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Attribution Biases

Alyssa J Moran, Neha Khandpur, Michele Polacsek, Eric B Rimm
Ultra-processed foods are industrially formulated products that are convenient, highly-palatable, and contain few whole ingredients. While popular among US households regardless of SES, these foods constitute a relatively large proportion of grocery spending among low-income households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Little is understood about the perceived factors influencing selection and consumption of these foods, particularly among households with children participating in SNAP...
December 11, 2018: Appetite
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Wisdom, bias, and balance: Toward a process-sensitive measurement of wisdom-related cognition" by Justin P. Brienza, Franki Y. H. Kung, Henri C. Santos, D. Ramona Bobocel and Igor Grossmann ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Sep 21, 2017, np). In the article, the original supplemental material has been revised to include a clarifying note to the Tests of model fit over larger sample (Samples C-G) section and post-peer review analyses added to the Post-peer review Factor Analytic Tests section...
December 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Mark Hamer, Adrian Bauman, Joshua A Bell, Emmanuel Stamatakis
Background: The purpose of a negative control is to reproduce a condition that cannot involve the hypothesized causal mechanism, but does involve the same sources of bias and confounding that may distort the primary association of interest. Observational studies suggest physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), although potential sources of bias, including reverse causation and residual confounding, make it difficult to infer causality. The aim was to employ a negative control outcome to explore the extent to which the association between physical activity and CVD mortality is explained by confounding...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Alastair J S Webb
OBJECTIVES: Vasodilating antihypertensives prevent stroke and potentially cerebral small vessel disease but their effects on cerebrovascular haemodynamics beyond blood pressure lowering are unclear. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Psychinfo, Health Business Elite and Health Management Information Consortium for randomized studies of vasodilating medications, compared to no treatment or nonvasodilators, that reported effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean blood flow velocity (MFV) or cerebrovascular reactivity...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Sarah Gramazio, Mara Cadinu, Stefano Pagliaro, Maria Giuseppina Pacilli
Women's representation in social media is becoming increasingly sexualized, even when they are victims of sexual harassment (SH). In the present research, we adopted a bystander approach to investigate the role of victims' sexualization on bystanders' reactions to an episode of SH. In Study 1, female participants read a fictitious newspaper article that described a workplace SH episode: According to condition, the article included a picture of the victim who was wearing either sexualized or nonsexualized clothing...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Hailu Wang, Ying Chen, Qin Zhang
Sadness has inconsistent effects on the scope of attention. These differing effects may be attributed to different levels of sadness induced in different experiments. Low levels of sadness can expand the scope of attention, but high levels can narrow it. In this study, we recruited 42 college students and induced different levels of sadness in them by having them view sad images continuously, and then we assigned them Navon's letter task. The results showed that among participants with local-processing bias, those at lower levels of sadness were slower to identify small letters than were those at high levels of sadness and control condition (watching neutral images)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Elodie Peyroux, Zelda Prost, Charlotte Danset-Alexandre, Lindsay Brenugat-Herne, Isabelle Carteau-Martin, Baptiste Gaudelus, Célia Jantac, David Attali, Isabelle Amado, Jérôme Graux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Julien Plasse, Nicolas Franck
Interactions between social cognition and symptoms of schizophrenia have been investigated, but mostly component by component. Here we tested the assumption that two categories of deficits exist depending on clinical profiles, one corresponding to a defect in social cognition - "under-social cognition" - and one corresponding to excessive attributions leading to social cognitive impairments - "over-social cognition". To conduct the investigation, we performed a Hierarchical Clustering Analysis using positive and negative symptoms in seventy patients with schizophrenia and we compared the clusters obtained to a group of healthy controls on social cognitive measures...
March 2019: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Shih-Hsien Yang, You-Teng Yao, Yong Xu, Che-Yi Lin, Yuan-Ming Chang, Yuen-Wuu Suen, Huabin Sun, Chen-Hsin Lien, Wenwu Li, Yen-Fu Lin
Power dissipation is a crucial problem as the packing density of transistors increases in modern integrated circuits. Tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), which have high energy filtering provided by band-to-band tunneling (BTBT), have been proposed as an alternative electronics architecture to decrease the energy loss in bias operation and to achieve steep switching at room temperature. Very recently, the BTBT behavior has been demonstrated in van der Waals heterostructures by using unintentionally doped semiconductors...
December 10, 2018: Nanotechnology
Jeanne Dachary-Bernard, Hélène Rey-Valette, Et Bénédicte Rulleau
Facing sea-level rise, scientists recommend adaptation measures to relocate the most vulnerable assets. This is of particular interest regarding coastal land use management issues. In order to address the acceptability of these measures, we use the choice experiment method to assess residents' preferences for different relocation policy measures that differs according to four attributes. A survey was implemented in the South of France involving 240 people evenly distributed between coastal and hinterland residents...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
David A Talan, Darin J Saltzman, Daniel A DeUgarte, Gregory J Moran
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses and a recent guideline acknowledge that conservative management of uncomplicated appendicitis with antibiotics can be successful for patients who wish to avoid surgery. However, guidance as to specific management does not exist. METHODS: PUBMED and EMBASE search of trials describing methods of conservative treatment was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies involving 2944 antibiotic-treated participants were identified...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Sana Amjad, Isaiah MacDonald, Thane Chambers, Alvaro Osornio-Vargas, Sujata Chandra, Don Voaklander, Maria B Ospina
BACKGROUND: Adverse outcomes in adolescent pregnancies have been attributed to both biological immaturity and social determinants of health (SDOH). The present systematic review evaluated the evidence on the association between SDOH and adverse maternal and birth outcomes in adolescent mothers. METHODS: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted to identify observational studies evaluating the relationship between SDOH and adverse adolescent pregnancy outcomes...
