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Cancer, pediatric cancer,

David S Shulman, Preeti Mehrotra, Traci M Blonquist, Andrew Capraro, Leslie E Lehmann, Lewis B Silverman, Neeraj K Surana, Andrew E Place
BACKGROUND: Bacillus species are known to cause severe infection in immunocompromised hosts. The incidence of Bacillus bloodstream infections and characteristics of infection among children with cancer or indication for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective medical record review of all cases of Bacillus bacteremia between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014, at Boston Children's Hospital. We report average incidences from 2012 to 2014...
December 11, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Alberto Bavelloni, Enrico Focaccia, Manuela Piazzi, Arianna Orsini, Giulia Ramazzotti, Lucio Cocco, William Blalock, Irene Faenza
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common pediatric malignant neoplasia of the skeletal system. It is characterized by a high degree of malignancy and a severe tendency to metastasize. In the past decade, many studies have provided evidence that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is one of the most frequently altered pathways in human cancer, and has a critical role in driving tumor initiation and progression. Here, we have analyzed the therapeutic potential of the pan-PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120, which has recently entered clinical Phase II for treatment of PI3K-dependent cancers on three OS cell lines...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Min Jiang, Xueqin Zou, Lingyun Lu
Acute B‑cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B‑ALL) is a common type of blood cancer, which is associated with aberrant gene expression. Cytokine receptor‑like factor 2 (CRLF2) serves a crucial role in the growth and allergic and inflammatory responses of dendritic cells and T cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential therapeutic and prognostic effect of silencing the CRLF2‑mediated RAC‑α serine/threonine‑protein kinase (AKT)/serine/threonine‑protein kinase mTOR (mTOR) pathway in B‑ALL...
December 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Huanxiao Han, Lupeng Wang, Ya Liu, Xiaoyan Shi, Xiuli Zhang, Ming Li, Tianxiao Wang
The combination of traditional Chinese medicines can improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. Furthermore, the combination of the traditional Chinese medicine curcuma zedoary and kelp was used to enhance the effect of the dissipation of blood stasis in pediatrics during the Song Dynasty. Curcumenol and laminarin, the main components of curcuma zedoary and kelp, are also reported to have a wide range of biological activities. Therefore, we hypothesize that the combination of curcuma zedoary and kelp may prevent the development of cancer...
December 10, 2018: Food & Function
Dina ElHarouni, Dina Yassin, Nesreen Ali, Seham Gohar, Iman Zaky, Hassan Adwan, Iman Sidhom
Purpose: Osteonecrosis is a significant toxicity resulting from the treatment of pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D receptor fok1 (VDR fok1) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) gene polymorphisms with the glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteonecrosis (ON) in Egyptian pediatric ALL patients. In addition, to identify the possible association of genetic polymorphisms with other factors such as gender and ALL subtypes. Patients and Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted on 102 pediatric ALL patients under the age of 18 who were treated at Children Cancer Hospital Egypt according to St Jude SR/HR total XV protocol...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Z Takki Chebihi, A Belkhayat, E Chadli, L Hessissen, M El Khorassani, M El Kababri, A Kili, M Khattab, Y Bakri, N Dakka
Cytogenetic studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been at the forefront of research in the pathogenesis of cancer. The presence of recurring chromosomal abnormalities (either numeral or structural rearrangements) provides immediate clues to the genetic events leading to leukemia and many abnormalities have important prognostic significance. The rare translocation t(14,21)(q11.2;q22) has been described in pediatric T lineage ALL in only one case so far in 2000. The present study is a case report of an ALL case in which we found a t(14,21)(q11...
2019: Leukemia Research Reports
Sabrina Traxel, Linda Schadt, Tatjana Eyer, Vanessa Mordasini, Claudine Gysin, Ludvig A Munthe, Felix Niggli, David Nadal, Simone Bürgler
Precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) constitutes the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. While chromosomal alterations contribute to BCP-ALL pathogenesis, they are insufficient for leukemia development. Epidemiological data and evidence from a mouse model suggest that immune responses to infections may trigger the emergence of leukemia, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that T helper (Th) cells from bone marrow of pediatric BCP-ALL patients can be attracted and activated by autologous BCP-ALL cells...
