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Emerging Treatment

Abhilash Samykutty, William E Grizzle, Benjamin L Fouts, Molly W McNally, Phillip Chuong, Alexandra Thomas, Akiko Chiba, Dennis Otali, Anna Woloszynska, Neveen Said, Peter J Frederick, Jacek Jasinski, Jie Liu, Lacey R McNally
At the intersection of the newly emerging fields of optoacoustic imaging and theranostic nanomedicine, promising clinical progress can be made in dismal prognosis of ovarian cancer. An acidic pH targeted wormhole mesoporous silica nanoparticle (V7-RUBY) was developed to serve as a novel tumor specific theranostic nanoparticle detectable using multispectral optoacoustic tomographic (MSOT) imaging. We report the synthesis of a small, < 40 nm, biocompatible asymmetric wormhole pore mesoporous silica core particle that has both large loading capacity and favorable release kinetics combined with tumor-specific targeting and gatekeeping...
August 4, 2018: Biomaterials
Manuel Toledo, Elena Fonseca, Marta Olivé, Manuel Requena, Manuel Quintana, Laura Abraira-Del-Fresno, Xavier Salas-Puig, Estevo Santamarina
PURPOSE: A number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently available for treating acute seizures. It is recommended to select the initial treatment option according to the type of epileptic syndrome and the patient's clinical characteristics, but little is known about the long-term retention rates of AEDs started in the emergency department. METHODS: We recruited patients admitted with seizures over a two-year period. All patients underwent early neurological assessment, EEG testing, and neuroimaging...
August 11, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Carlos Mauricio Oliveira de Almeida, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, Vitor Tumas, Alan Luiz Eckeli
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the presence of a complex of signals resulting from the loss of REM sleep atony and manifested by vigorous and sometimes violent motor jerks and nocturnal vocalizations associated with dream enactment. RBD might be a clinical predictor of severity for Parkinson's disease (PD) and one of its most important non-motor manifestations, preceding the emergence of synucleinopathy by several years or even decades. The detection of RBD may represent a therapeutic window for research regarding the development of new neuroprotective therapies with the potential to modify the natural course of synucleinopathies, such as PD...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jérémie Jayet, Raphaël Coscas, Frédéric Heim, Olivier Goeau Brissoniere, Isabelle Javerliat, Nabil Chakfe, Marc Coggia
OBJECTIVES: In the past decade, excimer laser angioplasty (ELA) has emerged in the field of peripheral atherosclerotic disease (PAD). Laser indications now extend to off-label uses, such as in situ fenestration of aortic endograft. The aim of this study was to review the different therapeutics applications of lasers in arterial disease treatment. REVIEW METHODS: We reviewed the English-language literature using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Eun-Jeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Hyunju Kim, Moonseok Choi, Yunjung Choi, Jean-Pyo Lee, Joo-Youn Cho, Jin Won Hyun, Yong Sik Kim, Moon-Jeong Chang, Hye-Sun Kim
Among the various causative factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), oxidative stress has emerged as an important factor. Phloroglucinol is a polyphenol component of phlorotannin, which is found at sufficient levels in Ecklonia cava (E. cava). Phloroglucinol has been reported to exert antioxidant activities in various tissues. Previously, we reported that the stereotaxic injection of phloroglucinol regulated synaptic plasticity in an AD mouse model. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of phloroglucinol in AD...
August 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Emin Tireli, Tugcin Bora Polat, Didem Melis Oztas, Yasemin Mamur, Rukiye Eker Omeroglu, Murat Ugurlucan
Congenital aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a rare cardiovascular pathology and usually associated with well-known connective tissue disorders. In this report, we present an idiopathic ascending aortic aneurysm extending to the aortic arch in an antenatally diagnosed newborn whom required immediate surgical treatment due to the rapid progression of aneurysm size at the age of 1 day.
August 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Alison B Edelman, Jeffrey T Jensen, Sara McCrimmon, Marci Messerle-Forbes, Andrea O'Donnell, Jon Hennebold
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a combined oral contraceptive (COC) initiated shortly after ulipristal acetate (UPA) administration interferes with its mechanism of action. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy, reproductive-age women of normal BMI with proven ovulation (serum progesterone >3ng/mL) were enrolled for 3 cycles (Cycle 1, UPA only; Cycle 2 washout; Cycle 3 UPA plus COC). During Cycles 1 and 3, subjects were monitored with transvaginal ultrasound and blood sampling for progesterone and LH every other day until a dominant follicle measuring >15 mm was visualized...
