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Polymer electrolyte

Xiao Zhao, Shinobu Takao, Takuma Kaneko, Yasuhiro Iwasawa
It remains a big challenge to remarkably improve both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and long-term durability of Pt-M bimetal electrocatalysts simultaneously in the harsh cathode environment toward widespread commercialization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). In this account we found double-promotional effects of carbon micro coil (CMC) support on ORR performance and durability of octahedral Pt3 Ni nanoparticles (Oh Pt3 Ni/CMC). The Oh Pt3 Ni/CMC displayed remarkable improvements of mass activity (MA; 13...
October 19, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Fumiaki Amano, Hyosuke Mukohara, Ayami Shintani, Kenyou Tsurui
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water vapor splitting using n-type semiconductor electrodes with a proton exchange membrane (PEM) enabled pure hydrogen production from humidity in the ambient air. We proved a design concept that the gas-electrolyte-semiconductor triple-phase boundary on a nanostructured photoanode is important for the photoinduced gas-phase reaction. A surface coating of solid polymer electrolyte on a titania nanotube array (TNTA) macroporous electrode markedly enhanced the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) at the gas-solid interface...
October 18, 2018: ChemSusChem
Stephanie Chua, Ruopian Fang, Zhenhua Sun, Mingjie Wu, Zi Gu, Yuzuo Wang, Judy Hart, Neeraj Sharma, Da-Wei Wang, Feng Li
Solid polymer electrolytes are of rapidly increasing importance for the research and development of future safe batteries with extraordinary energy density. The diversified chemistry and structures of polymers allow the utilization of a wide range of soft structures for all-polymer solid-state electrolytes. With equal importance is the hybrid solid-state electrolytes consisting of both 'soft' polymeric structure and 'hard' inorganic nanofillers. The recent emergence of the re-discovery of many two-dimensional layered materials has stimulated the booming of advanced research in energy storage fields, such as batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells...
October 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Robert A Harper, Guy H Carpenter, Gordon B Proctor, Richard D Harvey, Robert J Gambogi, Anthony R Geonnotti, Robert Hider, Stuart A Jones
The extracellular polymer substances (EPS) generated by biofilms confers resistance to antimicrobial agents through electrostatic and steric interactions that hinder molecular diffusion. This resistance mechanism is particularly evident for antibacterial nanomaterials, which inherently diffuse more slowly compared to small organic antibacterial agents. The aim of this study was to determine if a biofilm's resistance to antibacterial nanomaterial diffusion could be diminished using electrolytes to screen the EPS's electrostatic interactions...
September 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Takuzo Aida, Zhifang Sun, Yoshihiro Yamauchi, Fumito Araoka, Youn Soo Kim, Julian Bergueiro, Yasuhiro Ishida, Yasuo Ebina, Takayoshi Sasaki, Takaaki Hikima
Peristaltic crawling, which is the moving mechanism of earthworm-like limbless creatures in narrow spaces, is a challenging target to mimic by using soft materials. Here we report an unprecedented hydrogel actuator that enables not only a peristaltic crawling motion but also reversing its direction. Our cylindrically processed hydrogel contains gold nanoparticles for photothermal conversion, a thermoresponsive polymer network for switching the electrical permittivity of the gel interior, and cofacially oriented 2D electrolytes (titanate nanosheets; TiNSs) to synchronously change their anisotropic electrostatic repulsion...
October 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Heng Zhang, Youdi Liu, Chao Yang, Li Xiang, Youfan Hu, Lian-Mao Peng
Electronic systems on ultrathin polymer films are generally processed with rigid supporting substrates during fabrication, followed by delamination and transfer to the targeted working areas. The challenge associated with an efficient and innocuous delamination operation is one of the major hurdles toward high-performance ultrathin flexible electronics at large scale. Herein, a facile, rapid, damage-free approach is reported for detachment of wafer-scale ultrathin electronic foils from Si wafers by capillary-assisted electrochemical delamination (CAED)...
