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Acquired weakness

Behzad Elahi, Ruple S Laughlin, William J Litchy, Margherita Milone, Teerin Liewluck
INTRODUCTION: Decremental responses in repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) have been reported in a few hereditary myopathies. We examined the frequency of decrement in a cohort of myopathy patients. METHODS: We reviewed all patients referred for myopathy who underwent RNS between January 2007 and May 2017. We included patients with decrement (>10%) and either a pathological or molecular diagnosis of myopathy. RESULTS: Among 157 patients with myopathies, 4 patients had decrement (2 hydroxychloroquine-associated vacuolar myopathy, 1 centronuclear myopathy, and 1 distal myopathy)...
December 7, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Richard Idro, Rodney Ogwang, Edward Kayongo, Norbert Gumisiriza, Agnes Lanyero, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Bernard Opar
Nodding syndrome is a poorly understood acquired disorder affecting children in sub-Saharan Africa. The aetiology and pathogenesis are unknown, and no specific treatment is available. Affected children have a distinctive feature (repeated clusters of head nodding) and progressively develop many other features. In an earlier pilot study, we proposed a five-level clinical staging system. The present study aimed to describe the early features and natural history of nodding syndrome and refine the proposed clinical stages...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Z Y Cao, W Wu, L K Hou, W Zhang, C X Gao, C Y Wu, L P Zhang
Objective: To compare droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and Super-amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) in the detection of T790M mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the plasma of non-small cell lung cancer patients who had developed resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) , and to investigate the clinical application of ddPCR. Methods: Plasma samples were collected from non-small cell lung cancer patients who had acquired EGFR-TKI resistance at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, from May 2017 to November 2017...
December 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Fabio Baselice, Giampaolo Ferraioli, Vito Pascazio, Antonietta Sorriso
Data coming from any acquisition system, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging ones, are affected by noise. Although modern high field scanners can reach high Signal to Noise Ratios, in some circumstances, for example in case of very weak signals due to a specific acquisition sequence, noise becomes a critical issue that has to be properly handled. In last years methods based on the so called Non Local Mean have proven to be very effective in denoising tasks. The idea of these filters is to find similar patches across the image and to jointly exploit them to obtain the restored image...
December 2, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Diana Greene-Chandos, Michel Torbey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weakness is a common reason patients are seen in neurologic consultation. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders in the intensive care unit (ICU), discusses the intensive care needs and evaluation of respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular disorders, and provides a practical guide for management. RECENT FINDINGS: Although primary neuromuscular disorders used to be the most common cause for weakness from peripheral nervous system disease in the ICU, a shift toward ICU-acquired weakness is observed in today's clinical practice...
December 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Sanjiv Chohan, Sara Ash, Lorraine Senior
Delirium and intensive care unit acquired weakness are common in patients requiring critical care and associated with higher mortality and poor long-term outcomes. Early mobilisation has been shown to reduce the duration of both conditions and is recommended as part of a strategy of rehabilitation of critically ill patients starting during their stay in intensive care. Our aim was to achieve 95% reliability with a standardised mobilisation process. Multidisciplinary involvement through the use of regular focus groups lead to the development of a standardised process of sitting a ventilated or non-ventilated patient at the side of the bed for a set period of time, which was called the daily dangle...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Kuan Y Chang, I-Wen Wu, Bo-Ruei Huang, Jih-Gau Juang, Jia-Chyi Wu, Su-Wei Chang, Chung Cheng Chang
To determine the relationships between exposure to environmental contaminants in water and chronic kidney disease (CKD), we investigated the associations of 61 water attributes with the prevalence of CKD and End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) using data from 2005 to 2011 from all 22 counties and cities in the main island of Taiwan. We acquired patient information from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database to calculate the age-standardized CKD and ESRD prevalence rates and linked the patients' residences to the water quality monitoring data, which were sampled periodically for a total of over 45,000 observations obtained from the Taiwan Environmental Water Quality Information Database...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Guo Zhang, Litao Li, Yonghua Jiang, Xin Shen, Deren Li
The LuoJia1-01 satellite can acquire high-resolution, high-sensitivity nighttime light data for night remote sensing applications. LuoJia1-01 is equipped with a 4-megapixel CMOS sensor composed of 2048 × 2048 unique detectors that record weak nighttime light on Earth. Owing to minute variations in manufacturing and temporal degradation, each detector's behavior varies when exposed to uniform radiance, resulting in noticeable detector-level errors in the acquired imagery. Radiometric calibration helps to eliminate these detector-level errors...
December 2, 2018: Sensors
Meng Fang, Tianyi Zhou, Jie Yin, Yang Wang, Dacheng Tao
We study the problem of selecting a subset of weakly labeled data where the labels of each data instance are redundant and imperfect. In real applications, less-than-expert labels are obtained at low cost in order to acquire many labels for each instance and then used for estimating the ground truth. However, on one side, preparing and processing data itself sometimes can be even more expensive than labeling. On the other side, noisy labels also decrease the performance of supervised learning methods. Thus, we introduce a new quality control mechanism on labels for each instance and use it to select an optimal subset of data...
November 27, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Debojyoti Biswas, Luke A Arend, Sarah A Stamper, Balázs P Vágvölgyi, Eric S Fortune, Noah J Cowan
Active sensing involves the production of motor signals for the purpose of acquiring sensory information [1-3]. The most common form of active sensing, found across animal taxa and behaviors, involves the generation of movements-e.g., whisking [4-6], touching [7, 8], sniffing [9, 10], and eye movements [11]. Active sensing movements profoundly affect the information carried by sensory feedback pathways [12-15] and are modulated by both top-down goals (e.g., measuring weight versus texture [1, 16]) and bottom-up stimuli (e...
