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Attribution Biases

Philip Murphy, Richard P Bentall, Daniel Freeman, Suzanne O'Rourke, Paul Hutton
BACKGROUND: An influential psychological model of persecutory delusions proposed that they are caused by a bias towards holding others responsible for negative events (an externalising attributional bias), preventing the individual from becoming aware of underlying low self-esteem. An early version of the model predicted self-esteem would, therefore, be preserved in people with these delusions, but a later version suggested it would be unstable, and that there would be a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem, with the latter being lower...
October 9, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Suzanne Babyar, Taiza Santos, Tenysson Will-Lemos, Suleimy Mazin, Dylan Edwards, Michael Reding
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) versus Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) on Lateropulsion following stroke. METHODS: Patients with Stroke and Burke Lateropulsion Scale (BLS) scores greater than or equal to 2 gave informed consent to receive sinusoidal 1Hz DC (0-2 mA) anodal stimulation over the affected parietal cortex versus similar GVS with ipsilesional mastoidal anode. Seated haptic center of pressure (COP-X) was measured using an AMTI analog-to-digital forceplate...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ian H Stevenson
Generalized linear models (GLMs) have a wide range of applications in systems neuroscience describing the encoding of stimulus and behavioral variables, as well as the dynamics of single neurons. However, in any given experiment, many variables that have an impact on neural activity are not observed or not modeled. Here we demonstrate, in both theory and practice, how these omitted variables can result in biased parameter estimates for the effects that are included. In three case studies, we estimate tuning functions for common experiments in motor cortex, hippocampus, and visual cortex...
October 12, 2018: Neural Computation
Akifumi Hagiwara, Masaaki Hori, Julien Cohen-Adad, Misaki Nakazawa, Yuichi Suzuki, Akihiro Kasahara, Moeko Horita, Takuya Haruyama, Christina Andica, Tomoko Maekawa, Koji Kamagata, Kanako Kunishima Kumamaru, Osamu Abe, Shigeki Aoki
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the linearity, bias, intrascanner repeatability, and interscanner reproducibility of quantitative values derived from a multidynamic multiecho (MDME) sequence for rapid simultaneous relaxometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The NIST/ISMRM (National Institute of Standards and Technology/International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine) phantom, containing spheres with standardized T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD), and 10 healthy volunteers, were scanned 10 times on different days and 2 times during the same session, using the MDME sequence, on three 3 T scanners from different vendors...
September 5, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Michelle C Turner, Esther Gracia-Lavedan, Franco Momoli, Chelsea E Langer, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Michael Kundi, Milena Maule, Franco Merletti, Siegal Sadetzki, Roel Vermeulen, Alex Albert, Juan Alguacil, Nuria Aragones, Francesc Badia, Revital Bruchim, Gema Carretero, Noriko Kojimahara, Brigitte Lacour, Maria Morales-Suarez-Varela, Katja Radon, Thomas Remen, Tobias Weinmann, Naohito Yamaguchi, Elisabeth Cardis
BACKGROUND: MOBI-Kids is a 14-country case-control study designed to investigate the potential effects of electromagnetic field exposure from mobile telecommunications devices on brain tumor risk in children and young adults conducted from 2010-2016. This work describes differences in cellular telephone use and personal characteristics among interviewed participants and refusers responding to a brief non-respondent questionnaire. It also assesses the potential impact of non-participation selection bias on study findings...
October 1, 2018: Epidemiology
José M Venzal, Santiago Nava, Ligia V Hernández, Jorge Miranda, Arlei Marcili, Marcelo B Labruna
Ornithodoros marinkellei was described from larvae collected on Pteronotus spp. bats in Colombia and Panama. More recently, this tick was reported in the Brazilian Amazon. Because some morphometric differences were observed between O. marinkellei larvae from Colombia and Brazil, it was proposed that further investigations were needed to assess whether the differences could be attributed to intra- or inter-specific polymorphism. Herein, we collected O. marinkellei specimens in the type locality of Colombia, in Brazil, and in a new locality in Nicaragua, expanding the distribution of the species to Nicaragua...
