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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120933/dsrna-sensing-induces-loss-of-cell-identity
#1
Rongying Zhou, Gaofeng Wang, Dongwon Kim, Sooah Kim, Nasif Islam, Ruosi Chen, Zixiao Wang, Ang Li, Edward F McCarthy, Li Li, Zhiqi Hu, Luis A Garza
How cell and tissue identity persist despite constant cell turnover is an important biologic question with cell therapy implications. While many mechanisms exist, we investigated the controls for site-specific gene expression in skin given its diverse structures and functions. For example, the transcriptome of in vivo palmoplantar (i.e. volar) epidermis is globally unique including Keratin 9 (KRT9). While volar fibroblasts have the capacity to induce KRT9 in non-volar keratinocytes, we demonstrate here that volar keratinocytes continue to express KRT9 in vitro solo-cultures...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120295/characterization-of-induced-tissue-specific-stem-cells-from-pancreas-by-a-synthetic-self-replicative-rna
#2
Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Yoshiki Nakashima, Naoya Kobayashi, Issei Saitoh, Masami Watanabe, Hirofumi Noguchi
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have significant implications for overcoming most of the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Furthermore, our recent study demonstrated the generation of induced tissue-specific stem (iTS) cells by transient overexpression of the reprogramming factors using a plasmid combined with tissue-specific selection. In this study, we were able to generate RNA-based iTS cells that utilize a single, synthetic, self-replicating VEE-RF RNA replicon expressing four reprogramming factors (OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and GLIS1)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119689/jarid2-and-the-prc2-complex-regulate-skeletal-muscle-differentiation-through-regulation-of-canonical-wnt-signaling
#3
Abhinav Adhikari, Judith Davie
BACKGROUND: JARID2 is a non-catalytic member of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which is known to regulate developmental target genes in embryonic stem cells. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the modulation of Wnt signaling by JARID2 during murine skeletal muscle differentiation. RESULTS: We show that JARID2 is expressed in proliferating myoblasts, but downregulated upon muscle differentiation. Unexpectedly, depletion of JARID2 or the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, EZH2, inhibited differentiation, suggesting that JARID2 and the PRC2 complex are required to initiate this process...
August 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117507/quinoline-galactose-hybrids-bind-selectively-with-high-affinity-to-a-galectin-8-n-terminal-domain
#4
Kumar Bhaskar Pal, Mukul Mahanti, Xiaoli Huang, Stella Persson, Anders P Sundin, Fredrik R Zetterberg, Stina Oredsson, Hakon Leffler, Ulf J Nilsson
Quinolines, indolizines, and coumarins are well known structural elements in many biologically active molecules. In this report, we have developed straightforward methods to incorporate quinoline, indolizine, and coumarin structures into galactoside derivatives under robust reaction conditions for the discovery of glycomimetic inhibitors of the galectin family of proteins that are involved in immunological and tumor-promoting biological processes. Evaluation of the quinoline, indolizine and coumarin-derivatised galactosides as inhibitors of the human galectin-1, 2, 3, 4N (N-terminal domain), 4C (C-terminal domain), 7, 8N, 8C, 9N, and 9C revealed quinoline derivatives that selectively bound galectin-8N, a galectin with key roles in lymphangiogenesis, tumor progression, and autophagy, with up to nearly 60-fold affinity improvements relative to methyl β-d-galactopyranoside...
August 17, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117294/combinations-of-four-or-more-cpgs-methylation-present-equivalent-predictive-value-for-mgmt-expression-and-temozolomide-therapeutic-prognosis-in-gliomas
#5
Rui-Chao Chai, Ke-Nan Zhang, Yu-Qing Liu, Fan Wu, Zheng Zhao, Kuan-Yu Wang, Tao Jiang, Yong-Zhi Wang
AIMS: The pyrosequencing (PSQ) has been regarded as the gold standard for MGMT promoter methylation testing in gliomas. However, various CpG combinations are currently used in clinical practice. We aimed to clarify how and how many CpGs combined is robust enough to predict MGMT mRNA expression and therapeutic prognosis of patients. METHODS: Total 223 patients with WHO III/IV gliomas were enrolled from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, including two independent cohorts, the eight-site cohort (with CpGs 75-82 tested) and the seven-site cohort (with CpGs 72-78 tested)...