December 7, 2018: Oncogene
Faezeh Tavousi, Alireza Sadeghi, Ali Darakhshandeh, Azadeh Moghaddas
Incidence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) has been widely reported; however, such reports in pediatric oncology patients still remain scarce. We studied frequency and demographic correlates of moderate and major DDIs at a pediatric oncology ward in Isfahan, Iran. All pediatric oncology patients admitted to the Omid hospital during a 6-month period (2017) who received at least 2 anticancer or non-anticancer drugs concomitantly were included in our study. Potential DDIs between anticancer and non-anticancer drugs during hospitalization was identified using Lexi-Interact on-line software...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Surya P Rednam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A significant proportion of pediatric cancer occurs in children with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. Their survival may be significantly improved and/or late effects diminished through screening for their greatly elevated cancer risks. Here, an overview of new developments in the field of pediatric cancer surveillance is provided. RECENT FINDINGS: Consensus-based screening guidelines have been developed for most syndromes associated with childhood cancer risks...
December 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Sujith Baliga, Torunn I Yock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of proton beam therapy (PBT) has initiated a paradigm shift in the field of pediatric radiation oncology, with increasing promise to alleviate both short-term and long-term toxicities. Given the dramatic rise in proton therapy centers in the United States, a discussion of the quality of evidence supporting its use in pediatric cancers is warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton radiotherapy appears to decrease the incidence and severity of late effects with the strongest evidence in pediatric brain tumor cohorts that shows benefits in neurocognitive, hearing, and endocrine outcomes...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
S Paige Hertweck, David H Rothstein
The transition from adolescence to young adulthood in patients with reproductive health care needs such as disorders of sexual development (DSDs) and congenital anomalies is a complex process occurring over several years. The transition process for these patients has is still poorly understood. The patients with DSDs and reproductive issues have specific and unique issues regarding timing of disclosure of diagnosis, genital examinations, gonadectomy, vaginal treatments, surgical procedures hormone replacement therapy, use of long term medication and potential cancer screening...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Amy R Newman, Kristin Haglund, Cheryl C Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Disclosure of prognosis-related information is an essential aspect of communication with pediatric patients with cancer and their families. The nurse is believed to play an important role in this process, but nurse perceptions and experiences have not been well-described. PURPOSE: Provide an exploration of pediatric oncology nurses' experiences with prognosis-related communication (PRC). METHOD: Mixed-methods, multiphase design...
November 15, 2018: Nursing Outlook
Carmina Wanden-Berghe Lozano, José Luis Pereira Cunill, Cristina Cuerda Compes, Esther Ramos Boluda, María Irene Maiz Jiménez, Carmen Gómez Candela, Nuria Virgili Casas, Rosa Burgos Peláez, Antonio Pérez de la Cruz, M ª Ángeles Penacho Lázaro, Eva Ángeles Sánchez Martos, Daniel Antonio De Luis Román, Ceferino Martínez Faedo, María de Los Ángeles Martín Fontalba, Julia Álvarez Hernández, Pilar Matía Martín, Patricia Díaz Guardiola, Fátima Carabaña Pérez, Alejandro Sanz París, Carmen Garde Orbaiz, Olga Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Tomás Martín Folgueras, M ª Ángela Martín Palmero, Luis Miguel Luengo Pérez, Ana Zugasti Murillo, Cecilia Martínez Costa, José Pablo Suárez Llanos, Cristina Tejera Pérez, José Antonio Irles Rocamora, Carmen Arraiza Irigoyen, Yaiza García Delgado, Cristina Campos Martín, Miguel Ángel Ponce González, Silvia Mauri Roca, M ª Victoria García Zafra, Jesús M Morán López, Begoña Molina Baeza, Montserrat Gonzalo Marín, Clara Joaquín Ortiz, Begoña Pintor de la Maza, M ª Carmen Gil Martínez, María José Carrera Santaliestra, M ª Del Talló Forga Visa, Antxón Apezetxea Celaya, Rebeca Sánchez Sánchez, Juan Ramón Urgeles Planella
AIM: to communicate HPN data obtained from the HPN registry of the NADYA-SENPE group ( for the year 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: descriptive analysis of the data collected from adult and pediatric patients with HPN in the NADYA-SENPE group registry from January 1st, 2017 to December 31st, 2017. RESULTS: there were 308 patients from 45 Spanish hospitals (54.5% women), 38 children and 270 adults, with 3,012 episodes, which represent a prevalence rate of 6...