December 5, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Patrick T Davies, Jesse L Coe, Rochelle F Hentges, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Michael T Ripple
This study examined temperament dimensions of emotion as precursors of children's social information processing (SIP) of stressful peer events. Two hundred and forty-three preschool children (M = 4.60 years) and their primary caregivers participated in two measurement occasions spaced 2 years apart. Observations of temperamental anger, fearful distress, positive affect, and effortful control were assessed in multiple laboratory tasks across two visits at Wave 1. SIP assessments from vignettes of peer challenges were repeated across two waves and included: eye tracking measures of attention to peer emotion displays, hostile attribution bias, hostile solutions, and subjective distress...
December 5, 2018: Child Development
Tomoyuki Miyamoto, Masayuki Miyamoto
Background: The conversion rate and estimated risk of neurodegenerative diseases vary with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (IRBD). Methods: This retrospective cohort study examined 273 patients (213 men, 60 women) with polysomnographic-confirmed IRBD (192 and 81 patients in the Sleep Center [SC] cohort and Neurological Center [NC] cohort, respectively) who were followed longitudinally. The date of diagnosis was determined as the onset of an overt neurological syndrome...
September 2018: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Anouk van Dijk, Sander Thomaes, Astrid M G Poorthuis, Bram Orobio de Castro
Two experiments tested an intervention approach to reduce young children's hostile attribution bias and aggression: self-persuasion. Children with high levels of hostile attribution bias recorded a video-message advocating to peers why story characters who caused a negative outcome may have had nonhostile intentions (self-persuasion condition), or they simply described the stories (control condition). Before and after the manipulation, hostile attribution bias was assessed using vignettes of ambiguous provocations...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Joshua T Kersten, Nathan B Fethke
Technical advances in inertial measurement units (IMUs) with data logging functionality have enabled multi-day collection of fullshift upper arm postures and movements. Such data are useful for characterizing job-level exposures and, when coupled with task-level information, can inform interventions to mitigate high-exposure tasks. Previously reported methods for capturing task-level information, however, were limited primarily to self-report diaries or direct observation. In this study of machine-paced manufacturing workers (n=6), a low-cost radio frequency identification (RFID) system was used to collect information about when, and for how long, specific assembly tasks were performed during up to 14 consecutive work shifts (76 total work shifts across the six participants)...
February 2019: Applied Ergonomics
Soo Young Moon, Ji-Hyun Lim, Eun-Hee Kim, Youngwon Nam, Kyung-Sang Yu, Kyung Taek Hong, Jung Yoon Choi, Che Ry Hong, Hyery Kim, Hyoung Jin Kang, Hee Young Shin, Kyunghoon Lee, Junghan Song, Soo-Youn Lee, Sang Hoon Song
INTRODUCTION: Concentrations of 6-thioguanine (6TG) nucleotides and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6MMP) nucleotides in RBCs were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This assay was validated for clinical use and was applied to blood samples from patients taking mercaptopurine (6MP). METHODS: RBCs were hemolyzed and deproteinized using perchloric acid, followed by heating for the hydrolysis of nucleotides, and the resultant base was measured using LC-MS/MS...
November 28, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Sophia N Wassermann, Edward J Hind-Ozan, Julia Seaman
Background: Captive cetacean attractions are growing in number globally, their operators citing entertainment, education, and conservation as benefits. Those for and against developing such attractions claim public support. Previous public opinion research, however, shows little consensus, partly due to the introduction of biases in study design that influence participants' responses. Those involved in, or concerned with, developing and licensing these attractions need to better understand what drives the lack of consensus to take socially-acceptable decisions...
2018: PeerJ
Zhanqi Chen, Richard T Corlett, Xiaoguo Jiao, Sheng-Jie Liu, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Shichang Zhang, Huan Li, Ren Lai, Chengbo Long, Rui-Chang Quan
Lactation is a mammalian attribute, and the few known nonmammal examples have distinctly different modalities. We document here milk provisioning in a jumping spider, which compares functionally and behaviorally to lactation in mammals. The spiderlings ingest nutritious milk droplets secreted from the mother's epigastric furrow until the subadult stage. Milk is indispensable for offspring survival in the early stages and complements their foraging in later stages. Maternal care, as for some long-lived vertebrates, continues after the offspring reach maturity...
November 30, 2018: Science
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and health-care systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of dementia as captured by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, and highlight the most important messages for clinicians and neurologists...
November 26, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Sarah J Donkers, Katherine Chan, Stephan Milosavljevic, Maureen Pakosh, Kristin E Musselman
Initiatives to increase physical activity (PA) are most effective when combined with behavior change strategies (BCS). However, this is not routinely done and perhaps can be attributed to health care professionals' (HCP) lack of confidence and understanding of how to best apply BCS. This review aimed to identify and synthesize the existing literature describing methods used to train HCP to deliver BCS for PA promotion for individuals living with neurological conditions. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
November 29, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
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