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Motor priming

Shanie Amanda Liyanagamage Jayasinghe
Action observation involves the observation of an action followed by an attempt to replicate it. Recent studies show that increased sensorimotor cortical connectivity improves motor performance via observation, and that priming the sensory system before observation enhances the effects of observation-based learning. Understanding the role of the sensory system is, therefore, critical for rehabilitation of movement disorders that have a sensory deficit.
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Max-Philipp Stenner, Charlotte Baumgaertel, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Christos Ganos, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disinhibition has been proposed as a key mechanism in Tourette syndrome. Yet classic inhibition tasks have yielded inconsistent results, likely reflecting interference by strategies compensating for tic release. METHODS: We examined a core inhibitory function that is immune to such interference because it suppresses movements automatically. We measured automatic motor inhibition behaviorally in 21 adults with Tourette syndrome and 21 healthy controls via the negative compatibility effect...
November 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Samantha M Meadows, Melissa M Conti, Libby Gross, Nicole E Chambers, Yarden Avnor, Corinne Y Ostock, Kathryn Lanza, Christopher Bishop
BACKGROUND: The serotonergic system is a well-established modulator of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. To date, targeting serotonin transporters or serotonin receptor subtype 1A (5-HT1A ) reduces l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in animal models; however, these strategies have failed to translate clinically. Ideally, a compound acting at both known antidyskinetic sites could optimize serotonin-mediated approaches. Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a partial 5-HT1A agonist approved by the U...
November 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Christopher J Dakin, David A E Bolton
To interact successfully with an uncertain environment, organisms must be able to respond to both unanticipated and anticipated events. For unanticipated events, organisms have evolved stereotyped motor behaviors mapped to the statistical regularities of the environment, which can be trigged by specific sensory stimuli. These "reflexive" responses are more or less hardwired to prevent falls and represent, maybe, the best available solution to maintaining posture given limited available time and information...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Francesco De Bellis, Alfonso Magliacano, Laura Sagliano, Massimiliano Conson, Dario Grossi, Luigi Trojano
Previous studies showed that motor information related to tool use (i.e., functional actions) could affect processing of objects semantic properties, whereas motor information related to grasping or moving tool (i.e., structural actions) cannot. However, little is known about the neural correlates mediating such interaction between motor and semantic information. Here, healthy participants performed a semantic judgment task requiring identification of semantic relations among objects, after observing a functional, a structural or a pointing action prime...
November 8, 2018: Psychological Research
Simone Schaeffner, Iring Koch, Andrea M Philipp
Sensory-motor modality compatibility is defined as the similarity between the sensory modality and the modality of response-related effects. Previous dual-task and task-switching studies have shown higher performance costs for coordinating relatively incompatible sensory-motor modality mappings (i.e., auditory-manual and visual-vocal) compared to more compatible mappings (i.e., auditory-vocal and visual-manual). Until now, however, little attention has been paid to potential variability in effects of modality compatibility depending on different processing codes...
October 9, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Harry Thomas Jordan, Cathy M Stinear
Bilateral priming is a rehabilitation adjuvant that can improve upper limb motor recovery post-stroke. It uses a table-top device to couple the upper limbs together such that active flexion and extension of one wrist leads to passive movement of the opposite wrist in a mirror symmetric pattern. Bilateral priming increases corticomotor excitability (CME) in the primary motor cortex (M1) of the passively driven wrist, however the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this increase remain unclear. This study explored these mechanisms by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right M1 and recording motor evoked potentials from the passively driven left extensor carpi radialis of healthy adults...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Camila Hillesheim Horst, Franciele Schlemmer, Natália de Aguiar Montenegro, Ana Carolina Martins Domingues, Gabriel Ginani Ferreira, Cínthia Yara da Silva Ribeiro, Rafael Rocha de Andrade, Elaine Del Bel Guimarães, Simoneide Souza Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo Titze-de-Almeida
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly complex brain disorder regarding clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and therapeutics. The cardinal motor signs, i.e., rigidity, bradykinesia, and unilateral tremors, arise in consequence of a progressive neuron death during the prodromal phase. Although multiple transmission systems are involved in disease neurobiology, patients will cross the line between the prodromal and early stage of diagnosed PD when they had lost half of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells. As the neurons continue to die ascending the neuroaxis, patients will face a more disabling disease with motor and nonmotor signs...
November 2018: Neurochemical Research
Lina F Chalak, Kim-Anh Nguyen, Chatchay Prempunpong, Roy Heyne, Sudhin Thayyil, Seetha Shankaran, Abbot R Laptook, Nancy Rollins, Athina Pappas, Louise Koclas, Birju Shah, Paolo Montaldo, Benyachalee Techasaensiri, Pablo J Sánchez, Guilherme Sant'Anna
BACKGROUND: Studies of early childhood outcomes of mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) identified in the first 6 h of life are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-22 months of PRIME study. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective study of mild HIE defined as ≥1 abnormality using the modified Sarnat within 6 h of birth and not meeting cooling criteria. Primary outcome was disability with mild: Bayley III cognitive 70-84 or ≥85 and either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) 1 or 2, seizures, or hearing deficit; moderate: cognitive 70-84 and either GMFCS 2, seizures, or hearing deficit; severe: cognitive <70, GMFCS 3-5...
