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Emerging Treatment

Ahmet Bolukçu, Sami İlhan, Ahmet Can Topçu, Rafet Günay, İlyas Kayacıoğlu
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative dyspnea is common after cardiac surgery, even in low-risk patients. Cardiac surgeons and anesthesiologists are familiar with patients suffering from dyspnea in the early postoperative period, but in some cases, conventional treatment strategies may be ineffective, and a consultation with a pulmonologist may be required. The aim of this study is to investigate the causes of dyspnea after cardiac surgery in this particular patient group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hospital database was searched for non-emergency cardiac surgery for the period January 2014-October 2015...
September 13, 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
En Lin Goh, Winston Choong Ngan Lou, Swathikan Chidambaram, Shaocheng Ma
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that is highly prevalent worldwide. Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of osteoarthritis and is a major cause of pain and disability. However, there remains a lack of treatments available that have demonstrated effectiveness in stopping or reversing the degenerative process. Joint distraction has emerged as a viable alternative in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis to delay the need for knee arthroplasty. METHODS: An electronic search will be conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane and EBSCO databases...
October 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Stephanie M Davis, Lisa A Collier, Edric D Winford, Christopher C Leonardo, Craig T Ajmo, Elspeth A Foran, Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel, Keith R Pennypacker
BACKGROUND: The migration of peripheral immune cells and splenocytes to the ischemic brain is one of the major causes of delayed neuroinflammation after permanent large vessel stroke. Other groups have demonstrated that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine that promotes neural cell survival through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, promotes an anti-inflammatory phenotype in several types of immune cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether LIF treatment modulates the peripheral immune response after stroke...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sharon Boudreaux, Lisa Broussard
School nurses' experienced barriers and benefits with perceptions of self-efficacy are important factors to consider for program implementation in the school setting. Little research has been done in the area of automated external defibrillator (AED) program implementation by the school nurse for the treatment of sudden cardiac arrest. The purpose of this study was to identify benefits of and barriers to AED program implementation in public schools and measure school nurses' self-efficacy related to their role as a change agent in program implementation...
October 15, 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
Matthew W McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
The presence of Candida species in the blood is known as candidemia and may constitute a medical emergency for patients with cancer. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment of this fungal infection, mortality remains unacceptably high. Areas covered: This paper reviews recent advances in molecular diagnostics to detect species of Candida as well as novel antifungal agents that have been developed to address candidiasis. We also review prophylaxis strategies to prevent candidiasis in high-risk cancer patients...
October 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Laura Cifrese, Fred Rincon
As medical decisions fall under more scrutiny and society demands increasing transparency of care, it is likely that more opportunities for conflicts will emerge. Similarly, with increasing demand and a static supply, the issue of who receives treatment and for how long naturally will arise. This mismatch leads to discussions of resource utilization and limitation of care in light of patients' values and rights. Clinicians should always be forthcoming with the uncertainty of prognostication while also articulating the severity of a patient's disease in relation to the risk and benefits of an intervention...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Marina Kawaguchi, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Taihei Yamada, Tetsuya Yumoto, Toshiyuki Aokage, Hiromi Ihoriya, Koki Eto, Takanori Suezawa, Hiromichi Naito, Atsunori Nakao
INTRODUCTION: Penetrating thoracic traumas have a wide spectrum, ranging from mild traumas to life-threatening injuries. PRESENTATION OF CASE: This paper illustrates a 40-year-old male with a penetrating pulmonary artery injury that was successfully treated with emergency surgery. The patient visited local hospital by foot complaining of moving object on his chest and was found that an ice pick was penetrating the man's left chest. An ambulance took the patient to our emergency department...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Ashraf F Hefny, Adel Z Ayad, Nikolay Matev, Masoud O Bashir
INTRODUCTION: Psyllium in granular dosage form is used as an over - the counter safe laxative drug. It has a considerable hygroscopic propriety which allows it to retain water and expands rapidly to become many times of its original size. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: 21-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department complaining of lower abdominal pain and constipation for five days. He was discharged home on Psyllium for treatment of the constipation. Two days later, he returned to the Emergency Department complaining of increased abdominal distension without passing any stools...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Claudia Cava, Ida Manna, Antonio Gambardella, Gloria Bertoli, Isabella Castiglioni
Epilepsy includes a group of disorders of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Although familial epilepsy has a genetic component and heritability, the etiology of the majority of non-familial epilepsies has no known associated genetic mutations. In epilepsy, recent epigenetic profiles have highlighted a possible role of microRNAs in its pathophysiology. In particular, molecular profiling identifies a significant number of microRNAs (miRNAs) altered in epileptic hippocampus of both animal models and human tissues...
