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Methylation promoter

Yongjie Lu, Shunyao Liao, Wenling Tu, Bo Yang, Shasha Liu, Xue Pei, Dachang Tao, Yilu Lu, Yongxin Ma, Yuan Yang, Yunqiang Liu
Some X-linked genes necessary for spermiogenesis are specifically activated in the post-meiotic germ cells. However, the regulatory mechanism about this activation is not clearly understood. Here, we examined the potential mechanism controlling the transcriptional activation of the mouse testis specific gene A8 (Tsga8) gene in round spermatids. We observed that the Tsga8 expression was negatively correlated with the methylation level of the CpG sites in its core promoter. During spermatogenesis, the Tsga8 promoter was methylated in spermatogonia, and then demethylated in spermatocytes...
December 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Mohammed L Ibrahim, John D Klement, Chunwan Lu, Priscilla S Redd, Wei Xiao, Dafeng Yang, Darren D Browning, Natasha M Savage, Phillip J Buckhaults, Herbert C Morse, Kebin Liu
IL-10 functions as a suppressor of colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer, but it is also a risk locus associated with ulcerative colitis. The mechanism underlying the contrasting roles of IL-10 in inflammation and colon cancer is unknown. We report here that inflammation induces the accumulation of CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that express high levels of IL-10 in colon tissue. IL-10 induces the activation of STAT3 that directly binds to the Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b promoters to activate their expression, resulting in DNA hypermethylation at the Irf8 promoter to silence IRF8 expression in colon epithelial cells...
December 11, 2018: Cell Reports
David Goricanec, Franz Hagn
G-proteins are essential switch points at the cell membrane that control downstream signaling by their ability to adopt an inactive, GDP-bound or an active, GTP-bound state. Among other exchange factors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induce exchange of GDP to GTP and thus promote the active state of the G-protein. The nucleotide-binding α subunit of the G-protein undergoes major conformational changes upon nucleotide binding. Thus, an NMR analysis of the two distinct nucleotide-bound states is essential for a more detailed understanding of associated structural changes...
December 11, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Shimeng Liu, Ping Yin, Stacy A Kujawa, John S Coon, Ijeoma Okeigwe, Serdar E Bulun
Progesterone and its receptor, PR, are essential for uterine leiomyoma (LM, a.k.a., fibroid) tumorigenesis, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The receptor activator of NF-κB (RANKL) was recently identified as a novel progesterone/PR-responsive gene that plays an important role in promoting LM growth. Here, we used RANKL as a representative gene to investigate how steroid hormone, genetic, and epigenetic signals are integrated to regulate LM stem cell (LSC) function. We demonstrated that RANKL specifically upregulates LSC proliferation through activation of Cyclin D1...
December 11, 2018: Oncogene
Naifei Chen, Gang Zhao, Xu Yan, Zheng Lv, Hongmei Yin, Shilin Zhang, Wei Song, Xueli Li, Lingyu Li, Zhonghua Du, Lin Jia, Lei Zhou, Wei Li, Andrew R Hoffman, Ji-Fan Hu, Jiuwei Cui
BACKGROUND: Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI1), an ETS transcription factor family member, acts as an oncogenic driver in hematological malignancies and promotes tumor growth in solid tumors. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the activation of this proto-oncogene in tumors. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining showed that FLI1 is aberrantly overexpressed in advanced stage and metastatic breast cancers. Using a CRISPR Cas9-guided immunoprecipitation assay, we identify a circular RNA in the FLI1 promoter chromatin complex, consisting of FLI1 exons 4-2-3, referred to as FECR1...
