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Cancer, pediatric cancer,

Fredrik Åberg, Helena Isoniemi, Eero Pukkala, Hannu Jalanko, Allan Rasmussen, Hans H Storm, Nicolai Schultz, William Bennet, Nils Ekvall, Bo-Göran Ericzon, Silvia Malenicka, Steinar Tretli, Pål-Dag Line, Kirsten Muri Boberg, Anniken Østensen, Tom Hemming Karlsen, Arno Nordin
Cancer after liver transplantation (LT) constitutes a threat also for young recipients, but cancer risk factors are usually absent in children and large studies on cancer risk profile in young LT recipients are scarce. Data of patients younger than 30 years who underwent LT 1982-2013 in the Nordic countries was linked with respective national cancer registries to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR). Thirty-seven cancer cases were observed in 923 patients with 7846 person-years of follow-up. The SIR for all cancer types, compared to matched general population, was 9...
August 18, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Fabiën N Belle, Rahel Kasteler, Christina Schindera, Murielle Bochud, Roland A Ammann, Nicolas X von der Weid, Claudia E Kuehni
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids can lead to weight gain during cancer treatment, but to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding their long-term effects in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). METHODS: As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, the authors sent a questionnaire to CCS aged <21 years at diagnosis who were residing in Switzerland, had survived ≥5 years, and were aged 15 to 45 years at the time of the survey. Cumulative doses of glucocorticoids were assessed from medical records and study protocols and body mass index was calculated from self-reported height and weight at the time of the survey...
August 17, 2018: Cancer
Stacey Crane, Joan E Haase, Susan E Hickman
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Pediatric oncology phase 1 clinical trials (P1Ts) are essential to developing new anticancer therapies; however, they raise complex ethical concerns about balancing the need for this research with the well-being of participating children. The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize and appraise the evidence of how P1T participation, which begins with consent and ends with the transition off the P1T, can affect the well-being (either positively or negatively) of children with cancer...
September 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
Catherine Goudie, Noelle Cullinan, Anita Villani, Natalie Mathews, Kalene van Engelen, David Malkin, Meredith S Irwin, William D Foulkes
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric extracranial solid tumor. Germline pathogenic variants in ALK and PHOX2B, as well as other cancer predisposition genes, are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroblastic tumors. A challenge for clinicians is the identification of children with neuroblastoma who require genetics evaluation for underlying cancer predisposition syndromes (CPS). PROCEDURE: We developed a decisional algorithm (MIPOGG) to identify which patients with neuroblastic tumors have an increased likelihood of an underlying CPS...
August 16, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Irina V Kholodenko, Daniel V Kalinovsky, Igor I Doronin, Sergey M Deyev, Roman V Kholodenko
Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid cancer of heterogeneous clinical behavior. The unique features of this type of cancer frequently hamper the process of determining clinical presentation and predicting therapy effectiveness. The tumor can spontaneously regress without treatment or actively develop and give rise to metastases despite aggressive multimodal therapy. In recent years, immunotherapy has become one of the most promising approaches to the treatment of neuroblastoma. Still, only one drug for targeted immunotherapy of neuroblastoma, chimeric monoclonal GD2-specific antibodies, is used in the clinic today, and its application has significant limitations...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Rebecca R Weicht, Chad R Schultz, Dirk Geerts, Katie L Uhl, André S Bachmann
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone tumor in children. Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous cations involved in many cell processes including tumor development, invasion and metastasis. In other pediatric cancer models, inhibition of the PA biosynthesis pathway with ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) results in decreased cell proliferation and differentiation. In OS, the PA pathway has not been evaluated. DFMO is an attractive, orally administered drug, is well tolerated, can be given for prolonged periods, and is already used in pediatric patients...