August 14, 2018: Contraception
Brian J Christensen, Earl Peter Park, Steven Nelson, Brett J King
PURPOSE: Pain and swelling from a necrotic tooth is a common complaint in emergency departments. These patients impose substantial burdens on hospital budgets and provider time. The initial triage of odontogenic infections can be difficult without advanced knowledge and training in head and neck anatomy and odontogenic disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which emergency medicine physicians correctly determine the need for computed tomography (CT) and specialist consultation in patients with odontogenic infections...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Andrew K Chang, Polly E Bijur, Ashar Ata, Caron Campbell, Scott Pearlman, Deborah White, Andrew Chertoff, Andrew Restivo, E John Gallagher
OBJECTIVES: Older adults are at risk for undertreatment of pain. We examined IV acetaminophen as an analgesic adjunct to IV opioids in the care of older emergency department (ED) patients with acute severe pain. METHODS: This was a randomized clinical trial conducted in two emergency departments in the Bronx, New York. Eligible adults aged 65 years and older with acute severe pain were randomized to 0.5 mg IV hydromorphone and 1 gram IV acetaminophen or 0.5 mg IV hydromorphone and 100 cc normal saline placebo...
August 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Dorine Tan, Alvaro Nuno-Perez, Manuel Mameli, Frank J Meye
Lateral habenula (LHb) hyperactivity plays a pivotal role in the emergence of negative emotional states, including those occurring during withdrawal from addictive drugs. We have previously implicated cocaine-driven adaptations at synapses from the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) to the LHb in this process. Specifically, ionotropic GABAA receptor (R)-mediated neurotransmission at EPN-to-LHb synapses is reduced during cocaine withdrawal, due to impaired vesicle filling. Recent studies have shown that metabotropic GABAB R signaling also controls LHb activity, although its role at EPN-to-LHb synapses during drug withdrawal is unknown...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Melissa Henry, Yu Chang, Saul Frenkiel, Gabrielle Chartier, Richard Payne, Christina MacDonald, Carmen Loiselle, Martin J Black, Alex M Mlynarek, Antoinette Ehrler, Zeev Rosberger, Michael Tamilia, Michael P Hier
PURPOSE: To offer a better understanding of the experiences, preferences, and needs of patients with thyroid cancer. PARTICIPANTS &AMP; SETTING: 17 patients with thyroid cancer receiving treatment at a university-affiliated hospital in Montreal, Québec, Canada. METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: Interviews were conducted with patients, and descriptive phenomenology was used to explore patients' lived experience. FINDINGS: Coping with uncertainty was a major theme that emerged from interviews, with some of the main concerns being difficult treatment decisions, long surgery wait times, and fears about surgical complications, potential metastases, and death...
September 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
Vito Palumbo, Gianluca Giannarini, Enrica Subba, Antonino Inferrera, Vincenzo Ficarra
INTRODUCTION: Entero-neovesical fistula is a rare complication after radical cystectomy and orthotopic ileal bladder substitution. Typical presenting symptoms are faecaluria, pneumaturia, recurrent urinary tract infections and abdominal pain. Risk factors include history of pelvic radiation, chemotherapy and abdominal surgery, as well as diverticular colonic disease, inflammatory bowel disease and traumatic pelvic injury. The paucity of cases reported in the literature makes the management of this threatening complication very challenging...
