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Flexible electrolyte

Yuanying Liang, Mathis Ernst, Fabian Brings, Dmitry Kireev, Vanessa Maybeck, Andreas Offenhäusser, Dirk Mayer
Flexible and transparent electronic devices possess crucial advantages over conventional silicon based systems for bioelectronic applications since they are able to adapt to nonplanar surfaces, cause less chronic immunoreactivity, and facilitate easy optical inspection. Here, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are embedded in a flexible matrix of polyimide to record cardiac action potentials. The wafer-scale fabricated devices exhibit transconductances (12 mS V-1 ) and drain-source on-to-off current ratios (≈105 ) comparable to state of the art nonflexible and superior to other reported flexible OECTs...
August 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Junjie Wei, Jie Zhou, Shasha Su, Jinhua Jiang, Jing Feng, Qigang Wang
With the boom of flexible electronic products and wearable devices, flexible energy storage devices, e.g., supercapacitors with high performance, are attracting increasing interest. A flexible water-deactivated polyelectrolyte hydrogel electrolyte with good mechanical properties and high ionic conductivity was prepared using an anionic polymer CMC and a cationic monomer MAPTAC. It was then applied in a supercapacitor with flexible activated carbon electrodes. This flexible supercapacitor possesses a high operating voltage of 2...
August 13, 2018: ChemSusChem
Jia-Jia Chen, Mark D Symes, Leroy Cronin
As our reliance on renewable energy sources grows, so too does our need to store this energy to mitigate against troughs in supply. Energy storage in batteries or by conversion to chemical fuels are the two most flexible and scalable options, but are normally considered mutually exclusive. Energy storage solutions that can act as both batteries and fuel generation devices (depending on the requirements of the user) could therefore revolutionize the uptake and use of renewably generated energy. Here, we present a polyoxoanion, [P2 W18 O62 ]6- , that can be reversibly reduced and protonated by 18 electrons/H+ per anion in aqueous solution, and that can act either as a high-performance redox flow battery electrolyte (giving a practical discharged energy density of 225 Wh l-1 with a theoretical energy density of more than 1,000 Wh l-1 ), or as a mediator in an electrolytic cell for the on-demand generation of hydrogen...
August 13, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Hai-Tao Wang, Ya-Nan Liu, Xiao-Hui Kang, Yi-Fan Wang, Shi-Yi Yang, Shao-Wei Bian, Quan Zhu
A high-performance yarn-shaped supercapacitor electrode material with light weight, small volume, flexibility and low cost, is highly desirable for the development of flexible energy storage devices. Herein, a cotton/Au/nickel cobalt sulfide hybrid yarn electrode was designed and synthesized by electrodepositing nickel cobalt sulfide nanosheet arrays on the Au metalized cotton yarn. The metalized cotton yarn as a conductive substrate ensures rapid electron transportation. The porous layer which constructed by CoNi2 S4 nanosheet arrays significantly enlarges the interface between the electrolyte ions and electrode materials, providing large electroactive surface area for the faradic redox reactions...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Keval K Sonigara, Hiren K Machhi, Jayraj V Vaghasiya, Alain Gibaud, Swee Ching Tan, Saurabh S Soni
Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with lightweight flexible substrates have a great potential in wearable electronic devices for in situ powering. However, the poor lifespan of these DSSCs limits their practical application. Strong mechanical stresses involved in practical applications cause breakage of the electrode/electrolyte interface in the DSSCs greatly affecting their performance and lifetime. Here, a mechanically robust, low-cost, long-lasting, and environment-friendly quasi-solid-state DSSC using a smart thermoreversible water-based polymer gel electrolyte with self-healing characteristics at a low temperature (below 0 °C) is demonstrated...
August 9, 2018: Small
Tingrui Lin, Mengni Shi, Furong Huang, Jing Peng, Qingwen Bai, Jiuqiang Li, Maolin Zhai
High-performance hydrogel electrolytes play a crucial role in flexible supercapacitors (SCs). However, the unsatisfactory mechanical properties of widely-used polyvinyl alcohol-based electrolytes greatly limit their use in the flexible SCs. Here a novel Li2 SO4 -containing agarose/polyacrylamide double-network (Li-AG/PAM DN) hydrogel electrolyte was synthesized by a heating-cooling and subsequent radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking process. The Li-AG/PAM DN hydrogel electrolyte possesses extremely excellent mechanical properties with a compression strength of 150 MPa, a fracture compression strain of above 99...
