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Acquired weakness

Isabel Pino Peña, Veronika Cheplygina, Sofia Paschaloudi, Morten Vuust, Jesper Carl, Ulla Møller Weinreich, Lasse Riis Østergaard, Marleen de Bruijne
PURPOSE: A method for automatically quantifying emphysema regions using High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) scans of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that does not require manually annotated scans for training is presented. METHODS: HRCT scans of controls and of COPD patients with diverse disease severity are acquired at two different centers. Textural features from co-occurrence matrices and Gaussian filter banks are used to characterize the lung parenchyma in the scans...
2018: PloS One
Mustafa R Bashir, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony C Gamst, Kathryn J Fowler, Michael Ohliger, Shetal N Shah, Adina Alazraki, Andrew T Trout, Cynthia Behling, Daniela S Allende, Rohit Loomba, Arun Sanyal, Jeffrey Schwimmer, Joel E Lavine, Wei Shen, James Tonascia, Mark L Van Natta, Adrija Mamidipalli, Jonathan Hooker, Kris V Kowdley, Michael S Middleton, Claude B Sirlin
BACKGROUND: The liver R2* value is widely used as a measure of liver iron but may be confounded by the presence of hepatic steatosis and other covariates. PURPOSE: To identify the most influential covariates for liver R2* values in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data. POPULATION: Baseline data from 204 subjects enrolled in NAFLD/NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) treatment trials...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Corentine Alauzet, Fabien Aujoulat, Alain Lozniewski, Hélène Marchandin
nim genes are associated, in combination with other factors, with acquired resistance to metronidazole (MTZ) in anaerobes. These genes encode 5-nitroimidazole reductase enzymes (Nim proteins) that reduce MTZ into an inactive compound. Eleven variants (nimA to nimK) are currently described in anaerobes with either a chromosomal or a plasmidic location. Mostly found in members of the Bacteroides fragilis group, nim genes were demonstrated in anaerobic taxa outside the phylum Bacteroidetes. Nitroreductase enzymes, weakly related to those found in Bacteroidetes but associated with MTZ inactivation, were also characterized both in anaerobic and non-anaerobic taxa...
October 10, 2018: Anaerobe
Muhammad Sohail, Zakia Latif
INTRODUCTION: The behavior of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from central venous catheter-related infection was evaluated to determine its biofilm potential, antimicrobial resistance, and adhesion genes. METHODS: A total of 1,156 central venous catheters (CVC) were evaluated to screen for pathogens. Antimicrobial sensitivity, biofilm formation potential, and molecular analysis of MRSA were examined following standard guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 1,156 samples, 882 (76%) were colonized by bacteria or candida...
September 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Raymond S W Tsang, Tauqeer Ahmad, Frances B Jamieson, Gregory J Tyrrell
Objectives: Neisseria meningitidis is rarely penicillin resistant. We describe WGS analysis of a penicillin-resistant N. meningitidis collected from a case of invasive meningococcal disease. Methods: Serogrouping, serotyping and serosubtyping were performed with specific antibodies. β-Lactamase was detected by nitrocefin. MICs were determined by Etest and agar dilution. Sequencing of N. meningitidis genomes was done on the Illumina MiSeq platform and genome data were analysed using the Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence Database (BIGSdb) on the PubMLST Neisseria website (https://pubmlst...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Zhicheng Qian, Ming Yang, Lin Li, Yaolong Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the diaphragmatic dysfunction (DD) as a predictor of weaning outcome. BACKGROUND: Successful weaning depends on several factors: muscle strength, cardiac, respiratory and metabolic. Acquired weakness in mechanical ventilation is a growing important cause of weaning failure. With the development of ultrasonography, DD can be evaluated with ultrasound in weakness patients to predict weaning outcomes. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline, WanFang Data and CNKI were systematically searched from the inception to September 2017...
October 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Karin M Felten-Barentsz, Roel van Oorsouw, Antonius J C Haans, J Bart Staal, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Maria G W Nijhuis-van der Sanden
BACKGROUND: Intensive Care Unit Acquired Weakness can be mitigated by early activity and progressive mobilization. Hydrotherapy enables patients to work on their recovery in a very early stage. This may lead to higher levels of self-efficacy, subsequently higher activity-rates and faster functional recovery. Hydrotherapy might positively affect the regaining of control, hope and trust. Our aim is to explore patient perspective regarding the impact of hydrotherapy on critically ill ventilated patients...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Mat Goebel, Christopher Tainter, Christopher Kahn, James V Dunford, John Serra, Jodie Pierce, J Joelle Donofrio
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used with increasing frequency and left in place for longer periods of time. Prior publications have focused on the mechanics of troubleshooting the device itself. We aim to describe the epidemiology of LVAD patient presentations to emergency medical services (EMS), prehospital assessments and interventions, and hospital outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of known LVAD patients belonging to a single academic center's heart failure program who activated the 9-1-1 system and were transported by an urban EMS system to one of the center's two emergency departments between January 2012 and December 2015...
October 4, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Deonni P Stolldorf, Mary S Dietrich, Tiffani Chidume, Marie McIntosh, Cathy A Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Critical-care nurses play a vital role in promoting safe early mobilization in intensive care unit (ICU) settings to reduce the risks associated with immobility in ICUs, including the risk of delirium, ICU-acquired weakness, and functional decline. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to describe nurse-led mobilization practices in 2 community hospital ICUs and to report differences and similarities between the 2 settings. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study of 18 nurses (ICU A: n = 12, ICU B: n = 6) and 124 patients (ICU A: n = 50, ICU B: n = 74)...
