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Luming Xia, Quanyun Sun, Jingjing Wang, Qi Chen, Peihong Liu, Chaojian Shen, Jianhe Sun, Yiping Tu, Sufang Shen, Jiuchao Zhu, Hongjin Zhao, Quzhi Wang, Baolong Li, Jun Tao, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes, Yaxian Yan, Chang Cai
Pseudorabies (PR), also known as Aujeszky's disease, is a highly contagious disease affecting pigs and a wide range of animals. Pseudorabies is enzootic in many countries. In China, it is a priority animal disease for control and eradication, however the data on disease frequency in intensive pig farms and the information on associated risk factors is inadequate. A cross-sectional study of intensive pig farms (≥350 sows) in Shanghai was conducted to determine herd-level prevalence of PRV and associated risk factors...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Hong Gao, Willian S Korim, Song T Yao, Cheryl M Heesch, Andrei V Derbenev
KEY POINTS: To maintain appropriate blood flow to various tissues of the body under a variety of physiological states, autonomic nervous system reflexes regulate regional sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure. Our data in anesthetized rats revealed that glycine released in the RVLM plays a critical role in maintaining arterial baroreflex sympathoinhibition. Manipulation of brainstem nuclei with known inputs to the RVLM (NTS and CVLM) unmasked tonic glycinergic inhibition in the RVLM...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Anne Arewasikporn, John A Sturgeon, Alex J Zautra
The influence of shared enjoyment and positive affect (PA) on resilient thinking was examined in 191 middle-aged adults (40-65 years), participating in a study of resilience. Participants completed diaries assessing positive events, shared enjoyment, PA, and resilient cognitions (RC). Multilevel structural equation modeling was utilized to examine when and who engages in RC. Participants reported more RC on days they experienced more positive experiences. This relationship was explained by shared enjoyment and PA...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Changjie Lv, Wenkai Liu, Bin Wang, Ruyi Dang, Li Qiu, Juan Ren, Chuanqi Yan, Zengqi Yang, Xinglong Wang
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an important viral pathogen of pigs that causes huge losses in pig herds worldwide. Ivermectin is a specific inhibitor of importin-α/β-dependent nuclear transport and shows antiviral potential against several RNA viruses by blocking the nuclear localization of viral proteins. Since the replication of DNA viruses is in the nucleus, ivermectin may be functional against DNA virus infections if the DNA polymerase or other important viral proteins enter the nucleus via the importin-α/β-mediated pathway...
September 26, 2018: Antiviral Research
K Laval, J B Vernejoul, J Van Cleemput, O O Koyuncu, L W Enquist
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an alphaherpesvirus that infects the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The natural host of PRV is the swine, but it can infect most mammals, including cattle, rodents and dogs. In these non-natural hosts, PRV always causes a severe acute and lethal neuropathy called the "mad itch", which is uncommon in swine. So far, the pathophysiological and immunological processes leading to the development of the neuropathic itch, and death of the animal are unclear.Using a footpad inoculation model, we established that mice inoculated with PRV-Becker (virulent strain) develop a severe pruritus in the foot and become moribund at 82 hours post-inoculation (hpi)...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Virology
Benedikt Diewald, Eileen Socher, Christian A Söldner, Heinrich Sticht
All herpesviruses use a heterodimeric nuclear egress complex (NEC) to transport capsids out of host cell nuclei. Despite their overall similar structure, NECs may differ significantly in sequence between different viruses. Up to now, structural information is limited to isolated NEC heterodimers and to large hexagonal lattices made up of hexagonal ring-like structures ("Hexagons"). The present study aimed to expand the existing structural knowledge with information on the dynamics of NECs from different viruses and in different oligomerization states...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexandra Hübner, Günther M Keil, Tonny Kabuuka, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Walter Fuchs
For development of vectored vaccines against porcine pathogens the genome of the pseudorabies virus vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) was previously cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), containing the bacterial replicon and a reporter gene cassette encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at the nonessential glycoprotein G locus. To facilitate substitution of this insertion, this BAC was now modified by deletion of the adjacent promoter and initiation codon of the essential glycoprotein D (gD) gene of PrV-Ba...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Haicong Shen, Hui Chen, Zhenzhu Cheng, Lei Ma, Liping Huang, Meng Xiao, Wei Xiao, Kaixin Xie, Yong Tang
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an acute and thermal infectious disease in domestic animals. Pigs are a main source of PRV infection, which causes high mortality rates for newborn infected piglets and high miscarriage rates for infected adults. Therefore, early control of PRV is necessary to avoid significant economic loss. We have developed a novel fluorescent immunochromatographic strip (F-ICS) for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of PRV with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.13 ng mL-1 and a detection linear range (DLR) between 0...