October 11, 2018: Advanced Materials
Feng-Quan Liu, Wen-Peng Wang, Ya-Xia Yin, Shuai-Feng Zhang, Ji-Lei Shi, Lu Wang, Xu-Dong Zhang, Yue Zheng, Jian-Jun Zhou, Lin Li, Yu-Guo Guo
High-energy lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are expected to play important roles in the next-generation energy storage systems. However, the uncontrolled Li dendrite growth in liquid electrolytes still impedes LMBs from authentic commercialization. Upgrading the traditional electrolyte system from liquid to solid and quasi-solid has therefore become a key issue for prospective LMBs. From this premise, it is particularly urgent to exploit facile strategies to accomplish this goal. We report that commercialized liquid electrolyte can be easily converted into a novel quasi-solid gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) via a simple and efficient in situ gelation strategy, which, in essence, is to use LiPF6 to induce the cationic polymerization of the ether-based 1,3-dioxolane and 1,2-dimethoxyethane liquid electrolyte under ambient temperature...
October 2018: Science Advances
Alexander Weyman, Markus Bier, Christian Holm, Jens Smiatek
We study generic properties of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations in bulk solution and under confinement. The influence of different side chain lengths on the spatial properties of the PIL systems and on the ionic transport mechanism is investigated in detail. Our results reveal the formation of apolar and polar nanodomains with increasing side chain length in good agreement with previous results for molecular ionic liquids. The ion transport numbers are unaffected by the occurrence of these domains, and the corresponding values highlight the potential role of PILs as single-ion conductors in electrochemical devices...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Hua-Yu Shi, Yin-Jian Ye, Kuan Liu, Yu Song, Xiaoqi Sun
Rechargeable aqueous zinc batteries are promising energy storage systems for grid applications. The highly conductive polyaniline (PANI) is a potential cathode, but it tends to deactivate in low acidic electrolytes (i.e. pH > 1) due to the de-protonation of the polymer. Herein, we synthesized a sulfo self-doped PANI electrode by a facile electrochemical copolymerization process. The -SO₃¯ self-dopant functions as an internal proton reservoir to ensure locally high acidic environment and facilitate the redox process in the weak acidic ZnSO₄ electrolyte...
October 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Tahmid Latif, Michael McKnight, Michael D Dickey, Alper Bozkurt
Biobotics investigates the use of live insects as biological robots whose locomotion can be controlled by neurostimulation through implanted electrodes. Inactivity in the biobots (biological robots) can sometimes be noticed following extended neurostimulation, partly owing to incompatibility of implanted electrodes with the biobotic application or gradual degradation of the tissue-electrode interface. Implanted electrodes need to sufficiently exhibit consistent, reliable, and stable performance during stimulation experiments, have low tissue-electrode impedance, facilitate good charge injection capacity, and be compact in size or shape...
2018: PloS One
Jiaqi Dai, Chunpeng Yang, Chengwei Wang, Glenn Pastel, Liangbing Hu
Lithium-metal batteries are considered one of the most promising energy-storage systems owing to their high energy density, but their practical applications have long been hindered by significant safety concerns and poor cycle stability. Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) are expected to improve not only the safety but also the energy density of Li-metal batteries. The key challenge for solid-state Li-metal batteries lies in the low ionic conductivity of the SSEs and moreover the interface contact between the electrode and SSE...
October 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Robert Kun, Frederieke Langer, Massimo Delle Piane, Saneyuki Ohno, Wolfgang G Zeier, Michael Gockeln, Lucio Colombi Ciacchi, Matthias Busse, István Fekete
Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) and related compounds are considered as promising candidates for future all-solid-state Li-ion battery applications. Still, the processing of those materials into thin membranes with the right stoichiometry and crystal structure is difficult and laborious. The sensitivity of the Li-ion conductive garnets against moisture and the associated Li+/H+ cation exchange makes their processing even more difficult. Formulation of suitable polymer/ceramic hybrid solid state electrolytes could be a prosperous way to the future large scale production of solid state Li-ion batteries...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lushuai Zhang, Wesley Viola, Trisha L Andrew
Lightweight energy storage technologies are integral for powering emerging wearable health monitors and smart garments. In-plane, interdigitated microsupercapacitors (MSCs) hold the greatest promise to be integrated into wearable electronics, due to their miniaturized footprint, as compared to conventional, multilayered supercapacitors and batteries. Constructing MSCs directly on textiles, while retaining the fabric's pliability and tactile quality, will provide uniquely wearable energy storage systems. However, relative to plastic-backed or paper-based MSCs, garment-integrated MSCs are underreported...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lixia Guo, Lvlv Ji, Jianying Wang, Shangshang Zuo, Zuofeng Chen
Mo2C@NPC (N,P-doped carbon) electrocatalysts are developed on carbon cloth (CC) as binder-free cathodes for efficient hydrogen evolution through a facile route of electropolymerization followed by pyrolysis. Electropolymerization of pyrrole to form polypyrrole occurs with the homogeneous incorporation of PMo12 driven by Columbic force between the positively charged polymer backbone and PMo12 anions. This electrochemical synthesis is easily scaled up, requiring neither complex instrumentation nor intentionally added electrolyte (PMo12 also acts as electrolyte)...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jarosław Wawer, Michał Szociński, Marcin Olszewski, Rafał Piątek, Mateusz Naczk, Joanna Krakowiak
The study investigates the role of the electrostatic interactions in the fibrillation of the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). In order to achieve this aim the influence of the cations Na+ , Mg2+ and Al3+ on the amyloid fibril formation and amorphous aggregation was tested. The amyloids are formed in the solution without added salt but the Thioflavin T fluorescence gives the false-negative result. In these conditions, the HEWL fibrils are long and curvy. If the ionic strength of the solution is sufficiently high, the formed amyloids are shorter and fragmented...