March 1, 2018: Urologia
Osman Balci, Hasan Energin, Hüseyin Görkemli, Ali Acar
PURPOSE: Adnexal torsion constitutes 2.7% of gynecological emergencies, it is more frequently seen in reproductive age. Delay in diagnosis and treatment may lead to loss of the ovary. In this study, we aimed to assess patients who had adnexal torsion and compare laparoscopy with laparotomy in the treatment of these patients and point the most appropriate surgery according to age groups of the patients and comparison of patient characteristics and management between adnexal torsion in postmenopausal and premenopausal patients...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
David Pickham, André Valdez, Jelle Demeestere, Robin Lemmens, Linda Diaz, Sherril Hopper, Karen de la Cuesta, Fannie Rackover, Kenneth Miller, Maarten Lansberg
BACKGROUND: Use of prehospital stroke scales may enhance stroke detection and improve treatment rates and delays. Current scales, however, may lack detection accuracy. As such, we examined if coordination and diplopia (Balance and Eyes) assessments increase the accuracy of the Face-Arms-Speech-Time (FAST) scale in a multi-site prospective study of emergency response activations for presumed stroke. METHODS: This was a prospective study of emergency response activations for presumed stroke in Santa Clara County, California...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Micah J Gaspary, Gregory J Zarow, Michael J Barry, Alexandra C Walchak, Sean P Conley, Paul J D Roszko
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage remains a leading cause of death in both civilian and military settings. Of preventable deaths from hemorrhage, a significant portion occurs from junctional wounds that are not amenable to traditional extremity tourniquets. Junctional tourniquets (JTQs) can potentially provide hemorrhage control by compressing the arteries at the junction of the trunk and extremities. The FDA has cleared 3 JTQ products: The Combat Ready Clamp (CRoC®), the Junctional Emergency Treatment Tool (JETT™), and the SAM® Junctional Tourniquet (SJT)...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Oshrat E Tayer-Shifman, Cheryl F Rosen, Laura Wakani, Zahi Touma
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) encompasses a spectrum of dermatologic manifestations which can occur with or without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Treatment of CLE is challenging as the traditional treatments are off label and often fail and there is no drug specifically approved for CLE. The knowledge gained from the emerging trials on biologic therapy in SLE has provided insight into the utility of biologic therapy for CLE. Areas covered: An overview is provided on the biological agents studied for CLE discussing their immunological target, their efficacy in treating the various CLE manifestations and the outcome measures used...
August 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Masha G Savelieff, Lucia Pappalardo, Panagiotis Azmanis
Aspergillus fungal infections continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in birds that can, in part, be attributed to the lack of a diagnostic "gold standard" for Aspergillus infection, and which delays the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of avian patients. At present, none of the available methods in veterinary care can detect aspergillosis early enough and with the accuracy, precision, and specificity required of an ideal diagnostic tool. Therefore, researching methods of Aspergillus detection is still an active area of inquiry, and novel techniques continue to emerge...
August 17, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Da-Yong Lu, Peng-Peng Zhu, Hong-Ying Wu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Bin Xu, Ting-Ren Lu
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is still a major event of human mortality worldwide. Yet human suicide prediction, prevention and therapeutic systems at this moment are generally ineffective in the clinic. No diagnostic system is reliable for significantly suicidal prevention and mortality reduction. As a result, human suicide etiopathologic investigation (especially at genetic/molecular levels in the clinical settings) is quite necessary. In order to boost human suicide researches, emerging human suicide diagnostic/treatment study will be transformed from clinical symptom observations into new generations of candidate drug targets and therapeutics...
August 16, 2018: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Yi Zhang, Qi An, Wangshu Tong, Haitao Li, Zequn Ma, Yan Zhou, Tao Huang, Yihe Zhang
Enhanced drug releases in a timely manner during urgent medical treatments would significantly enhance the prognosis of patients. Inspired by the facilitated molecular transports by the potentials, an enhanced drug release strategy driven by mechanical disturbances that widely exist in medical treatment processes is proposed. This strategy is enabled by a functional material comprised of multilayers of dendrimers as the drug reservoir, which are built on a piezoelectric-dielectric flexible film with reduced graphene oxide fillers...
August 16, 2018: Small
Paul J Hampel, Melissa C Larson, Brian Kabat, Timothy G Call, Wei Ding, Saad S Kenderian, Deborah Bowen, Justin Boysen, Susan M Schwager, Jose F Leis, Asher A Chanan-Khan, Eli Muchtar, Curtis A Hanson, Susan L Slager, Neil E Kay, Kari G Chaffee, Tait D Shanafelt, Sameer A Parikh
The effects of ibrutinib on the natural history of autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) among chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients treated in routine clinical practice require further investigation. Using the Mayo Clinical CLL Database, 193 CLL patients treated with ibrutinib between November 2013 and January 2017 outside the context of a clinical trial were identified; complete review of their medical records was performed for details of past history of AIC and treatment-emergent AIC. We identified 29/193 (15%) patients with history of AIC prior to ibrutinib start...
August 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
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