September 24, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jichun Wang, Zengcai Song, Aimin Ge, Rongli Guo, Yongfeng Qiao, Mengwei Xu, Zhisheng Wang, Yamei Liu, Yating Zheng, Hongjie Fan, Jibo Hou
BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of a new emerging virulent pseudorabies virus mutant in Chinese pig herds, intensive research has been focused on the construction of novel gene deletion vaccine based on the variant virulent viruses. An ideal vaccine candidate is expected to have a balanced safety and immunogenicity. RESULTS: From the infectious clone of PRV AH02LA strain, a TK deletion mutant was generated through two-step Red mutagenesis. After homologous recombination with a transfer vector, a TK&gE dual deficient mutant PRV (PRVΔTK&gE-AH02 ) was generated, and its structure verified by PCR, RFLP and sequencing...
September 21, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Sunlu Chen, Nozomi Saito, Jaymee R Encabo, Kanae Yamada, Il-Ryong Choi, Yuji Kishima
Endogenous viral sequences in eukaryotic genomes, such as those derived from plant pararetroviruses (PRVs), can serve as genomic fossils to study viral macroevolution. Many aspects of viral evolutionary rates are heterogeneous, including substitution rate differences between genes. However, the evolutionary dynamics of this viral gene rate heterogeneity (GRH) have been rarely examined. Characterizing such GRH may help to elucidate viral adaptive evolution. In this study, based on robust phylogenetic analysis, we determined an ancient endogenous PRV group in Oryza genomes in the range of being 2...
September 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Keisaku Fujimoto, Haruna Yamazaki, Akikazu Uematsu
Objective/background: This study was performed to evaluate the association of nocturnal autonomic nerve (AN) dysfunction, especially parasympathetic nerve (PN) function instability, and nocturnal oxygen desaturation (NOD) in patients with chronic lung diseases (CLD). Patients and methods: Twenty-nine stable CLD patients with irreversible pulmonary dysfunction and mild-to-moderate daytime hypoxemia, 13 CLD patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) with maintained SpO2 >90%, and 17 senior healthy volunteers underwent two-night examinations of nocturnal AN function by pulse rate variability (PRV) instead of heart rate variation using a photoelectrical plethysmograph simultaneously monitoring SpO2 and the presence of sleep disordered breathing at home...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Mo Zhou, Muhammad Abid, Hang Yin, Hongxia Wu, Teshale Teklue, Hua-Ji Qiu, Yuan Sun
Conventional genetic engineering of pseudorabies virus (PRV) is essentially based on homologous recombination or bacterial artificial chromosome. However, these techniques require multiple plaque purification, which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient, direct, and flexible genetic manipulation platform for PRV. To this end, the PRV genomic DNA was extracted from purified PRV virions and sheared into approximately 30-45-kb DNA fragments. After end-blunting and phosphorylation, the DNA fragments were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the recovered DNA fragments were inserted into the cloning-ready fosmids...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hitoshi Takemae, Chaerul Basri, Ni Luh Putu Ika Mayasari, Ronald Tarigan, Hiroshi Shimoda, Tsutomu Omatsu, Supratikno, Didik Pramono, Danang Dwi Cahyadi, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Keisuke Iida, Tetsuya Mizutani, Ken Maeda, Srihadi Agungpriyono, Eiichi Hondo
Flying foxes belonging to the genus Pteropus are known to be reservoirs of zoonotic viruses. In this study, we describe the isolation of Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) from rectal swab samples of Pteropus vampyrus in Indonesia. PRV is an emerging zoonotic respiratory virus that can be transmitted from bats to humans. Rectal swabs (n = 91) were screened by PCR for PRV and 10 (11%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences indicated that the S2, S3, S4, M3, L2, and L3 segments of one isolate (Garut-69) were closely related to previously isolated strains in Indonesia...