December 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Piumi Y Liyanage, Regina M Graham, Raja R Pandey, Charles C Chusuei, Keenan J Mintz, Yiqun Zhou, James K Harper, Wei Wu, Athula H Wikramanayake, Steven Vanni, Roger M Leblanc
In contrast to the recent immense attention in carbon nitride quantum dots (CNQDs) as a heteroatom-doped carbon quantum dot (CQD), their biomedical applications have not thoroughly investigated. The targeted cancer therapy is a prominently researched area in biomedical field. Here, the ability of CNQDs as a selective bioimaging nanomaterial was investigated to assist the targeted cancer therapy. CNQDs were first synthesized using four different precursor sets, involving urea derivatives and the characteristics were compared to select the best candid material for bioapplications...
December 10, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Brian T Cheng, Michael Rost, Eva De Clercq, Louisa Arnold, Bernice S Elger, Tenzin Wangmo
Palliative care (PC) aims to improve quality of life for patients and their families. The World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that PC starts at diagnosis for children with cancer. This systematic review describes studies that reported PC timing in the pediatric oncology population. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases. Studies that reported time of PC initiation were independently screened and reviewed by 2 researchers...
December 7, 2018: Cancer Medicine
H Kim Lyerly, Jun Ren, Renzo Canetta, Gi Hyun Kim, Sumimasa Nagai, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Ken Hatogai, Hiroshi Katayama, Silvy Da Rocha Dias, Daniel McManus, Kathy Soltys, Zhimin Yang, Olufumilayo Olopade, Nancy Goodman, Greg Reaman, Thomas Gross
Advances in genetic sequencing and other diagnostic technologies have enabled the use of precision medicine in clinical cancer care, as well as the development of novel therapies that are targeted to specific molecular drivers of cancer. Developing these new agents and making them accessible to patients requires global clinical studies and regulatory review and approval by different national regulatory agencies. Whereas these global trials present challenges for drug developers who conduct them and regulatory agencies who oversee them, they also raise practical issues about patients with low-frequency cancers who need these therapies...
December 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Ashleigh M Saenz, Stacie Stapleton, Raquel G Hernandez, Greg A Hale, Neil A Goldenberg, Skai Schwartz, Ernest K Amankwah
High body mass index (BMI) is associated with relapse of certain adult cancers, but limited knowledge exists on its association with pediatric leukemia relapse. We evaluated the association between overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) at pediatric leukemia diagnosis and relapse or mortality. A meta-analysis combining our findings with those of previous studies was also performed. The study included 181 pediatric leukemia patients. Sporadic missing data were multiply imputed, and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard...
2018: Journal of Obesity
Gulsah Aynaoglu Yildiz, Omer Erkan Yapca, Ragip Atakan Al, Metin Ingec
We have interestedly read the article written by Thalia Wong BS in July 2015, which is about Pediatric Blood Cancer, including clinical findings and results of infants <1 year of age with Ewing sarcoma. We report a case with congenital Ewing's sarcoma that easily interfered with rabdomyosarcoma in a pregnant woman. A 32-year-old multigravida with a big neck mass at 35 weeks was referred to our clinic. The final diagnosis of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma was made. Hepatic metastasis was detected and treatment by chemotherapy was initiated...
October 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Titilola M Afolabi, Kathleen A Fairman
BACKGROUND: To support families managing the complex requirements of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in pediatric patients, health professionals need information about HPN indications and complications. Nationally representative information is limited. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of the Truven Health Market Scan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database was performed and identified 683 patients aged ≤18 years receiving HPN during dates of service from January 2013 through September 2015...
December 3, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Adam W Bartlett, Megan P Cann, Daniel K Yeoh, Anne Bernard, Anne L Ryan, Christopher C Blyth, Rishi S Kotecha, Brendan J McMullan, Andrew S Moore, Gabrielle M Haeusler, Julia E Clark
BACKGROUND: A thorough understanding of local and contemporary invasive fungal infection (IFI) epidemiology in immunocompromised children is required to provide a rationale for targeted prevention and treatment strategies. METHODS: Retrospective data over 10 years from four tertiary pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) units across Australia were analyzed to report demographic, clinical, and mycological characteristics of IFI episodes, and crude IFI prevalence in select oncology/HSCT groups...
December 4, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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