November 2018: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Vasant Chinnabhandar, Amitabh Singh, Anirban Mandal, B J Parmar
Background: Hemiplegia/hemiparesis denotes the weakness of one side of the body. In contrast to adults, hemiparesis in children occurs secondary to a variety of etiological conditions. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of children with acquired hemiparesis/hemiplegia of nontraumatic origin and intended to find its underlying etiology in the Indian children. Settings and Design: This prospective, observational study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in western India...
October 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Akos Kereszturi, Zsuzsanna Kapui, Gian Gabrielle Ori, Kamal Taj-Eddine, Gabor Ujvari
During field work at the Ibn Battuta Mars analogue sites, two research questions were analyzed: (1) How do we identify sampling sites using remote and local imaging and (2) what kind of information can be gained from shallow subsurface exploration? While remote images help in targeting field activities in general, the connection between observations at different spatial scales for different rocky desert terrain types is not well established; in this, focused comparison of remote in situ images of well-selected analogues would help a great deal...
September 22, 2018: Astrobiology
Chaoyue Wen, Fengna Li, Lingyu Zhang, Yehui Duan, Qiuping Guo, Wenlong Wang, Shanping He, Jianzhong Li, Yulong Yin
Energy metabolism is the basic and general process, by which the body acquires and uses energy to maintain normal function, and taurine plays a vital role in energy metabolism. Taurine deficiency may cause a weak energy metabolism and energy metabolism dysfunction. Taurine biosynthetic ability is limited, and its supplementation in the diet can strengthen energy metabolism in muscle performance, cardiac function, liver activity, and adipose tissue. Combining taurine with other drugs may have a superior effect in energy metabolism...
September 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Stephan Wenninger, Benedikt Schoser
Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease that leads to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue, caused by circulating antibodies against different structures of the neuromuscular junction. In most patients, antibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) can be detected. In a smaller proportion of patients with and without AChR antibodies, antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), or related proteins such as agrin, cortactin and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), are present...
September 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Baokang Yan, Bin Wang, Fengxing Zhou, Weigang Li, Bo Xu
The impulse signal in large rotating machinery with damage fault is sparse, weak, coupled, and even nonperiodic in intermittent operation. To extract this complex signal is a key topic in machinery fault diagnosis. Sparse decomposition (SD) has excellent adaptability in describing arbitrary complex signals based on over-complete dictionary. However, the pursuit speed of best atom is a serious drawback. To alleviate this, a method of sparse decomposition based on time-frequency spectrum segmentation (SD-TFSS) is introduced...
September 11, 2018: ISA Transactions
Jun Ni, Jingchao Zhang, Rusong Wu, Fangrong Pang, Yan Zhu
To non-destructively acquire leaf nitrogen content (LNC), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW) data at high speed and low cost, a portable apparatus for crop-growth monitoring and diagnosis (CGMD) was developed according to the spectral monitoring mechanisms of crop growth. According to the canopy characteristics of crops and actual requirements of field operation environments, splitting light beams by using an optical filter and proper structural parameters were determined for the sensors...
September 17, 2018: Sensors
Mary Ellen Warner, David P Martin, Eli Muchtar, Juraj Sprung, Toby N Weingarten, Mark A Warner
Objective: To determine the risks and outcomes of providing sedation to febrile patients scheduled for bone marrow aspiration or biopsy procedures. Patients and Methods: During the 4-year period from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2016, data from the periprocedural courses of 12,134 consecutive patients in an outpatient procedure center at a large tertiary medical center were collected retrospectively and analyzed to determine whether febrile patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration and/or biopsy with propofol sedation present a unique patient safety risk...
March 2018: Mayo Clinic proceedings. Innovations, quality & outcomes
Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness frequently complicates critical illness, which prolongs intensive care dependency and causes long-term burden. Observational studies have suggested that prolonged underfeeding could aggravate ICU-acquired weakness and impair outcome. However, recent large randomized controlled trials have failed to show a benefit of early enhanced nutrition to critically ill patients. Moreover, early parenteral nutrition was even shown to increase ICU-acquired weakness and prolong organ failure and intensive care dependency, which may be explained by feeding-induced suppression of autophagy...
October 2018: Critical Care Clinics
Rohith R Mohan, Mark Wilson, Ronald D Gorham, Reed E S Harrison, Vasilios A Morikis, Chris A Kieslich, Asuka A Orr, Alexis V Coley, Phanourios Tamamis, Dimitrios Morikis
The complement system is our first line of defense against foreign pathogens, but when it is not properly regulated, complement is implicated in the pathology of several autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Compstatin is a peptidic complement inhibitor that acts by blocking the cleavage of complement protein C3 to the proinflammatory fragment C3a and opsonin fragment C3b. In this study, we aim to identify druglike small-molecule complement inhibitors with physicochemical, geometric, and binding properties similar to those of compstatin...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Z Dostál, P Kosina, P Mlejnek, K Kikalová, M Modrianský
Etoposide is a well-known and widely used anticancer drug that displays several side effects. In addition, tumors often acquire resistance to this drug. Our aim is to develop a combination therapy that would augment toxicity of etoposide in malignant cells. Based on literature and our experiments, we selected mifepristone (RU486) as a potential supporting molecule that is able to enhance etoposide toxicity against cancer cells. All experiments were performed with Hep G2 cells, a well-known and described human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line...
September 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Krysta S Wolfe, Bhakti K Patel, Erica L MacKenzie, Shewit P Giovanni, Anne S Pohlman, Matthew M Churpek, Jesse B Hall, John P Kress
BACKGROUND: Vasoactive medications are commonly used in the treatment of critically ill patients, but their impact on the development of ICU-acquired weakness is not well described. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vasoactive medication use and the outcome of ICU-acquired weakness. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of mechanically ventilated patients (N = 172) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of early occupational and physical therapy vs conventional therapy, which evaluated the end point of ICU-acquired weakness on hospital discharge...
October 2018: Chest
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