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Gabrielle Pastenkos, Jonathan L Miller, Suzanne M Pritchard, Anthony V Nicola
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes disease in cattle populations worldwide. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the most abundant sphingolipid in the mammalian cell membrane, where it preferentially associates with cholesterol to form lipid raft domains. SM is a substrate for the lysosome-resident enzyme acid sphingomyelinase, which plays a role in cell membrane repair following injury. Treatment of cells with noncytotoxic concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus -derived sphingomyelinase successfully reduced cell surface-exposed sphingomyelin, but did not significantly inhibit BoHV-1 entry and infection as measured by beta-galactosidase reporter assay...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Kerri Pedersen, Clinton T Turnage, Wesson D Gaston, Paulo Arruda, Scott A Alls, Thomas Gidlewski
BACKGROUND: Pigs (Sus scrofa) are the natural hosts of pseudorabies virus (PRV), also known as Aujeszky's disease. Infection in mammals, with the exception of humans, typically causes extreme itching, facial swelling, and excessive salivation, followed by death in non-suid species. The risk to susceptible mammals was assumed to decrease when PRV was eliminated from U.S. commercial swine in 2004, though the virus remains endemic in feral swine. Infected feral swine pose a threat to the disease-free status of the commercial swine industry, and to other animals, including dogs, that come in direct or indirect contact with them...
December 6, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Zhicheng Liu, Chunhong Zhang, Haiyan Shen, Junying Sun, Jianfeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Recently, pseudorabies (PR) outbreaks have been reported in a large number of swine herds vaccinated with the Bartha-K61 vaccine in China, the current pseudorabies virus (PRV) belonging to Genotype II is differential genetically from Bartha-K61 vaccine belonging to Genotype I. Furthermore, it has been proved that the Bartha-K61 vaccine cannot provide sufficient protection against the current PRVs in China. Therefore, the accurate and rapid identification of PRVs is essential...
November 28, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Riccardo Pernice, Michal Javorka, Jana Krohova, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Alessandro Busacca, Luca Faes
The gold standard method to monitor heart rate variability (HRV) comprises measuring the time series of interbeat interval durations from electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings. However, due to the widespread use, simplicity and usability of photoplethysmographic (PPG) techniques, monitoring pulse rate variability (PRV) from pulse wave recordings has become a viable alternative to standard HRV analysis. The present study investigates the accuracy of PRV, measured as a surrogate of HRV, for the quantification of descriptive indexes computed in the time domain (mean, variance), frequency domain (low-to-high frequency power ratio LF/HF, HF band central frequency) and information domain (entropy, conditional entropy)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Daniel McDuff, Ethan Blackford, Justin Estepp
Non-contact measurement of physiological parameters, like pulse rate variability (PRV), has numerous applications in medicine and affective computing. PRV is an informative measure of autonomic nervous system activity. Spectral estimation from unevenly sampled, non-stationary data is integral to pulse rate variability frequency-domain analysis. We present the first comparison of results of PRV computation using the Lomb-Scargle method and Bayesian Spectral Estimation. The Lomb-Scargle method performs well, even in the presence of missing beats...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Anna Uehara, Chee Wah Tan, Shailendra Mani, Kaw Bing Chua, Yee Sin Leo, Danielle E Anderson, Lin-Fa Wang
To determine whether Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) exposure has occurred in Singapore, we tested 856 individuals from an existing serum panel collected from 2005-2013. After an initial screen with luciferase immunoprecipitation system and secondary confirmation with virus neutralization test, we identified at least seven individuals with specific antibodies against PRV in both assays. Our findings confirm that PRV spillover into human populations is relatively common in this region of the world.
November 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Ying Sun, Wan Liang, Qingyun Liu, Tingting Zhao, Hechao Zhu, Lin Hua, Zhong Peng, Xibiao Tang, Charles W Stratton, Danna Zhou, Yongxiang Tian, Huanchun Chen, Bin Wu
The outbreak of pseudorabies (PR) in many Bartha-K61 vaccinated farms in China in late 2011 has seriously damaged the pig industry of one of the largest producers of pork products in the world. To understand the epidemiological characteristics of the pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains currently prevalent in China, a total of 16,256 samples collected from pig farms suspected of PRV infection in 27 Provinces of China between 2012 and 2017 were evaluated for detection of PRV. Since the extensive use of gE-deleted PRV vaccine in China, the PRV-gE was applied for determining wild-type virus infection by PCR...