September 13, 2018: Pediatric Research
Theodore E Wiley, Arkaprabha Konar, Nicholas A Miller, Kenneth G Spears, Roseanne J Sension
All isomers of a four stage rotary molecular motor, dimethyl-tetrahydro-bi(cyclopenta[α]napthal-enylidene), are studied with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. Single and two pulse excitations (pump and delayed repump with a different wavelength) are used to optically probe the excited state dynamics. These measurements demonstrate that this motor is not only designed for unidirectional isomerization, but is also "primed" for efficient rotary motion. The yield for photoisomerization from the stable P-cis isomer to the metastable M-trans isomer is 85% ± 10%, while the yield for the undesired back reaction is ca...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Ying Zhou, Junchao Wu, Rui Sheng, Mei Li, Yan Wang, Rong Han, Feng Han, Zhong Chen, Zheng-Hong Qin
It is generally believed that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) has been demonstrated to have potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. In the present research, we investigated if NADPH could offer neuroprotection by inhibiting glia-mediated neuroinflammation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a mechanism contributing to PD pathogenesis...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Imke Spöring, Vincent A Martinez, Christian Hotz, Jana Schwarz-Linek, Keara L Grady, Josué M Nava-Sedeño, Teun Vissers, Hanna M Singer, Manfred Rohde, Carole Bourquin, Haralampos Hatzikirou, Wilson C K Poon, Yann S Dufour, Marc Erhardt
Most bacteria swim in liquid environments by rotating one or several flagella. The long external filament of the flagellum is connected to a membrane-embedded basal body by a flexible universal joint, the hook, which allows the transmission of motor torque to the filament. The length of the hook is controlled on a nanometer scale by a sophisticated molecular ruler mechanism. However, why its length is stringently controlled has remained elusive. We engineered and studied a diverse set of hook-length variants of Salmonella enterica...
September 2018: PLoS Biology
Manuel G Calvo, Aida Gutiérrez-García, David Beltrán
Prior research has shown that the more (or less) attractive a face is judged, the more (or less) trustworthy the person is deemed and that some common neural networks are recruited during facial attractiveness and trustworthiness evaluation. To interpret the relationship between attractiveness and trustworthiness (e.g., whether perception of personal trustworthiness may depend on perception of facial attractiveness), we investigated their relative neural processing time course. An event-related potential (ERP) paradigm was used, with localization of brain sources of the scalp neural activity...
December 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Guillermo Recio, Werner Sommer
In social situations facial expressions are often strategically employed. Despite the many research on motor control of limb movements, little is known about the control over facial expressions. Using a response-priming task, we investigated motor control over three facial expressions, smiles, disgust and emotionally neutral jaw drops. Prime stimuli consisted of videos of a facial expression to be prepared or - as a neutral prime - an abstract symbol superimposed to a scrambled face. In valid trials an equal symbol (=) indicated to produce the primed expression...
October 2018: Neuropsychologia
Brian C Horslen, Martin Zaback, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Mark G Carpenter
KEY POINTS: Threats to standing balance (postural threat) are known to facilitate soleus tendon-tap reflexes, yet the mechanisms driving reflex changes are unknown. Scaling of ramp-and-hold dorsiflexion stretch reflexes to stretch velocity and amplitude were examined as indirect measures of changes to muscle spindle dynamic and static function with height-induced postural threat. Overall, stretch reflexes were larger with threat. Furthermore, the slope (gain) of the stretch-velocity vs...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology
Owen O'Neil, Manuel Maurie Fernandez, Jürgen Herzog, Marta Beorchia, Valerio Gower, Furio Gramatica, Klaus Starrost, Lorenz Kiwull
Virtual reality for the treatment of motor impairment is a burgeoning application of digital technology in neurorehabilitation. Virtual reality systems pose an opportunity for health care providers to augment the dose of task-oriented exercises delivered both in the clinic, and via telerehabilitation models in the home. The technology is almost exclusively applied as an adjunct to traditional approaches and is typically characterized by the use of gamified exergames which feature task-oriented physiotherapy exercises...
August 16, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Emma L Lane
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease. It has earned that title through its highly effective treatment of some of the motor symptoms in the early stages of the disease but it is a far from perfect drug. The inevitable long-term treatment that comes with this chronic neurodegenerative condition raises the risk significantly of the development of motor fluctuations including disabling L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Being unsurpassed as a therapy means that understanding the mechanisms of dyskinesia priming and induction is vital to the search for therapies to treat these side effects and allow optimal use of L-DOPA...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Makito Hirano, Makoto Samukawa, Chiharu Isono, Kazumasa Saigoh, Yusaku Nakamura, Susumu Kusunoki
Objective: To assess the contribution of noncoding repeat expansions in Japanese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: Sporadic ALS in Western countries is frequently associated with noncoding repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) is another noncoding repeat disease caused by expanded CTA/CTG repeats in the ATXN8OS gene. Although the involvement of upper and lower motor neurons in SCA8 has been reported, a positive association between SCA8 and ALS remains unestablished...
August 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Florian Herpich, Federica Contò, Martijn van Koningsbruggen, Lorella Battelli
BACKGROUND: Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) can cause long term increase of corticospinal excitability when used to prime the motor cortex, before measuring the motor response in the hand muscles with TMS (Terney et al., 2008). In cognitive studies, tRNS has been used to improve visual attention and mathematical skills, an enhancement effect that might suggest sustained cortical plasticity changes (Cappelletti et al., 2013; Snowball et al., 2013). However, while the behavioral evidence of increased performance is becoming substantiated by empirical data, it still remains unclear whether tRNS over visual areas causes an increase in cortical excitability similar to what has been found in the motor cortex, and if that increase could be a potential physiological explanation for behavioral improvements found in visual tasks...
October 2018: Neuropsychologia
William M Land
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine whether movement contingent sensory effects could be used to prime and facilitate motor performance on a ball-tossing task. DESIGN: The ball-tossing task was performed across two consecutive days, and consisted of an acquisition phase and a test phase. During the acquisition phase, participants (N = 30) practiced an underhanded ball tossing task to a near and far target (N = 360 total, n = 180 each distance)...
August 6, 2018: Human Movement Science
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