September 13, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Edward T Pring, George Malietzis, Robin H Kennedy, Thanos Athanasiou, John T Jenkins
PURPOSE: Body composition degenerates with cancer. Optimizing body composition is rarely, if ever, undertaken. This narrative review highlights and evaluates emerging treatments that have the potential to improve outcomes for our cancer patients. OBSERVATIONS: Body composition in cancer patients has been shown to be modifiable; enhanced body composition is associated with improved short term, long-term outcomes and survival in addition to improvements in function and quality of life...
October 6, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Billie Yan Zhang Hiew, Lai Yee Lee, Kar Chiew Lai, Suyin Gan, Suchithra Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Guan-Ting Pan, Thomas Chung-Kuang Yang
Pharmaceutical residues are emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment and their removal by conventional wastewater treatment methods has proven to be ineffective. This research aimed to develop a three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (rGOA) for the removal of diclofenac in aqueous solution. The preparation of rGOA involved facile self-assembly of graphene oxide under a reductive environment of L-ascorbic acid. Characterisation of rGOA was performed by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction...
September 26, 2018: Environmental Research
Amanda R Pahng, Rod I Paulsen, M Adrienne McGinn, Muhammad A Farooq, Kimberly N Edwards, Scott Edwards
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic, relapsing psychiatric disease characterized by the emergence of negative emotional states and the development of motivational deficits that manifest during alcohol withdrawal. Accordingly, alcohol may be sought after and taken in excessive amounts to alleviate withdrawal-related symptoms. To develop more effective treatments for AUD, it is necessary to identify potential molecular targets that underlie the transition from initial alcohol use to alcohol dependence, and our previous work has implicated a role for potentiated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling in this regard...
April 19, 2018: Alcohol
Piyush Patel, Anne Marie Salapatek, Sudeesh K Tantry
BACKGROUND: GSP301 nasal spray is a fixed-dose combination of the antihistamine olopatadine hydrochloride and the corticosteroid mometasone furoate intended for seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) treatment. OBJECTIVE: Efficacy and safety of GSP301 once-daily (QD) or twice-daily (BID) were evaluated in a ragweed pollen Environmental Exposure Chamber (EEC). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study, adults (18-65 years) with SAR were equally randomized to GSP301 BID (olopatadine 665μg/mometasone 25μg), GSP301 QD (olopatadine 665μg/mometasone 50μg), AzeFlu (FDA-approved azelastine 137μg/fluticasone 50μg BID), Olopatadine (FDA-approved formulation 665μg BID), or placebo (BID)...