August 16, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117023/clinical-neuroimaging-and-histopathological-features-of-gliomatosis-cerebri-a-systematic-review-based-on-synthesis-of-published-individual-patient-data
#6
Marios K Georgakis, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Dimitrios Spinos, Nikolaos G Dimitriou, Athanasios P Kyritsis, Ulrich Herrlinger, Eleni Th Petridou
INTRODUCTION: Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare fatal widespread infiltrating CNS tumor. As consistent disease features have not been established, the tumor comprises a diagnostic challenge. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for published case reports and case series on patients with histologically confirmed GC. Clinical, diagnostic, neuroimaging, histopathological, and molecular data on individual or summary patient level were extracted and analyzed...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116865/role-of-astrocytic-mecp2-in-regulation-of-cns-myelination-by-affecting-oligodendrocyte-and-neuronal-physiology-and-axo-glial-interactions
#7
Buch Lipi, Langhnoja Jaldeep, Pillai Prakash
Astrocytes perform several critical functions such as promoting neuronal maturation, neuronal survival, maintaining and supporting neurons and oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes participate in the formation of nodes of Ranvier. Recently, studies emphasizing on the role of astrocytes in regulating myelination by secreting pro-myelinating factors like growth factors, neurotrophins and ECM proteins, have been investigated by many researchers. Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2), an epigenetic protein, binds to CpG islands in the genome and induces multiple gene regulatory functions by conforming changes in the chromatin structure and resulting in cell-specific gene expression...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116794/-fusobacterium-nucleatum-infection-in-colorectal-cancer-linking-inflammation-dna-mismatch-repair-and-genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations
#8
Minoru Koi, Yoshiki Okita, John M Carethers
It has been recently reported that the population of Fusobacterium , particularly Fusobacterium nucleatum ( Fn ), is overrepresented in colorectal cancers and adenomas. The promoting effects of Fn infection on adenoma and/or carcinoma formation have been shown in ApcMin/+ mice. Characteristics of Fn -associated CRC were identified through studies using human CRC cohorts, and include right-sided colon location, CpG island methylation phenotype-high (CIMP-H), high level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H), and poor patient prognosis...
2018: Journal of the anus, rectum and colon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116250/molecular-characterization-of-the-1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate-synthase-gene-family-in-artemisia-annua
#9
Fangyuan Zhang, Wanhong Liu, Jing Xia, Junlan Zeng, Lien Xiang, Shunqin Zhu, Qiumin Zheng, He Xie, Chunxian Yang, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
Artemisia annua produces artemisinin, an effective antimalarial drug. In recent decades, the later steps of artemisinin biosynthesis have been thoroughly investigated; however, little is known about the early steps of artemisinin biosynthesis. Comparative transcriptomics of glandular and filamentous trichomes and 13 CO2 radioisotope study have shown that the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, rather than the mevalonate pathway, plays an important role in artemisinin biosynthesis. In this study, we have cloned three 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase ( DXS ) genes from A ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116142/folic-acid-improves-the-inflammatory-response-in-lps-activated-thp-1-macrophages
#10
Mirian Samblas, J Alfredo Martínez, Fermín Milagro
DNA methylation has been suggested as a regulatory mechanism behind some inflammatory processes. The physiological actions of methyl donors, such as folic acid, choline, and vitamin B12 on inflammation-related disease have been associated with the synthesis of the universal methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid, choline, vitamin B12 , and a combination of all on preventing the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammatory response in human THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cells...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115428/dna-methylation-signatures-biomarkers-of-drug-and-alcohol-abuse
#11
REVIEW
Dolly Mahna, Sanjeev Puri, Shweta Sharma
DNA sequence is a powerful tool that can be used for an individual's identification and investigation of various abnormalities in the genome. However, recent studies have identified other heritable changes by epigenetic mechanisms that cause changes in gene expression without altering the DNA sequence itself. In particular, DNA methylation mediates long-lasting changes in gene promoters, which makes it an appealing epigenetic mechanism to study variation in methylation status that characterizes the extent of drug abuse...
July 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113663/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-changes-influencing-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Emma Nilsson, Anna Benrick, Milana Kokosar, Anna Krook, Eva Lindgren, Thomas Källman, Mihaela M Martis, Kurt Højlund, Charlotte Ling, Elisabet Stener-Victorin
Context: Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite this, the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in PCOS are largely unknown. Objective: To investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in skeletal muscle from women with PCOS and controls and relate to phenotypic variation. Design/Participants: In a case-control study, skeletal muscle biopsies from women with PCOS (n=17) and age, weight and BMI matched controls (n=14) were analyzed by array-based DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113656/targeted-molecular-analysis-in-adrenocortical-carcinomas-a-strategy-towards-improved-personalized-prognostication
#13
Juliane Lippert, Silke Appenzeller, Raimunde Liang, Silviu Sbiera, Stefan Kircher, Barbara Altieri, Indrajit Nanda, Isabel Weigand, Andrea Gehrig, Sonja Steinhauer, Renzo J M Riemens, Andreas Rosenwald, Clemens R Müller, Matthias Kroiss, Simone Rost, Martin Fassnacht, Cristina L Ronchi
Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has a heterogeneous prognosis and current medical therapies have limited efficacy in its advanced stages. Genome-wide multi-omics-studies identified molecular patterns associated with clinical outcome. Objective: Here, we aimed at identifying a molecular signature useful for both personalized prognostic stratification and druggable targets, using methods applicable in clinical routine. Design: 117 tumor samples from 107 ACC patients were analyzed...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112564/-sophoridine-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-human-gastric-cancer-mkn45-cells-and-promotes-apoptosis
#14
Xu-Dong Chen, Xin-Yu Hua, Xiu-Min Kong, Xiao-Lan Wang
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of sophoridine on the proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer MKN45 cells and the possible mechanism. MKN45 cells were randomly divided into control and sophoridine (including 6 subgroups) groups. Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric method. The protein expression of high mobility group-box 3 (HMGB3) was observed by immunocytochemical staining and Western blot. Hoechst 33342 staining method was used to observe the morphological changes of cells treated with sophoridine...