September 19, 2018: Virus Genes
Jiang-Nan Kong, Chao Zhang, Yan-Ce Zhu, Kai Zhong, Jiang Wang, Bei-Bei Chu, Guo-Yu Yang
EP0 is an important early gene that modulates the life cycle of pseudorabies virus (PRV). A guanine-rich sequence overlapping with three Sp1 binding sites is located upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) in the EP0 promoter. Using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD), we verified that the G-rich region in the EP0 promoter forms an intramolecular parallel G-quadruplex (G4) in the presence of K+ ions. Further dimethyl sulphate (DMS) footprinting and Taq polymerase stop assays indicates the potential polymorphic folding of G4...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mikolaj Adamek, John Hellmann, Agnes Flamm, Felix Teitge, Niccolò Vendramin, Daniel Fey, Karin Riße, Franziska Blakey, Espen Rimstad, Dieter Steinhagen
Piscine orthoreoviruses (PRVs) are emerging pathogens causing circulatory disorders in salmonids. PRV-1 is the etiological cause of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), characterized by epicarditis, inflammation and necrosis of the myocardium, myositis and necrosis of red skeletal muscle. In 2017, two German breeding farms for Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, experienced disease outbreaks with mortalities of 10% and 20%...
September 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Cheng Lv, Yi Lin, En-Ze Sun, Bo Tang, Jian Ao, Jia-Jia Wang, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Zhenhua Zheng, Hanzhong Wang, Dai-Wen Pang
With the aid of the single-virus tracking technique and the quantum dot-labeling strategy, the internalization of the pseudorabies virus (PrV) has been visualized in real time. The results demonstrate that macropinocytosis can be considered as a major pathway for PrV entering HeLa cells, which facilitates the development of therapeutics for virus-triggered diseases.
October 2, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Libing Liu, Jinfeng Wang, Ruoxi Zhang, Mi Lin, Ruihan Shi, Qingan Han, Jianchang Wang, Wanzhe Yuan
BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious tansboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals and causes devastating economic damages. Accurate, rapid and simple detection of FMDV is critical to containing an FMD outbreak. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) has been explored for detection of diverse pathogens because of its accuracy, rapidness and simplicity. A visible and equipment-free reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay combined with lateral flow strip (LFS RT-RPA) was developed to detect the FMDV using primers and LF probe specific for the 3D gene...
August 31, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Andrea L Koenigsberg, Ekaterina Heldwein
In all herpesviruses, the space between the capsid shell and the lipid envelope is occupied by the unique tegument layer composed of proteins that in addition to structural, play many other roles in the viral replication. UL37 is a highly conserved tegument protein that has activities ranging from virion morphogenesis to directional capsid trafficking to manipulation of the host innate immune response and binds multiple partners. The N-terminal half of UL37 (UL37N) has a compact bean-shaped alpha-helical structure that contains a surface region essential for neuroinvasion...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xinghong Zhao, Wenzhi Tong, Xu Song, Renyong Jia, Lixia Li, Yuanfeng Zou, Changliang He, Xiaoxia Liang, Cheng Lv, Bo Jing, Juchun Lin, Lizi Yin, Gang Ye, Guizhou Yue, Yin Wang, Zhongqiong Yin
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is one of the most important pathogens of swine, resulting in devastating disease and economic losses worldwide. Nevertheless, there are currently no antiviral drugs available for PRV infection. Resveratrol (Res) was identified to exert its antiviral activity by inhibiting the PRV replication in preliminary investigations. In our previous study, we found that Res has anti-PRV activity in vitro. Here, we show that Res can effectively reduce the mortality and increase the growth performance of PRV-infected piglets...
August 27, 2018: Viruses
Lu Xiao, Yin Wang, Runmin Kang, Xulong Wu, Hua Lin, Yonggang Ye, Jifeng Yu, Jianqiang Ye, Jing Xie, Ye Cao, Yong Wei, Dangjin Liao, Meng Pan, Yi Lin, Zhuojian Dai, Xingyu Li
The aim of this study was to develop a multiple PCR assay based on the suspension array system for the simultaneous detection of respiratory and reproductive pathogens in swine. Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), classic swine fever virus (CFSV), African swine fever virus (ASFV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) are the major respiratory and reproductive viral pathogens in pig farms. Seven pairs of specific primers and probes were designed, and the multiple PCR was performed, with the PCR products hybridized to beads coupled to probes, which were then detected by Bio-Plex suspension array system...
November 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
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