December 11, 2018: Genome Biology
Wioletta E Pluskota, Piotr Pupel, Katarzyna Głowacka, Sylwia B Okorska, Andrzej Jerzmanowski, Hiroyuki Nonogaki, Ryszard J Górecki
The expression of SlNP24 encoding osmotin was studied in germinating tomato seeds Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Moneymaker. The results show that the accumulation of the transcripts of SlNP24 and its potential upstream regulator TERF1 encoding an ethylene response factor was induced by ethylene and methyl jasmonate in germinating tomato seeds. There was no effect of gibberellins on the expression of the genes studied. The expression of SlNP24 was localized in the micropylar region of the endosperm of tomato seeds...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Alexandros Papachristodoulou, Rea Deborah Signorell, Beat Werner, Davide Brambilla, Paola Luciani, Mustafa Cavusoglu, Joanes Grandjean, Manuela Silginer, Markus Rudin, Ernst Martin, Michael Weller, Patrick Roth, Jean-Christophe Leroux
In glioblastoma, the benefit from temozolomide chemotherapy is largely limited to a subgroup of patients (30-35%) with tumors exhibiting methylation of the promoter region of the O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. In order to allow more patients to benefit from this treatment, we explored magnetic resonance image-guided microbubble-enhanced low-intensity pulsed focused ultrasound (LIFU) to transiently open the blood-brain barrier and deliver a first-in-class liposome-loaded small molecule MGMT inactivator in mice bearing temozolomide-resistant gliomas...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Wen Feng, Lei Zhou, Haifei Wang, Zhengzheng Hu, Xiaomei Wang, Jianlian Fu, Aiguo Wang, Jian-Feng Liu
DNA methylation plays essential roles in regulating the activity of genes and may contribute to understanding the potential epigenetic biomarkers response to viruses. To explore the function of DNA methylation of protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 1 (PACSNI1) promoter, herein we performed the bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis to verify hypermethylation and downregulation of PACSIN1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of pig as the vitro model...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jin-Lu Yu, Chao Li, Li-He Che, Yu-Hao Zhao, Yun-Bao Guo
The diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is consequently accompanied by cognitive decline. The present study set out to define the critical role played by long noncoding RNA H19 (lncRNA H19) in the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, as well as oxidative stress (OS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM mice through regulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) methylation. The expression of lncRNA H19 in the hippocampal neurons and surviving neurons were detected. Hippocampal neurons were cultured and transfected with oe-H19, sh-H19, oe-IGF2, or sh-IGF2, followed by detection of the expressions of IGF2 and apoptosis-related genes...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Francesca Fiory, Paola Mirra, Cecilia Nigro, Francesca Chiara Pignalosa, Federica Zatterale, Luca Ulianich, Nella Prevete, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Claudia Miele
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), catalyzing the conversion of tyrosine into l-DOPA, is the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Defects in insulin action contribute to alterations of TH expression and/or activity in the brain and insulin increases TH levels in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-treated neuronal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of TH by insulin have not been elucidated yet. Using PC12 cells, we show for the first time that insulin increases TH expression in a biphasic manner, with a transient peak at 2 hr and a delayed response at 16 hr, which persists for up to 24 hr...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jason K Sa, Seung Won Choi, Junfei Zhao, Yeri Lee, Jing Zhang, Doo-Sik Kong, Jung Won Choi, Ho Jun Seol, Jung-Il Lee, Antonio Iavarone, Raul Rabadan, Do-Hyun Nam
Hypermutagenesis refers to marked increase in the number of mutations due to continuous mutagenic process. Hypermutated tumors, have being found in several tumor types, are associated with inherited or acquired alterations in DNA repair pathways. Hypermutation has been observed in a subset of adult glioma patients as a direct result of temozolomide(TMZ)-induced mutagenesis. In present study, we have identified a rare subset of treatment-naïve adult gliomas with de novo hypermutator phenotype and explored the evolution of spontaneous and treatment-induced hypermutagenesis...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Zhuoqi Xuan, Jianming Huang, Lin Gao, Yong Wang, Jiandong Wang, Yueming Sun
Although EphB3 expression is down-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells compared with normal intestinal epithelial cells, the relationship between EphB3 expression and clinicopathological parameters in CRC is unclear. We examined EphB3 expression in 128 CRC tissue specimens and in 19 adenoma specimens using immunohistochemistry. The relationships between EphB3 expression and clinicopathological parameters, KRAS mutations, BRAF V600E mutation, MSI and survival were evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, respectively...
December 7, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Yuan Liu, Wenbo Wang, Ziying Zou, Zonghai Hu, Quanshui Fan, Jie Xiong
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been classified as a strictly hepatotropic pathogen for a long time, and hepatocytes are target cells for HCV infection. More and more studies showed non-liver cells supported HCV entry and replication, such as macrophages. The mechanisms of HCV entry into macrophages are still not clear. AIMS: This study aims to determine the way of HCV entry into macrophages. METHODS: Cell culture-derived infectious HCV particles (HCVcc) were prepared using Huh7 cells transfected with HCV RNA...
