor and extensor representations before and after performance of a visuomotor adaptation task that primarily targeted flexors and extensors separately...
August 7, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Reenu Sarah Kurien, Mousumi Goswami, Sanjay Singh
Background: Maintaining primary teeth in the oral cavity is of prime importance, and grossly carious teeth may require pulp therapy for the same. Pain on injection and incomplete anesthesia causes failure of the procedure and result in fear and anxiety. Various methods have evolved to overcome this; such as distraction, topical anesthesia, etc. A few techniques regaining popularity in dentistry in recent times is the warming or buffering of the solution prior to administration. This study thus aimed to compare and evaluate the anesthetic efficacy and the patient's pain reaction to pre-warmed, buffered and conventional 2% lignocaine for the success of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in mandibular primary molars undergoing pulp therapy...
2018: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Su-Chuan Lin, Yoko Takahashi, Kozo Hatori, Meigen Liu, Ying-Zu Huang
This study explored the effect of corticospinal activity on spinal plasticity by examining the interactions between intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) of the motor cortex and peripheral patterned electrical stimulation (PES) of the common peroneal nerve (CPN). Healthy volunteers ( n = 10) received iTBS to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle zone of the motor cortex and PES of the CPN in three separate sessions: (1) iTBS-before-PES, (2) iTBS-after-PES, and (3) sham iTBS-before-PES...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brenda L Connors, Richard Rende
There is growing recognition of the essential role of sensorimotor processes as not just a supporter of the cognitive aspects of decision making, but rather as a foundation for all the coordinated physical and mental activities that go into how we make decisions. We illuminate concepts and methods for examining embodied decision making through the lens of Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA). MPA is as a prime example of a conceptually rooted observational methodology for deciphering embodied decision making and for decoding how people differ as decision makers with respect to cognitive motivational priorities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Liang Zhao
The action property of an object appears to function as an intrinsic part of its mental representation. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in cases where although the grasp response evoked by a visual object is irrelevant to a participant's task it still appears to be encoded. This is an affordance effect. Recent findings have shown that dangerous objects can modulate the motor system by evoking aversive affordances. However, the way the time course of response activation generated by the dangerous object develops remains unclear...
July 30, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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