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Flexible electrolyte

Weidong Zhou, Zhaoxu Wang, Yuan Pu, Yutao Li, Sen Xin, Xiaofang Li, Jianfeng Chen, John B Goodenough
No single polymer or liquid electrolyte has a large enough energy gap between the empty and occupied electronic states for both dendrite-free plating of a lithium-metal anode and a Li+ extraction from an oxide host cathode without electrolyte oxidation in a high-voltage cell during the charge process. Therefore, a double-layer polymer electrolyte is investigated, in which one polymer provides dendrite-free plating of a Li-metal anode and the other allows a Li+ extraction from an oxide host cathode without oxidation of the electrolyte in a 4 V cell over a stable charge/discharge cycling at 65 °C; a poly(ethylene oxide) polymer contacts the lithium-metal anode and a poly(N-methyl-malonic amide) contacts the cathode...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jiangjiang Duan, Guang Feng, Boyang Yu, Jia Li, Ming Chen, Peihua Yang, Jiamao Feng, Kang Liu, Jun Zhou
Thermogalvanic cells offer a cheap, flexible and scalable route for directly converting heat into electricity. However, achieving a high output voltage and power performance simultaneously from low-grade thermal energy remains challenging. Here, we introduce strong chaotropic cations (guanidinium) and highly soluble amide derivatives (urea) into aqueous ferri/ferrocyanide ([Fe(CN)6 ]4- /[Fe(CN)6 ]3- ) electrolytes to significantly boost their thermopowers. The corresponding Seebeck coefficient and temperature-insensitive power density simultaneously increase from 1...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Mei-Li Liu, Meng Huang, Lian-Yu Tian, Li-Hong Zhao, Bin Ding, Debin Kong, Quan-Hong Yang, Jiao-Jing Shao
Two-dimensional (2D) nanochannel arrays are constructed by a bottom-up re-assembly montmorillonite monolayers that are obtained by liquid phase exfoliating its layered crystals, and the as-constructed interstitial space between these monolayers is uniform and provides ions with nanoscale transport channels. Surface charge-controlled ion transport behavior is observed through these nanochannels as the electrolyte concentration reduces to 10-4 M at room temperature. Furthermore, the nanochannel structure remains even after 400 ºC heat treatment, and nanofluidic devices based on the annealed nanochannel arrays still exhibit surface charge-governed ion transport at low electrolyte concentrations...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zifeng Wang, Funian Mo, Longtao Ma, Qi Yang, Guojin Liang, Zhuoxin Liu, Hongfei Li, Na Li, Haiyan Zhang, Chunyi Zhi
The fast advancement in flexible and wearable electronics has put up with new requirements on the energy storage device with improved tolerance to deformation apart from offering power output. Despite the tremendous progress in stretchable energy storage devices, the compressional energy storage devices have indeed received limited research attention. In this work, an intrinsically compressible rechargeable battery was proposed using the Zn-MnO2 chemistry and a crosslinked polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel electrolyte...
December 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yujing Liu, Xuan Wang, Xiaohui Jiang, Xia Li, Liangmin Yu
N-Doped carbon nanomaterials have gained tremendous research interest in energy storage because of their high capacitance and chemical stability. Here, N-doped porous carbons (NPCs) with multiple shape-controlled and tunable morphologies are developed through a direct one-step pyrolysis/activation method. Typically, NPC-700-1, which is 5 nm thick and 6 μm wide, shows a high surface area (1591.5 m2 g-1) and hierarchical micro-, meso-, and macroporous architecture. The maximum specific capacitance of the as-prepared carbon nanosheets is 406 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 in KOH electrolyte...
November 29, 2018: Nanoscale
Ana Cisnal, Juan-Carlos Fraile, Javier Pérez-Turiel, Victor Muñoz-Martinez, Carsten Müller, Frank R Ihmig
The design of safe stimulation protocols for functional electrostimulation requires knowledge of the "maximum reversible charge injection capacity" of the implantable microelectrodes. One of the main difficulties encountered in characterizing such microelectrodes is the calculation of the access voltage Va . This paper proposes a method to calculate Va that does not require prior knowledge of the overpotential terms and of the electrolyte (or excitable tissue) resistance, which is an advantage for in vivo electrochemical characterization of microelectrodes...