October 12, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Andrea Gabusi, Davide Bartolomeo Gissi, Achille Tarsitano, Sofia Asioli, Claudio Marchetti, Lucio Montebugnoli, Maria Pia Foschini, Luca Morandi
PURPOSE: Improvements in sequencing technologies have shown that genetic differences among neoplastic cells can reflect clonal expansion. Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) has been suggested to explain differences in prognosis and treatment response, indicating that personalized medicine is the goal of the future. This study evaluated ITH in 5 patients with recurrent metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and tracked the evolution from non-neoplastic tissue to neoplastic events developing after primary tumor formation...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Diego Carriel, Pierre Simon Garcia, Florence Castelli, Patricia Lamourette, François Fenaille, Céline Brochier-Armanet, Sylvie Elsen, Irina Gutsche
Polyamines are small amino-acid derived polycations capable of binding negatively charged macromolecules. Bacterial polyamines are structurally and functionally diverse, and are mainly produced biosynthetically by PLP-dependent amino acid decarboxylases referred to as LAOdcs (Lysine-Arginine-Ornithine decarboxylases). In a phylogenetically limited group of bacteria, LAOdcs are also induced in response to acid stress. Here, we performed an exhaustive phylogenetic analysis of the AAT-fold LAOdcs which showcased the ancient nature of their short forms in Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes, and emergence of distinct subfamilies of long LAOdcs in Proteobacteria...
October 13, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Mark J Margres, Manuel Ruiz-Aravena, Rodrigo Hamede, Menna E Jones, Matthew F Lawrance, Sarah A Hendricks, Austin Patton, Brian W Davis, Elaine A Ostrander, Hamish McCallum, Paul A Hohenlohe, Andrew Storfer
Understanding the genetic basis of disease-related phenotypes, such as cancer susceptibility, is crucial for the advancement of personalized medicine. Although most cancers are somatic in origin, a small number of transmissible cancers have been documented. Two such cancers have emerged in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii ) and now threaten the species with extinction. Recently, cases of natural tumor regression in Tasmanian devils infected with the clonally contagious cancer have been detected. We used whole-genome sequencing and FST -based approaches to identify the genetic basis of tumor regression by comparing the genomes of seven individuals that underwent tumor regression with those of three infected individuals that did not...
October 13, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Sarah A Mbayei, Amanda Faulkner, Christine Miner, Karen Edge, Victor Cruz, Sandra A Peña, Kathy Kudish, Joan Coleman, Eva Pradhan, Stepy Thomas, Stacey Martin, Tami H Skoff
Background: The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased in recent years. While characteristics of severe pertussis infection have been described in infants, fewer data are available in older children and adults. In this analysis, we characterize pertussis infections in hospitalized patients of all ages. Methods: Cases of pertussis with cough onset from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 from 7 U.S. Emerging Infections Program Network states were reviewed...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
V V Shlomin, I G Drozhzhin, Iu P Didenko, N Iu Grebenkina, P D Puzdriak, P B Bondarenko, D G Pavlov, G A Vereshchako
Described herein is a clinical case report concerning treatment of a 32-year-old female patient with rupture of an aneurysm of the arch and descending portion of the thoracic aorta, with the bleeding having penetrated the upper lobe of the left lung. The woman was admitted to the Department of Vascular Surgery of Municipal Multimodality Hospital No 2 of Saint Petersburg, presenting with a clinical pattern of aneurysmal rupture previously diagnosed by computed tomography performed at one of the local hospitals...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
O A Tsarev, A Iu Anisimov, F G Prokin, Iu V Mashchenko, A V Lobanov
The authors examined the effect of the presence of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (UCTD) on the clinical course of lower-limb varicose veins (LLVV) and acute varicothrombophlebitis (AVTP) in patients after the Troyanov-Trendelenburg operation. We carried out a prospective comparative study of the remote results during three years after the Troyanov-Trendelenburg operation in a total of 132 patients suffering from AVTP. The Study Group included 67 patients found to have more than four phenotypic traits of UCTD, thus suggesting the presence of UCTD...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
M V Mel'nikov, A V Sotnikov, V M Mel'nikov, G D Papava
The authors analysed the remote results of treatment of patients having endured embologenic arterial obstruction. Over the last 47 years, specialists of the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery No1 of the North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov have rendered emergency medical care to a total of 3,455 patients presenting with embolisms of the aorta and arteries of the limbs. The remote results of treatment were followed up in 978 patients within the terms varying from 1 year to 30 years...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
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