August 16, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Doralina L Anghelescu, Varayini Pankayatselvan, Rosa Nguyen, Deborah Ward, Jianrong Wu, Huiyun Wu, Denaya D Edwards, Wayne Furman
The use of bisphosphonates for pain control in children with cancer is not extensively studied. We retrospectively evaluated 35 children with cancer treated with intravenous bisphosphonates for pain management at a single institution from 1998 through 2015. We analyzed pain scores and opioid and adjuvant medication consumption before bisphosphonate administration, daily for 2 weeks, and at 3 and 4 weeks after administration. We also determined the time interval between diagnosis and first administration of bisphosphonates and duration of life after bisphosphonate administration...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Angeliki Makri, Srivandana Akshintala, Claudia Derse-Anthony, Jaydira Del Rivero, Brigitte Widemann, Constantine A Stratakis, John Glod, Maya Lodish
Background: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is characterized by early-onset medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in virtually all cases and a 50% lifetime risk of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) development. The literature on PHEO in patients with MEN2B is limited with most data being reported from adult studies that primarily address MEN2A. Aim: The aim of the current study is to describe PHEO development in a cohort of pediatric patients with MEN2B. Design: Retrospective chart review of patients with MEN2B evaluated at the NIH in the period between July 2007 and February 2018...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kathryn Stambough, Krista J Childress
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline ovarian conservation and fertility sparing surgery (FSS) in the management of the most common pediatric gynecology malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Management of gynecologic malignancies has evolved to have a greater appreciation for adverse late effects from radical surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. A growing body of literature has led to a paradigm shift toward ovarian conservation and FSS in the management of pediatric ovarian malignancies and genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Doralina L Anghelescu, Andy Guo, Kyle J Morgan, Michael Frett, Hasmukh Prajapati, Robert Gold, Sara M Federico
PURPOSE: The use of celiac plexus block (CPB) for abdominal pain has been extensively reported in adults. However, pediatric literature is limited to three single case reports and a series of three cases. This study evaluated the effectiveness of CPB in children and young adults (aged 8-20 years) with abdominal malignancies. METHODS: Pain outcomes after CPB were evaluated in four children and young adults with cancer. Mean daily pain score (PS, 0-10) and morphine consumption (intravenous morphine equivalent daily [MED], mg/kg/day) before and after CPB were used to assess effectiveness...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Gabrielle Lui, Naïm Bouazza, Françoise Denoyelle, Marion Moine, Laurence Brugières, Pascal Chastagner, Nadège Corradini, Natacha Entz-Werle, Cécile Vérité, Judith Landmanparker, Hélène Sudour-Bonnange, Marlène Pasquet, Arnauld Verschuur, Cécile Faure-Conter, François Doz, Jean-Marc Tréluyer
Platinum is extensively used in the treatment of several childhood cancers. However, ototoxicity is one of the most notable adverse effects, especially in children. Several studies suggest that genetics may predict its occurrence. Here, polymorphisms associated with platinum-induced ototoxicity were selected from the literature and were investigated in a pediatric population treated with platinum-based agents. In this retrospective study, patients treated with cisplatin and/or carboplatin were screened. The patients with pre- and post-treatment audiogram (Brock criteria) available were included...
July 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Chiara Borga, Gilseung Park, Clay Foster, Jessica Burroughs-Garcia, Matteo Marchesin, Rikin Shah, Ameera Hasan, Syed T Ahmed, Silvia Bresolin, Lance Batchelor, Teresa Scordino, Rodney R Miles, Geertruy Te Kronnie, James L Regens, J Kimble Frazer
Precursor-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer, but there are no useful zebrafish pre-B ALL models. We describe the first highly- penetrant zebrafish pre-B ALL, driven by human MYC. Leukemias express B lymphoblast-specific genes and are distinct from T cell ALL (T-ALL)-which these fish also develop. Zebrafish pre-B ALL shares in vivo features and expression profiles with human pre-B ALL, and these profiles differ from zebrafish T-ALL or normal B and T cells. These animals also exhibit aberrant lymphocyte development...
August 15, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Mohamed Y Elsaid, Ankita Shahi, Albert R Wang, Dana C Baiu, Chunrong Li, Lauryn R Werner, Sorabh Singhal, Lance T Hall, Jamey P Weichert, Eric A Armstrong, Bryan P Bednarz, Paul M Harari, Gopal Iyer, Mario Otto
Anti-tumor alkyl phospholipid analogs comprise a group of structurally related molecules with remarkable tumor selectivity. Some of these compounds have shown radiosensitizing capabilities. CLR127 is a novel, clinical-grade anti-tumor alkyl phospholipid ether analog, a subtype of synthetic alkyl phospholipids broadly targeting cancer cells with limited uptake in normal tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLR127 to modulate radiation response across several adult and pediatric cancer types in vitro as well as in murine xenograft models of human prostate adenocarcinoma, neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Carmelina Calitri, Eliana Ruberto, Elio Castagnola
Antibiotics are frequently administered for prophylaxis of fever in neutropenic children with cancer. This strategy is mainly derived from adults' data, and various pediatric studies evidenced the effectiveness of antibiotics (e.g. fluorquinolones) in the prevention of febrile neutropenia. However, only two pediatric randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials have been performed, with a total of 262 leukemic children enrolled, and no other one was ever powered for analyzing effectiveness over other infectious complications...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Duncan K Hau, Neema Chami, Aynsley Duncan, Luke R Smart, Adolfine Hokororo, Neema M Kayange, Robert N Peck
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of child mortality worldwide. Little is known about post-hospital outcomes after an index hospitalization for older children. We determined 12-month post-hospital mortality rate and identified factors associated with higher mortality. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled children 2-12 years of age admitted to the pediatric wards of two public hospitals in northwestern Tanzania. Participants or proxies were contacted at 3, 6 and 12 months post-hospitalization...