October 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zhongguan Liang, Hao Liu, Jianping Zeng, Jianfei Zhou, Hongjian Li, Hui Xia
Nitrogen-doped microporous carbon spheres (NMCSs) are successfully prepared via carbonization and KOH activation of phenol-formaldehyde resin polymer spheres synthesized by a facile and time-saving one-step hydrothermal strategy using triblock copolymer Pluronic F108 as a soft template under the Stöber-like method condition. The influence of the ethanol/water volume ratios and carbonation temperatures on the morphologies, pore structures and electrochemical performances of the prepared NMCSs are investigated systematically...
October 4, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Francesco Faglioni, Boris V Merinov, William A Goddard, Boris Kozinsky
A detailed experimental analysis of the factors affecting cyclic durability of all-solid-state lithium batteries using poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolytes was published in EES by Nakayama et al. We use quantum mechanics to interpret these results, identifying processes involved in the degradation of rechargeable lithium batteries based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymer electrolyte with LiTFSI. We consider that ionization of the electrolyte near the cathode at the end of the recharge step is probably responsible for this degradation...
October 4, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
João H P M Santos, Mafalda R Almeida, Cláudia I R Martins, Mara G Freire, João A P Coutinho, Sónia P M Ventura
Phenolic acids are ubiquitous biomolecules exhibiting a wide range of physiological properties, with application in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical fields. In this work, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) formed by polyethylene glycol and sodium polyacrylate, and inorganic salts or ionic liquids as electrolytes, were applied to the purification of caffeic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids, followed by the use of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) to reinforce the fractionation process scale-up. In single-step experiments in ABS, high selectivities (SFA/CA = 12...
April 21, 2018: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
Nan Lu, Xi Zhang, Ruiqi Na, Wendi Ma, Chongyang Zhang, Yuchao Luo, Yongfeng Mu, Shuling Zhang, Guibin Wang
The synthesis of a nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes (NGPEs) using Li+ -functionalized SPEEK (SPEEK(Li)) nanofiber membrane as a matrix, cross-linked PVA as a gelled agent and LiClO4 as an electrolytic salt for electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) were reported in this work. Compared with conventional PVA based gel electrolyte, the "SO3 - Li+ " functional groups and the pores structure of the SPEEK(Li) nanofiber membrane improves the ionic conductivity as well as mechanical stability, which made the prepared NGPEs exhibited a high ionic conductivity of 8...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chengbao Liu, Haichao Zhao, Peimin Hou, Bei Qian, Xiao Wang, Chunyan Guo, Liping Wang
Cyclodextrin, with a hydrophobic inner cavity and a hydrophilic exterior, is often used to encapsulate a widest range of guest molecules based on host-guest inclusion interaction. Graphene, an emerging nano-building material, exhibits great potential for numerous applications due to their superior characteristics. Herein, we synthesized a novel graphene/β-cyclodextrin based supramolecular nanocontainer with excellent inhibitor encapsulating capacity and high impermeable properties. The benzotriazole (BTA) loaded nanocontainers were then used to endow coating system with excellent passive and active anticorrosion performance...
September 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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