November 27, 2018: Sensors
Stanislaw Piotr Zankowski, Philippe Marc Vereecken
Nanostructured metals with large surface area have a great potential for multiple device applications. Although various metal architectures based on metal nanoligaments and nanowires are well known, they typically show a tradeoff between mechanical robustness, high surface area and high (macro)porosity, which, when combined, could significantly improve the performance of devices such as batteries, electrolyzers or sensors. In this work we rationally designed templated networks of interconnected metal nanowires, combining for the first time high porosity of metal foams, narrowly-distributed macropores and a very high surface area of nanoporous dealloyed metals...
November 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bingshu Guo, Sateesh Bandaru, Chunlong Dai, Hao Chen, Youquan Zhang, Qiuju Xu, Shu-Juan Bao, Mingyang Chen, Maowen Xu
Inhibiting shuttle effect, buffering volume expansion and improving utilization of sulfur have been the three strategic points for developing a high-performance lithium-sulphur (Li-S) battery. Driven by this background, a flexible sulfur host material composed of FeCo2S4 nanotube arrays grown on the surface of carbon cloth is designed for binder-free cathode of the Li-S battery through two-step hydrothermal methods. Among the rest, the interconnected carbon fiber skeleton of the composite electrode ensures the basic electrical conductivity, whereas the FeCo2S4 nanotube arrays not only boost the electron and electrolyte transfer but also inhibit the dissolution of polysulfide due to their strong chemical adsorption...
November 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Caixia Zhou, Taotao Gao, Yujue Wang, Qilin Liu, Zhihan Huang, Xiaoxia Liu, Miaoqing Qing, Dan Xiao
Fiber supercapacitors (FSCs) are promising energy storage devices in portable and wearable smart electronics. Currently, a major challenge for FSCs is simultaneously achieving high volumetric energy and power densities. Herein, the microscale fiber electrode is designed by using carbon fibers as substrates and capillary channels as microreactors to space-confined hydrothermal assembling. As P-doped graphene oxide/carbon fiber (PGO/CF) and NiCo2 O4 -based graphene oxide/carbon fiber (NCGO/CF) electrodes are successfully prepared, their unique hybrid structures exhibit a satisfactory electrochemical performance...
November 27, 2018: Small
Qin Dong, Runping Shen, Cunpu Li, Ruiyi Gan, Xiaotong Ma, Jianchuan Wang, Jing Li, Zidong Wei
Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries, which use sulfur as the cathode material, promise great potentials to be the next-generation high-energy system. However, higher-order lithium polysulfides, Li2 Sx (x = 4, 6, and 8), regardless of in charge or in discharge, always form first, dissolve subsequently in the electrolyte, and shuttle to the cathode and the anode, which is called "shuttle effect." The polysulfides shuttle effect leads to heavy loss of the active-sulfur materials. Literature works mostly "cover or fill" the pores to block polysulfides from shuttling, which also hinder the lithium ion transfer...
November 26, 2018: Small
Jingwen Zhou, Xuelian Li, Chao Yang, Yinchuan Li, Kunkun Guo, Jianli Cheng, Dingwang Yuan, Chenhui Song, Jun Lu, Bin Wang
The rapid development of wearable electronics requires a revolution of power accessories regarding flexibility and energy density. The Li-CO2 battery was recently proposed as a novel and promising candidate for next-generation energy-storage systems. However, the current Li-CO2 batteries usually suffer from the difficulties of poor stability, low energy efficiency, and leakage of liquid electrolyte, and few flexible Li-CO2 batteries for wearable electronics have been reported so far. Herein, a quasi-solid-state flexible fiber-shaped Li-CO2 battery with low overpotential and high energy efficiency, by employing ultrafine Mo2 C nanoparticles anchored on a carbon nanotube (CNT) cloth freestanding hybrid film as the cathode, is demonstrated...
November 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
Guoming Zhang, Fang Geng, Tao Zhao, Fangshuo Zhou, Ning Zhang, Sen Zhang, Chao Deng
The prolonged life expectancy accelerates the development of implantable bioelectronic devices. However, conventional batteries with limited lifetime, rigid architecture, and inferior energy density greatly restrict their applications in patient's body. Herein, a novel flexible symmetric Na-ion microbattery based on the heteronanomat electrode and the biocompatible electrolyte has been developed. The film electrodes with sphere-in-network architecture are synthesized by simultaneously electrospinning and electrospraying followed by carbonization...