2018: PeerJ
Jonathan L Miller, Darin J Weed, Becky H Lee, Suzanne M Pritchard, Anthony V Nicola
The alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) is the causative agent of pseudorabies, a disease of great economic and welfare importance in swine. Other alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), utilize low pH-mediated endocytosis to enter a subset of cell types. We investigated whether PRV used this entry pathway in multiple laboratory model cell lines. Inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis by treatment with hypertonic medium prevented PRV entry. PRV entry into several cell lines including porcine kidney (PK15) cells, and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells was inhibited by noncytotoxic concentrations of the lysosomotropic agents ammonium chloride or monensin, which block the acidification of endosomes...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
Marco Esposito, Laura Masi, Margherita Zani, Raffaela Doro, David Fedele, Cristina Garibaldi, Stefania Clemente, Christian Fiandra, Francesca Romana Giglioli, Carmelo Marino, Laura Orsingher, Serenella Russo, Michele Stasi, Lidia Strigari, Elena Villaggi, Pietro Mancosu
BACKGROUND: The dosimetric variability in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning was investigated in a large number of centres to identify crowd knowledge-based solutions. METHODS: Two spinal cases were planned by 48 planners (38 centres). The required prescription dose (PD) was 3 × 10 Gy and the planning target volume (PTV) coverage request was: VPD  > 90% (minimum request: VPD  > 80%). The dose constraints were: planning risk volume (PRV) spinal cord: V18Gy  < 0...
October 23, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Ralph Kuehn, Bernhard C Stoeckle, Marc Young, Lisa Popp, Jens-Eike Taeubert, Michael W Pfaffl, Juergen Geist
The proliferative darkening syndrome (PDS) is an annually recurring disease that causes species-specific die-off of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) with a mortality rate of near 100% in pre-alpine rivers of central Europe. So far the etiology and causation of this disease is still unclear. The objective of this study was to identify the cause of PDS using a next-generation technology detection pipeline. Following the hypothesis that PDS is caused by an infectious agent, brown trout specimens were exposed to water from a heavily affected pre-alpine river with annual occurrence of the disease...
2018: PloS One
Shouping Hu, Qiang Liu, Sufang Zang, Zhuo Zhang, Jingfei Wang, Xuehui Cai, Xijun He
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) can spread along the peripheral nerves near the site of infection in the animals, and gradually migrates into the central nervous system, where it leads to the development of brain lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of microglia after PRV inoculation. A mouse model inoculated with PRV was established to study the interactions between PRV and microglia, microglial recruitment, and polarization effects. The mice were subcutaneously inoculated with different doses of PRV-Bartha K61 vaccine strain...
November 2018: Viral Immunology
Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat, Onrapak Reamtong, Tamaki Okabayashi, Sumate Ampawong, Amporn Rungruengkitkun, Tipparat Thiangtrongjit, Narin Thippornchai, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, Aongart Mahittikorn, Hirotake Mori, Thanada Yoohanngoa, Prechaya Yamwong
BACKGROUND: The pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) was isolated from monkey (Macaca fascicularis) faecal samples collected from human-inhabited areas in Lopburi Province, Thailand. These samples were initially obtained to survey for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV). RESULTS: Two virus isolates were retrieved by virus culture of 55 monkey faecal samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was successfully used to identify the viruses as the segmented dsRNA orthoreovirus...