November 16, 2018: Current Biology: CB
J Gini, A Amara, Sujan D Penchala, David J Back, L Else, D Egan, J Chiong, Bala I Harri, Elkanah D Kabilis, Paul P Pama, M Stephen, Saye H Khoo
Herbal medication use amongst people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) is widespread and understudied. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of herbal medicine use amongst PLWH and possible contamination with antiretrovirals (ARVs). Countrywide collection of herbal samples sold by street vendors in Nigeria for the following indications: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome, fever and general weakness. Samples were screened using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method for the presence of the following ARVs: efavirenz, nevirapine, lopinavir, darunavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, emtricitabine, tenofovir and lamivudine...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Zachary W Fox, Tyler J Blair, Robert B Weakly, Trevor L Courtney, Munira Khalil
Femtosecond Fourier transform two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a recently developed third-order nonlinear spectroscopic technique to measure coupled electronic and vibrational motions in the condensed phase. The viability of femtosecond multidimensional spectroscopy as an analytical tool requires improvements in data collection and processing to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and increase the amount of data collected in these experiments. Here a continuous fast scanning technique for the efficient collection of 2D VE spectroscopy is described...
November 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Maya N Elías, Cindy L Munro, Zhan Liang, Karel Calero, Ming Ji
BACKGROUND: Older adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) often experience sleep disturbances, which may stem from life-threatening illness, the ICU environment, medications/sedation, or psychological stress. Two complementary endocrinological responses occur as a result of compromised sleep and consequently could exacerbate ICU-acquired weakness: a decrease in anabolic hormones leading to decreased protein synthesis and an increase in catabolic hormones leading to increased protein degradation...
January 2019: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Romain Letrun, Bernhard Lang, Oleksandr Yushchenko, Roland Wilcken, Denis Svechkarev, Dmytro Kolodieznyi, Eberhard Riedle, Eric Vauthey
The excited-state dynamics of a T-shaped bichromophoric molecule, consisting of two strong fluorophores, diphenyloxazole and diphenylpyrazoline, directly linked in an orthogonal geometry, was investigated. Despite the weak coupling ensured by this geometry and confirmed by the electronic absorption spectra, this dyad exhibits only weak fluorescence in both apolar and polar solvents, with fluorescence lifetimes ranging from 200 ps in CHX to 10 ps in ACN. Ultrafast spectroscopic measurements reveal that the fluorescence quenching in polar solvents is due to the population of a charge-separated state...
November 29, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M Jansà, M J Bertran, J Vilardell, F Garcia, J Escarrabill
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The application and monitoring of quality criteria in information and therapeutic patient education can identify areas to improve care. The objectives of this study were: (1) To analyze the characteristics of patient information materials, educational activities, and self-management programs, and (2) to determine health care provider (HCP) proposals on therapeutic patient education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study, an online questionnaire was sent to hospital departments in a high complexity reference hospital from September to December 2013 to record: (a) information materials, (b) patient educational activities, and self-management program characteristics, (c) HCP proposals...
November 24, 2018: Journal of healthcare quality research
Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Héctor Spínola-Maroño, Laura G Mendoza-Olivas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cancer and stroke are the second and third causes of death worldwide; brain metastases (BM) occur in one third of patients with cancer, any neurologic deficit in these population always prompts the clinician to discard metastases for their presence carries a bad outcome. Both might share clinical presentation and differences in their outcome are not entirely known. The aim was to compare risk factors, clinical presentation, and outcome of cancer patients with BM vs stroke...
November 16, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Juan Barrios-Avilés, Alfredo Rosado-Muñoz, Leandro D Medus, Manuel Bataller-Mompeán, Juan F Guerrero-Martínez
Sensors provide data which need to be processed after acquisition to remove noise and extract relevant information. When the sensor is a network node and acquired data are to be transmitted to other nodes (e.g., through Ethernet), the amount of generated data from multiple nodes can overload the communication channel. The reduction of generated data implies the possibility of lower hardware requirements and less power consumption for the hardware devices. This work proposes a filtering algorithm (LDSI-Less Data Same Information) which reduces the generated data from event-based sensors without loss of relevant information...
November 24, 2018: Sensors
Khalaf Alshamrani, Fabrizio Messina, Nick Bishop, Amaka C Offiah
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates have been shown to increase metacarpal cortical width. Bone health index is computed from hand radiographs by measuring cortical thickness, width and length of the three middle metacarpals, and may potentially help predict fracture risk in children. OBJECTIVE: To compare bone health index with bone mineral density as measured from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in patients with and without bisphosphonate treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred ninety-three Caucasian patients (mean age: 11...
November 24, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ivan I Maximov, Sebastian Vellmer
Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising non-invasive technique providing insights regarding the brain's microvascular architecture in vivo. The scalar perfusion metrics can be used for quantitative diagnostics of various brain abnormalities, in particular, in the stroke cases and tumours. However, conventional MRI-based perfusion approaches such as dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging or arterial spin labelling have a few weaknesses, for instance, contrast agent deposition, low signal-to-noise ratio, limited temporal and spatial resolution, and specific absorption rate constraints...
November 22, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
James Winslow, Yakun Zhang, Lynne Koweek, Ehsan Samei
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect that table height, patient size, and localizer acquisition order may have on AEC prescribed dose. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Three phantoms were used for this study: the Mercury Phantom, acrylic sheets, and an anthropomorphic phantom. A lateral (LAT) and a posterior-anterior (PA) localizer was acquired for each phantom at different table heights on a MDCT scanner (GE Discovery CT750 HD). AEC scan acquisitions were prescribed for each combination of phantom, localizer orientation, and table height ±4 cm with the center position; the displayed CTDIvol was recorded...
November 2018: Physica Medica: PM
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