December 10, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Jing Jin, Tiantian Guo, Yongdong Guo, Jianghui Liu, Feng Qu, Yutong He
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancer types in the world, with a widely varying incidence between different regions. Zinc deficiency (ZD) is very common in high‑risk areas for esophageal cancer. Dietary ZD is reported to be associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the current study, the effects of ZD on tumorigenesis and expression of inflammatory factors were investigated in mice. It was identified that a ZD diet advanced ESCC and increased the expression of cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) prior to the occurrence of ESCC in mice...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Ahmad Fudhaili, Nal Ae Yoon, Sukmin Kang, Jinhyun Ryu, Joo Yeon Jeong, Dong Hoon Lee, Sang Soo Kang
Zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36) is an AU‑rich element protein that binds to 3'‑untranslated regions and promotes the decay of target mRNAs. Downregulation of ZFP36 expression in turn results in stabilization of target mRNAs. A recent study indicated that downregulation of ZFP36 expression in human liver cancer is caused by epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of resveratrol (Res) to induce ZFP36 expression. Promoter methylation was analyzed using methylation‑sensitive restriction analysis...
November 30, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yang Zhang, Junwei Zhu
Glioma originates from the glial cells of the spine or brain, and promoter methylation of O6‑methylguanine‑DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) can promote the chemosensitivity of glioma. The present study aimed to reveal the key genes implicated in MGMT promoter methylation in patients with glioma. RNA‑sequencing data and methylation data for glioma were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Following expression characteristic analysis and differential expression analysis using unsupervised hierarchical clustering and a rank sum test, the feature genes were identified between high and low methylation groups...
December 4, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yue Zhang, Chao Wang, Xiaoxu Liu, Qian Yang, Hongliang Ji, Mengjun Yang, Manman Xu, Yunyan Zhou, Wei Xie, Zhuojuan Luo, Chengqi Lin
X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting are two classic epigenetic regulatory processes that cause mono-allelic gene expression. In female mammals, mono-allelic expression of the long non-coding RNA gene X-Inactive Specific Transcript (XIST) is essential for initiation of X chromosome inactivation upon differentiation. We have previously demonstrated that the central factor of super elongation complex-like 3 (SEC-L3), AFF3, is enriched at gamete differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinted loci and regulates the imprinted gene expression...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Yun-Cheol Chae, Ji-Young Kim, Jin Woo Park, Kee-Beom Kim, Hyein Oh, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Sang-Beom Seo
Posttranslational modifications of the Forkhead family transcription factor, FOXO1, have been known to have important regulatory implications in its diverse activities. Several types of modifications of FOXO1, including acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination, have been reported. However, lysine methylation of FOXO1 has not yet been identified. Here, we reported that FOXO1 is methylated by G9a at K273 residue in vitro and in vivo. Methylation of FOXO1 by G9a increased interaction between FOXO1 and a specific E3 ligase, SKP2, and decreased FOXO1 protein stability...
December 7, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Lifang Zhang, Yilin Qi, Zhier ALuo, Siqi Liu, Zhiwang Zhang, Lei Zhou
The liver plays a critical role in lipid metabolism. Hepatic dysfunction is not only the direct cause of fatty liver disease, but the main risk factor for obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. So far, therapeutic strategies against fatty liver disease are very limited. Betaine is a methyl donor. Current studies reported that the intake of betaine decreases body fat and is beneficial for treatment of fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown...
December 10, 2018: Food & Function
Hu Peng, Lin-Yan Wan, Jia-Jie Liang, Yan-Qiong Zhang, Wen-Bing Ai, Jiang-Feng Wu
Increasing evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene or protein expression; however, their function in the progression of hepatic fibrosis remains unclear. Hepatic fibrosis is a continuous wound-healing process caused by numerous chronic hepatic diseases, and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is generally considered to be a pivotal step in hepatic fibrosis. In the process of hepatic fibrosis, some lncRNAs regulates diverse cellular processes. Here are several examples: the lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and liver fibrosis-associated lncRNA1 (lnc-LFAR1) promote HSC activation in the progression of hepatic fibrosis via the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway; the lncRNA HIF 1 alpha-antisense RNA 1 (HIF1A-AS1) and Maternally expressed gene 3 reduce HSC activation which are associated with DNA methylation; the lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1, Homeobox (HOX) transcript antisense RNA and MALAT1 promote HSC activation as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs); the long intergenic non-coding RNA-p21 (lncRNA-p21) and Growth arrest-specific transcript 5 reduce HSC activation as ceRNAs...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
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