October 17, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Luming Xia, Quanyun Sun, Jingjing Wang, Qi Chen, Peihong Liu, Chaojian Shen, Jianhe Sun, Yiping Tu, Sufang Shen, Jiuchao Zhu, Hongjin Zhao, Quzhi Wang, Baolong Li, Jun Tao, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes, Yaxian Yan, Chang Cai
Pseudorabies (PR), also known as Aujeszky's disease, is a highly contagious disease affecting pigs and a wide range of animals. Pseudorabies is enzootic in many countries. In China, it is a priority animal disease for control and eradication, however the data on disease frequency in intensive pig farms and the information on associated risk factors is inadequate. A cross-sectional study of intensive pig farms (≥350 sows) in Shanghai was conducted to determine herd-level prevalence of PRV and associated risk factors...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Hong Gao, Willian S Korim, Song T Yao, Cheryl M Heesch, Andrei V Derbenev
KEY POINTS: To maintain appropriate blood flow to various tissues of the body under a variety of physiological states, autonomic nervous system reflexes regulate regional sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure. Our data in anesthetized rats revealed that glycine released in the RVLM plays a critical role in maintaining arterial baroreflex sympathoinhibition. Manipulation of brainstem nuclei with known inputs to the RVLM (NTS and CVLM) unmasked tonic glycinergic inhibition in the RVLM...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Anne Arewasikporn, John A Sturgeon, Alex J Zautra
The influence of shared enjoyment and positive affect (PA) on resilient thinking was examined in 191 middle-aged adults (40-65 years), participating in a study of resilience. Participants completed diaries assessing positive events, shared enjoyment, PA, and resilient cognitions (RC). Multilevel structural equation modeling was utilized to examine when and who engages in RC. Participants reported more RC on days they experienced more positive experiences. This relationship was explained by shared enjoyment and PA...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Changjie Lv, Wenkai Liu, Bin Wang, Ruyi Dang, Li Qiu, Juan Ren, Chuanqi Yan, Zengqi Yang, Xinglong Wang
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an important viral pathogen of pigs that causes huge losses in pig herds worldwide. Ivermectin is a specific inhibitor of importin-α/β-dependent nuclear transport and shows antiviral potential against several RNA viruses by blocking the nuclear localization of viral proteins. Since the replication of DNA viruses is in the nucleus, ivermectin may be functional against DNA virus infections if the DNA polymerase or other important viral proteins enter the nucleus via the importin-α/β-mediated pathway...
September 26, 2018: Antiviral Research
K Laval, J B Vernejoul, J Van Cleemput, O O Koyuncu, L W Enquist
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an alphaherpesvirus that infects the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The natural host of PRV is the swine, but it can infect most mammals, including cattle, rodents and dogs. In these non-natural hosts, PRV always causes a severe acute and lethal neuropathy called the "mad itch", which is uncommon in swine. So far, the pathophysiological and immunological processes leading to the development of the neuropathic itch, and death of the animal are unclear.Using a footpad inoculation model, we established that mice inoculated with PRV-Becker (virulent strain) develop a severe pruritus in the foot and become moribund at 82 hours post-inoculation (hpi)...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Virology
Benedikt Diewald, Eileen Socher, Christian A Söldner, Heinrich Sticht
All herpesviruses use a heterodimeric nuclear egress complex (NEC) to transport capsids out of host cell nuclei. Despite their overall similar structure, NECs may differ significantly in sequence between different viruses. Up to now, structural information is limited to isolated NEC heterodimers and to large hexagonal lattices made up of hexagonal ring-like structures ("Hexagons"). The present study aimed to expand the existing structural knowledge with information on the dynamics of NECs from different viruses and in different oligomerization states...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexandra Hübner, Günther M Keil, Tonny Kabuuka, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Walter Fuchs
For development of vectored vaccines against porcine pathogens the genome of the pseudorabies virus vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) was previously cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), containing the bacterial replicon and a reporter gene cassette encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at the nonessential glycoprotein G locus. To facilitate substitution of this insertion, this BAC was now modified by deletion of the adjacent promoter and initiation codon of the essential glycoprotein D (gD) gene of PrV-Ba...
December 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Haicong Shen, Hui Chen, Zhenzhu Cheng, Lei Ma, Liping Huang, Meng Xiao, Wei Xiao, Kaixin Xie, Yong Tang
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is an acute and thermal infectious disease in domestic animals. Pigs are a main source of PRV infection, which causes high mortality rates for newborn infected piglets and high miscarriage rates for infected adults. Therefore, early control of PRV is necessary to avoid significant economic loss. We have developed a novel fluorescent immunochromatographic strip (F-ICS) for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of PRV with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.13 ng mL-1 and a detection linear range (DLR) between 0...
September 24, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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