August 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111819/inhibition-of-histone-lysine-specific-demethylase-1-elicits-breast-tumor-immunity-and-enhances-antitumor-efficacy-of-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#15
Ye Qin, Shauna N Vasilatos, Lin Chen, Hao Wu, Zhishen Cao, Yumei Fu, Min Huang, Anda M Vlad, Binfeng Lu, Steffi Oesterreich, Nancy E Davidson, Yi Huang
Immunotherapy strategies have been emerging as powerful weapons against cancer. Early clinical trials reveal that overall response to immunotherapy is low in breast cancer patients, suggesting that effective strategies to overcome resistance to immunotherapy are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated whether epigenetic reprograming by modulating histone methylation could enhance effector T lymphocyte trafficking and improve therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade in breast cancer with focus on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype...
August 15, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111648/compensatory-expression-of-nur77-and-nurr1-regulates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-inflammatory-signaling-in-astrocytes
#16
Katriana A Popichak, Sean L Hammond, Julie A Moreno, Maryam F Afzali, Donald S Backos, Richard D Slayden, Steven Safe, Ronald B Tjalkens
Inflammatory activation of glial cells promotes loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB), regulates the expression of multiple neuroinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in activated glial cells that are damaging to neurons. Thus, inhibition of NF-κB signaling in glial cells could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention of neuroinflammatory injury. Nuclear orphan receptors in the NR4A family, including NR4A1 (Nur77) and NR4A2 (Nurr1), can inhibit the inflammatory effects of NFκB but there are no approved drugs that target these receptors...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111392/-all-trans-retinoic-acid-and-decitabine-synergistically-induce-anti-leukemia-effect-on-u937-cell-line-and-newly-diagnosed-elder-aml-patients
#17
Wei-Min Dong, Yang Cao, Li-Li Xiang, Yan Lin, Yue Liu, Jian-Nong Cen, Xiao-Bao Xie, Wei-Ying Gu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of all transretinoicacid(ATRA) combined with decitabine (5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine;DAC) on DNA methylation and gene expression of p16INK4a (p16) and retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ), and to explore their combined anti neoplastic effect on U937 cells and newly diagnose delder acute myeloid leukemia(AML) patients. METHODS: The expression levels of p16 and RARβ were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Methylation-specific PCR was used to analyze their methylation status...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111013/-effects-of-n-and-zn-interaction-on-growth-yield-and-active-components-of-agastache-rugosa
#18
Qi Xue, Kang-Cai Wang, Yong-Fu Liang, Li Sui, Jia-Ning Yi
The study is aimed to explore the effect of combination use of nitrogen(N) and zinc(Zn) fertilizers on the growth, yield and the effective components of Agastache rugosa. A. rugosa was grown under two N application rate (120, 300 kg·hm⁻²) and five Zn levels (0, 20, 50, 100,150 kg·hm⁻²) under field condition. The effect of the treatments on the physiological indicators, distribution of nitrogen and zinc and volatile oil components of A. rugosa were studied. The results showed that the combination use of N and Zn could significantly affect the growth and development, yield and volatile oil components of A...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110985/seed-specific-gene-mother-of-ft-and-tfl1%C3%AF-mft%C3%AF-involved-in-embryogenesis-hormones-and-stress-responses-in-dimocarpus-longan-lour
#19
Yukun Chen, Xiaoping Xu, Xiaohui Chen, Yan Chen, Zihao Zhang, Xu Xuhan, Yuling Lin, Zhongxiong Lai
Mother of FT and TFL1 ( MFT ) belongs to phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family, which plays an important role in flowering time regulation, seed development, and germination. To gain insight into the molecular function of DlMFT in Dimocarpus longan Lour., we isolated DlMFT and its promoter sequence from longan embryogenic callus (EC). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the promoter contained multiphytohormones and light responsive regulatory elements. Subcellular localization showed that the given the DlMFT signal localized in the nucleus, expression profiling implied that DlMFT showed significant upregulation during somatic embryogenesis (SE) and zygotic embryogenesis (ZE), and particular highly expressed in late or maturation stages...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110613/methylation-status-of-the-putative-pax6-promoter-in-olive-ridley-sea-turtle-embryos-with-eye-defects-an-initial-approach
#20
Rodolfo Martín-Del-Campo, Annelisse Bárcenas-Ibarra, Itzel Sifuentes-Romero, Raúl Llera-Herrera, Alejandra García-Gasca
Normal development involves the interplay of genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Pax6 is an eye-selector factor responsible for initiating the regulatory cascade for the development of the eyes. For the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), a threatened species, eye malformations have been reported. In order to study the DNA methylation status of the putative promoter of the Pax6 gene in embryos with ocular malformations, an exploratory study was carried out in which DNA was isolated from embryos with anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and cyclopia, as well as from their normal counterparts...
August 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
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