October 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Angela Carter
Delinquent behavior is common during adolescence and may disrupt trajectories of labor market attainment. Estimates of the relationship between delinquency and employment are threatened by selection bias, as youth who engage in delinquency often differ substantially from youth who do not. The current study examined the association between adolescents' engagement in serious delinquency and four measures of occupational attainment in young adulthood: unemployment, personal earnings, employer-provided benefits, and occupational earnings...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Romina Rinaldi, Laurent Lefebvre, Wivine Blekic, Frank Laroi, Julien Laloyaux
INTRODUCTION: Impairment in Theory of mind (TOM) has frequently been associated with schizophrenia and with schizotypy. Studies have found that a tendency to over-attribute intentions and special meaning to events and to people is related to positive psychotic symptoms. Further, it has been suggested that this intentionality bias may be due to a broader deficit in context processing (CP). The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the relationship between positive schizotypy and both over-attribution of intentions and contextual processing...
October 6, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Ian R Reynolds, Danielle R Fixen, Bennett L Parnes, Hillary D Lum, Prajakta Shanbhag, Skotti Church, Sunny A Linnebur, Gretchen Orosz
OBJECTIVES: To understand patterns of marijuana use in community-dwelling older adults in Colorado. DESIGN: Anonymous survey. SETTING: Two academic geriatric primary care clinics. PARTICIPANTS: English-speaking individuals. MEASUREMENTS: We assessed self-reported characteristics and patterns of marijuana use and effect on targeted symptoms. Survey analysis focused on current users, defined as individuals who had used marijuana in the past 3 years...
October 6, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Kathy Ainul Møen, Laura Terragni, Bernadette Kumar, Esperanza Diaz
OBJECTIVE: To explore health care providers' (HCPs) experiences regarding cervical cancer screening (CCS) among immigrant women, their strategies to facilitate these consultations and their need for further information. DESIGN: Exploratory qualitative design. SETTING: HCPs who perform CCS: general practitioners, midwives and private gynaecologists, working in Oslo, Norway. SUBJECTS: We interviewed 26 general practitioners, 3 midwives and 3 gynaecologists...
October 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
Spencer W Beasley, Sue-Lynne Khor, Cassandra Boakes, Deborah Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Evidence from outside surgery suggests that meritocracy-based processes around selection tend to reduce, rather than increase, diversity. In recent years, the surgical training boards have gone to considerable effort to achieve greater transparency and fairness in their selection processes, and to identify those attributes that are believed to best predict future success as a surgeon. This is consistent with the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Diversity and Inclusion Plan, which places emphasis on gender equity and has goals that include increasing the attractiveness of surgery as a vocation for women, removing impediments to them applying to the surgical training programmes and removing any biases that might disadvantage them during the selection process...
October 4, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Pingping Li, Cai Zhou, Cuimei Cao, Wenqiang Wang, Changjun Jiang
We investigate the room-temperature, electric-field-mediated, non-volatile 180° switching of the unidirectional anisotropy field in an IrMn/CoFeB/Ta/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructure. The variation in exchange bias under different electric fields appears clearly in the magnetic hysteresis loops. The remnant magnetization as a function of electric field, as determined by static magnetic measurements, exhibits a non-volatile behavior, which is consistent with the results of the ferromagnetic resonance field as a function of electric field...
October 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zohreh Davoodi, Nicolás Bejerman, Cécile Richet, Denis Filloux, Safaa G Kumari, Elisavet K Chatzivassiliou, Serge Galzi, Charlotte Julian, Samira Samarfard, Verónica Trucco, Fabián Giolitti, Elvira Fiallo-Olivé, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Nader Asaad, Abdul Rahman Moukahel, Jomana Hijazi, Samia Mghandef, Jahangir Heydarnejad, Hossein Massumi, Arvind Varsani, Ralf G Dietzgen, Gordon W Harkins, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac
Alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV), which causes severe disease symptoms in alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) and is transmitted by the widespread aphid species, Aphis craccivora Koch, has been found throughout the Mediterranean basin as well as in Iran and Argentina. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of ALCV and attempt to determine whether the recent discovery and widespread detection of ALCV is attributable either to past diagnostic biases or to the emergence and global spread of the virus over the past few years...