August 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chong Cheng, Shuang Li, Yi Xia, Lang Ma, Chuanxiong Nie, Christina Roth, Arne Thomas, Rainer Haag
The recently emerging metal-air batteries equipped with advanced oxygen electrodes have provided enormous opportunities to develop the next generation of wearable and bio-adaptable power sources. Theoretically, neutral electrolyte-based Mg-air batteries possess potential advantages in electronics and biomedical applications over the other metal-air counterparts, especially the alkaline-based Zn-air batteries. However, the rational design of advanced oxygen electrode for Mg-air batteries with high discharge voltage and capacity under neutral conditions still remains a major challenge...
August 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jianjun Zhang, Jinfeng Yang, Tiantian Dong, Min Zhang, Jingchao Chai, Shanmu Dong, Tianyuan Wu, Xinhong Zhou, Guanglei Cui
Conventional liquid electrolytes based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) might suffer from serious safety hazards. Solid-state polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are very promising candidate with high security for advanced LIBs. However, the quintessential frailties of pristine polyethylene oxide/lithium salts SPEs are poor ionic conductivity (≈10-8 S cm-1 ) at 25 °C and narrow electrochemical window (<4 V). Many innovative researches are carried out to enhance their lithium-ion conductivity (10-4 S cm-1 at 25 °C), which is still far from meeting the needs of high-performance power LIBs at ambient temperature...
August 2, 2018: Small
Niranjan Khadka, Helen Borges, Adantchede L Zannou, Jongmin Jang, Byunggik Kim, Kiwon Lee, Marom Bikson
BACKGROUND: The adoption of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is encouraged by portability and ease-of-use. However, the preparation of tDCS electrodes remains the most cumbersome and error-prone step. Here, we validate the performance of the first "dry" electrodes for tDCS. A "dry electrode" excludes 1) any saline or other electrolytes, that are prone to spread and leaving a residue; 2) any adhesive at the skin interface; or 3) any electrode preparation steps except the connection to the stimulator...
July 29, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Ryota Tamate, Kei Hashimoto, Tatsuhiro Horii, Manabu Hirasawa, Xiang Li, Mitsuhiro Shibayama, Masayoshi Watanabe
Ion gels, composed of macromolecular networks filled by ionic liquids (ILs), are promising candidate soft solid electrolytes for use in wearable/flexible electronic devices. In this context, the introduction of a self-healing function would significantly improve the long-term durability of ion gels subject to mechanical loading. Nevertheless, compared to hydrogels and organogels, the self-healing of ion gels has barely investigated been because of there being insufficient understanding of the interactions between polymers and ILs...
July 31, 2018: Advanced Materials
Azar Alizadeh, Andrew Burns, Ralf Lenigk, Rachel Gettings, Jeffrey Ashe, Adam Porter, Margaret McCaul, Ruairi Barrett, Dermot Diamond, Paddy White, Perry Skeath, Melanie Tomczak
Implementation of wearable sweat sensors for continuous measurement of fluid based biomarkers (including electrolytes, metabolites and proteins) is an attractive alternative to common, yet intrusive and invasive, practices such as urine or blood analysis. Recent years have witnessed several key demonstrations of sweat based electrochemical sensing in wearable formats, however, there are still significant challenges and opportunities in this space for clinical acceptance, and thus mass implementation of these devices...
July 31, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Qin Wang, He Miao, Shanshan Sun, Yejian Xue, Zhaoping Liu
Flexible rechargeable zinc-air batteries are considered as one of the most promising power supplies for the emerging flexible and wearable electronic devices. However, the development of flexible zinc-air battery is stagnant due to the lacks of efficient bi-functional catalysts with high oxygen catalytic activity and flexible solid-state electrolyte with high mechanical stability and ionic conductivity. In this work, Co3O4/Ag@NrGO composite is synthetized by a facile one-pot method, and the catalyst shows remarkable ORR/OER bi-functional catalytic activity and good long-term stability...
July 31, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Cheng Ma, Songju Ruan, Jitong Wang, Donghui Long, Wenming Qiao, Licheng Ling
Free-standing carbon nanofiber fabrics with high surface area and good flexibility were prepared via a combined electrospinning and nanocasting method using low molecular weight phenolic resol as carbon precursor and partial-hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate as template, followed by carbonization and silica removal. The key to our strategy lies in the formation of a stable electrospinning solution derived from the polycondensation of partial-hydrolyzed TEOS in mild hydrolysis with low molecular phenolic resol and PVB which could decrease the gelation rate to benefit for the steady electrospinning process of preparing large area hybrid nanofiber fabrics...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Zhen-Dong Yang, Xiao-Yang Yang, Tong Liu, Zhi-Wen Chang, Yan-Bin Yin, Xin-Bo Zhang, Jun-Min Yan, Qing Jiang
To promote the development of high energy Li-O2 batteries, it is important to design and construct a suitable and effective oxygen-breathing cathode. Herein, activated cobalt-nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube/carbon nanofiber composites (Co-N-CNT/CNF) as the effective cathodes for Li-O2 batteries are prepared by in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The unique architecture of these electrodes facilitates the rapid oxygen diffusion and electrolyte penetration. Meanwhile, the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube/carbon nanofiber (N-CNT/CNF) and Co/CoNx serve as reaction sites to promote the formation/decomposition of discharge product...