November 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tae Yong Yun, Xinlin Li, Se Hyun Kim, Hong Chul Moon
Dual-function electrochromic supercapacitors (ECSs) indicating their real-time charge capacity in color are fabricated using tungsten trioxide (WO3) and Li-doped ion gels containing hydroquinone (HQ). The ECSs in this work can simultaneously serve as either electrochromic devices (ECDs) or supercapacitors, so the coloration/bleaching and charging/discharging characteristics are investigated between 0 and -1.5 V. At the optimal HQ concentration, a large transmittance contrast (~91 %), high coloration efficiency (~61...
November 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xueyang Shen, Ziping Cao, Miao Chen, Jinya Zhang, Dong Chen
The paper reports a novel flexible full-cell lithium ion battery (LIB) through a simple plastic package method. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are synthesized by electrospinning technology and the subsequent carbonation process. The CNFs with three-dimensional interconnected fibrous nanostructure exhibit a stable reversible capacity of 412 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles in the half-cell testing. A full cell is assembled by using CNF anode and commercial LiCoO2 cathode, and it displays good flexibility and lighting LED ability...
November 20, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Quan Pang, Laidong Zhou, Linda F Nazar
Lithium metal batteries are capable of revolutionizing the battery marketplace for electrical vehicles, owing to the high capacity and low voltage offered by Li metal. Current exploitation of Li metal electrodes, however, is plagued by their exhaustive parasitic reactions with liquid electrolytes and dendritic growth, which pose concerns to both cell performance and safety. We demonstrate that a hybrid membrane, both elastic and Li+ -ion percolating, can stabilize Li plating/stripping with high Coulombic efficiency...
November 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sagil James, Rinkesh Contractor
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) are third generation solar cells used as an alternative to traditional silicon solar cells. DSSCs are characterized by their durability, easy handling and ability to perform better under diverse lighting conditions which makes them an ideal choice for indoor applications. However, DSSCs suffer from several limitations including low efficiencies, susceptibility to electrolyte leakage under extreme weather conditions, and the need for expensive materials and fabrication techniques which limits their large-scale industrial applications...
November 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Donghong Wang, Hongfei Li, Zhuoxin Liu, Zijie Tang, Guojin Liang, Funian Mo, Qi Yang, Longtao Ma, Chunyi Zhi
There is a growing demand for flexible and wearable energy devices. How to enhance their tolerance to various mechanical stresses is a key issue. Bending, stretching, or twisting of flexible batteries has been widely researched. However, shear force is inevitably applied on the batteries during stretching, bending, and twisting. Unfortunately, thus far, research on analyzing shear resistance of solid batteries or even enhancing the shear tolerance has never been reported. Herein, a sewable Zn-MnO2 battery based on a nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)/ployacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel, electrodeposited Zn nanoplates anode, and carbon nanotube (CNT)/α-MnO2 cathode is reported...
November 16, 2018: Small
Yinghui Shang, Junjie Wei, Chu Wu, Qigang Wang
Polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) have been considered as one of the most promising candidates to solve safety and flexibility issues in wearable devices. To supply energy for the daily-used epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability and temperature tolerance are essential for energy storage units. However, the limited choices of PGEs, including fragile poly(vinyl alcohol) and uniaxial stretchable polyacrylamide hydrogel, lag far behind the requirement of wearable supercapacitors. Herein, an adhesive organohydrogel with a water/ethylene glycol binary solvent is tailored as the electrolyte of an all-climate, biaxially stretchable pseudocapacitor...
November 30, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gaobo Lou, Yatao Wu, Xinqiang Zhu, Yingzhuo Lu, Shuai Yu, Chunhai Yang, Hao Chen, Cao Guan, Lu Li, Zhehong Shen
High cost, low capacitance, and complicated synthesis process are still the key limitations for carbon-negative materials to meet their industrial production and application in high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). In this work, we demonstrate the facile preparation of ultrahigh-surface-area free-standing carbon material from low-cost industrial carbon felt (CF) and its application for flexible supercapacitor electrode with outstanding performance. Through a simple freeze-drying-assisted activation method, the as-prepared activated CF (ACF) was endowed with satisfactory flexibility, ultrahigh specific surface area of 2109 m2 g-1 , good electric conductivity (311 S m-1 ), and excellent wettability to aqueous electrolyte...
November 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hsin-Ya Chiu, Chun-Pei Cho
MnO₂/N-containing graphene composites with various contents of Mn were fabricated and used as active materials for the electrodes of flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. By scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectra, the presence of MnO₂ and N-containing graphene was verified. The MnO₂ nanostructures decorated on the N-containing graphene were of α- and γ-mixed phases...
November 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
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