2018: PloS One
Y Shimamura, C M Walsh, S Cohen, M Aronson, U Tabori, P P Kortan, C A Durno
Background and study aims : Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, also known as biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (BMMRD) syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive genetic disorder that has a high mortality due to malignancy in childhood and early adulthood. The small bowel phenotype in CMMRD is not well described and surveillance protocols for small bowel cancer have not been well established. This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness and clinical impact of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) for small bowel surveillance...
August 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Musa AlHarbi, Nahla Ali Mobark, Latifa AlMubarak, Rasha Aljelaify, Mariam AlSaeed, Amal Almutairi, Fatmah Alqubaishi, M Emarat Hussain, Ali Abdullah O Balbaid, Amal Said Marie, Lamia AlSubaie, Saeed AlShieban, Nada alTassan, Shakti H Ramkissoon, Malak Abedalthagafi
Primary brain tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a high-grade astrocytoma that occurs in both children and adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite extensive study in recent years, the clinical management of these tumors has remained largely unchanged, consisting of surgical resection, conventional chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Although the etiology and genomic drivers in GBM are diverse, constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a rare, recessively inherited disease with a predisposition to gliomagenesis...
August 13, 2018: Oncologist
Lindy Zhang, Allison M Martin, Kathy Ruble
Pediatric oncology patients treated with antineoplastic therapy have impaired immune systems that lead to loss of protective antibodies. They require reimmunization to protect against vaccine-preventable diseases. There are a paucity of studies on the clinical practice of pediatric oncologists and the available recommendations are heterogenous. This study describes current reimmunization practices among pediatric oncologists. We surveyed the Children's Oncology Group (COG)-identified principle investigators to capture clinical practices among pediatric oncologists within their institutions regarding reimmunization of non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Anne Ducassou, Laetitia Padovani, Leonor Chaltiel, Stéphanie Bolle, Jean-Louis Habrand, Line Claude, Christian Carrie, Xavier Muracciole, Bernard Coche-Dequeant, Claire Alapetite, Stéphane Supiot, Charlotte Demoor-Goldschmidt, Valerie Bernier-Chastagner, Aymeri Huchet, Julie Leseur, Elisabeth Le Prise, Christine Kerr, Gilles Truc, Tan Dat Nguyen, Anne-Isabelle Bertozzi, Didier Frappaz, Sergio Boetto, Annick Sevely, Fatima Tensaouti, Anne Laprie
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to analyze survival and prognostic factors for children, adolescents, and young adults treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) for intracranial ependymoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2000 and 2013, 202 patients aged ≤25 years were treated in the 13 main French pediatric RT reference centers. Their medical records were reviewed for information, treatments received, and survival rates. All children had received postoperative RT- conformal, intensity modulated, or proton beam...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Kaduveettil Gopinathan Gopakumar, Shwetha Seetharam, Jagathnath Krishna Km, Manjusha Nair, Binitha Rajeswari, Guruprasad Cs, Prasanth Vr, Priyakumari Thankamony
BACKGROUND: Data from low- and middle-income countries on tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in the pediatric population are limited. This study aims to analyze the clinical and biochemical characteristics and treatment outcomes of TLS in children with leukemia/lymphomas in a resource-limited setting. PROCEDURE: Children with intermediate risk (IRD) and high risk (HRD) for developing TLS were retrospectively studied at a tertiary cancer center in India. RESULTS: Over a three-year period, 224 children with acute leukemia/lymphoma having IRD (21...
August 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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