July 25, 2018: Small
Xingfei Wei, Tengfei Luo
Block copolymers have a wide range of applications, such as battery electrolytes and nanoscale pattern generation. The thermal conductivity is a critical parameter in many of these applications (e.g., batteries), which is strongly related to the molecular conformation. In this work, the thermal transport in a representative diblock copolymer, polyethylene (PE)-polypropylene (PP), at different PE to PP block ratios is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our results show that the thermal conductivity of the PE-PP diblock copolymer can be tuned continuously by the block ratio, and it is strongly related to the molecular conformation, characterized by the radius of gyration (Rg)...
August 8, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Olivia R Palmer, Maxim E Shaydakov, Joshua P Rainey, Daniel A Lawrence, Joan M Greve, José A Diaz
<AbstractText Label="Background" NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">The electrolytic inferior vena cava model (EIM) is a murine venous thrombosis (VT) model that produces a non-occlusive thrombus. The thrombus forms in the direction of blood flow, as observed in patients. The EIM is valuable for investigations of therapeutics due to the presence of continuous blood flow. However, the equipment used to induce thrombosis in the original model description was expensive and has since been discontinued. Further, the fibrinolytic system had not been previously studied in the EIM...
April 2018: Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Hyun-Seop Shin, Won-Gyue Ryu, Min-Sik Park, Kyu-Nam Jung, Hansung Kim, Jong-Won Lee
The use of solid electrolytes provides a technical solution to address the safety issues of lithium-ion batteries and enables a bipolar design of high-voltage and high-energy battery modules. The bipolar design avoids unnecessary components and parts for packaging and electrical connection; therefore, it facilitates an increase in the volumetric energy density of the battery, while enabling easy build-up of total output voltage. Herein, the design and construction of a multilayered, bipolar-type, all-solid-state battery (ASSB) from a biphasic solid electrolyte (BSE) based on inorganic Li0...
July 25, 2018: ChemSusChem
Jae Myeong Lee, Changsoon Choi, Ji Hwan Kim, Mônica Jung de Andrade, Ray H Baughman, Seon Jeong Kim
Flexible yarn- or fiber-based energy storing devices are attractive because of their small dimension, light weight, and suitability for integration into woven or textile application. Some Li-ion based yarn or fiber batteries were developed due to their performance advantages, realizing highly performing and practically safe wearable battery still remains a challenge. Here, high performance and safe yarn-based battery is demonstrated by embedding active materials into inner structure of yarn and using water based electrolyte...
July 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaohong Zou, Qian Lu, Yijun Zhong, Kaiming Liao, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao
Gel-polymer electrolytes are considered as a promising candidate for replacing the liquid electrolytes to address the safety concerns in Li-O2 /air batteries. In this work, by taking advantage of the hydrogen bond between thermoplastic polyurethane and aerogel SiO2 in gel polymer, a highly crosslinked quasi-solid electrolyte (FST-GPE) with multifeatures of high ionic conductivity, high mechanical flexibility, favorable flame resistance, and excellent Li dendrite impermeability is developed. The resulting gel-polymer Li-O2 /air batteries possess high reaction kinetics and stabilities due to the unique electrode-electrolyte interface and fast O2 diffusion in cathode, which can achieve up to 250 discharge-charge cycles (over 1000 h) in oxygen gas...
July 23, 2018: Small
Ramandeep Vilkhu, Wesley Joo-Chen Thio, Piya Das Ghatak, Chandan K Sen, Anne C Co, Asimina Kiourti
We report a new class of textiles with electrochemical functions which, when moistened by a conductive liquid (saline solution, sweat, wound fluid, etc.), generate DC voltage and current levels capable of powering wearable electronics on the go. Contrary to previously reported power generation techniques, the proposed fabrics are fully flexible, feel and behave like regular clothing, do not include any rigid components, and provide DC power via moistening by readily available liquids. Our approach entails printed battery cells that are composed of silver and zinc electrodes deposited onto a polyester fabric to generate power in the microwatt range...
2018: IEEE Access: Practical Innovations, Open Solutions
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