October 4, 2018: Viruses
Jun An, Wen Wen, Zhen Wu, Xiaoang Wan
We examined the age-related variation in one type of inter-trial effect of visual search, the distractor previewing effect (DPE), in affectively neutral and affectively charged contexts. In Experiment 1, children, adolescents, and young adults were faster to identify the shape of a color target when the color of the current distractors had already been previewed than when the target had been previewed in the preceding target-absent trial, indicative of a color-based DPE. The results revealed a greater DPE in children than in adolescents and young adults, but it can be attributed to children's slower RTs than the other two groups...
October 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Luke F Heggeness, William V Lechner, Jeffrey A Ciesla
BACKGROUND: The relationship between depression and coping-oriented substance use is extensively documented; however, the cognitive processes moderating this bidirectional relationship are not well-understood. The present study investigated whether internal attribution bias coupled with a tendency to use drugs and/or alcohol to cope predicts increases in depression and daily-levels of general negative affectivity, sadness, and hostility. METHOD: Sixty-seven adults diagnosed with depression were recruited from out-patient treatment settings (66% female, 81% White, Mage  = 31, SDage  = 13...
September 18, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Susanne Roehr, Alexander Pabst, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
Purpose: To perform a systematic review and quantitative synthesis of studies on recent trends in dementia incidence in high-income countries (HIC), considering study quality. Methods: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible studies, that is, population-based/community-based prospective cohort studies investigating dementia incidence with similar methods over time, published after 1990. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two investigators...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Diana J Burgess, Barbara G Bokhour, Brooke A Cunningham, Tam Do, Johanne Eliacin, Howard S Gordon, Amy Gravely, Dina M Jones, Melissa R Partin, Charlene Pope, Somnath Saha, Brent C Taylor, Sarah E Gollust
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate narratives aimed at motivating providers with different pre-existing beliefs to address racial healthcare disparities. METHODS: Survey experiment with 280 providers. Providers were classified as high or low in attributing disparities to providers (HPA versus LPA) and were randomly assigned to a non-narrative control or 1 of 2 narratives: "Provider Success" (provider successfully resolved problem involving Black patient) and "Provider Bias" (Black patient experienced racial bias, which remained unresolved)...
September 3, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Kiwon Kim, Jun Hyuk Moon
A photoanode capable of high-efficiency water oxidation at low bias potential is essential for its practical application for photocathode-coupled tandem systems. To address this issue, a photoanode with low turn-on voltage for water oxidation and high charge separation efficiency at low bias potential is essential. In this study, we demonstrate the photoanode of the BiVO4 /ZnO three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous (BC) structure. ZnO has a relatively cathodic flat-band potential, which leads to low turn-on potential; the BiVO4 /ZnO 3D BC photoanode shows an onset potential of 0...
October 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lei Wang, Xiaohong Ji, Ting Wang, Qinyuan Zhang
Electrically driven red emission from MoS2-MoO2-MoO3 (MS-MO) hybrid-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices is first reported. MoO3 belts with high crystal quality and sufficient size are synthesized by thermal deposition. A layer of MS-MO hybrid is then produced on the belt surface to form MoO3/MS-MO core-shell by sulfurization. The devices exhibit unique electrical properties, nonlinear I-V curve and electric hysteresis characteristics at high applied biases (>2.4 V), where MS-MO hybrids act as electron transport channels...
September 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Parminder Kaur, Matthew J Longley, Hai Pan, Hong Wang, William C Copeland
Improper maintenance of the mitochondrial genome progressively disrupts cellular respiration and causes severe metabolic disorders commonly termed mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) is an essential component of the mtDNA replication machinery. We utilized single-molecule methods to examine the modes by which human mtSSB binds DNA to help define protein interactions at the mtDNA replication fork. Direct visualization of individual mtSSB molecules by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a random distribution of mtSSB tetramers bound to extended regions of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), strongly suggesting non-cooperative binding by mtSSB...
September 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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