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dorsal raphe nucleus

Ruixiang Wang, Kathryn Hausknecht, Roh-Yu Shen, Samir Haj-Dahmane
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social and communicative impairments and increased repetitive behaviors. These symptoms are often comorbid with increased anxiety. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), an anti-seizure and mood stabilizer medication, is a major environmental risk factor of ASD. Given the important role of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in anxiety, we examined the impact of prenatal VPA exposure on the function of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRn) 5-HT neurons. We found that male rats prenatally exposed to VPA exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviors revealed by a decreased time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Daniil Grinchii, Ruslan Paliokha, Vadim Tseilikman, Eliyahu Dremencov
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect an inhibitor of cytochrome-P450, proadifen hydrochloride (SKF525), on the excitability of serotonin neurons. Adult male Wistar rats were administered SKF525 forty-eight, twenty-four, and one hour before electrophysiological assessments. Control animals were injected saline. Rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate and glass electrodes were stereotaxically inserted into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Serotonin neurons were identified and their firing activity was recorded...
November 15, 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Sanford Pc Hsu, Dao-Yuan Wang, Ming-Yuan Min, Yu-Show Fu
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence of 7.5% in school-age children in Taiwan. A number of ADHD patients start taking medications in elementary school and continue their treatment until they are in college or adulthood. Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication prescribed for ADHD treatment. The influence of long-term treatment of methylphenidate on neuro-development, especially dopaminergic neurons, in rats would be explored. This study investigated the impact of long-term treatment of methylphenidate on different neurons...
November 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Hui Ye, Xiang-Yu Cui, Hui Ding, Su-Ying Cui, Xiao Hu, Yu-Tong Liu, Hui-Ling Zhao, Yong-He Zhang
Background: Previous anatomical and behavioral studies have shown that melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in the modulation of emotional states. However, little is known about brain regions other than the dorsal raphe nucleus that relate the MCH-ergic system to depressive states. Numerous studies have shown that the locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in the regulation of depression and sleep. Although direct physiological evidence is lacking, previous studies suggest that MCH release in the LC decreases neuronal discharge...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mathieu Di Miceli, Adesina Omoloye, Benjamin Gronier
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants like methylphenidate or D-amphetamine are often prescribed for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in children. Whether such drugs can be administered into a developing brain without consequences in adulthood is still an open question. METHODS: Here, using in vivo extracellular electrophysiology in anesthetised preparations, combined with behavioural assays, we have examined the long-term consequences in adulthood of a chronic methylphenidate oral administration (5 mg/kg/day, 15 days) in early adolescent (post-natal day 28) and late adolescent (post-natal day 42) rats, by evaluating body weight change, sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia), locomotor sensitivity to D-amphetamine and electrical activities of ventral tegmental area dopamine and dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Anna Herman, Mostafa El Mansari, Nika Adham, Béla Kiss, Bence Farkas, Pierre Blier
Cariprazine, an orally active and potent dopamine D3 -preferring D3 /D2 receptor partial agonist, is approved to treat adults with schizophrenia (in the United States and Europe) and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (in the United States). Cariprazine also displays partial agonism at serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] 5-HT1A receptors and antagonism at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in vitro. The study objective was to determine whether cariprazine leads to functional alterations of monoamine systems in vivo via electrophysiological recordings from anesthetized rats...
December 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Safiye Cavdar, Merve Özgür, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Yasemin Kuvvet, Sıla Kezban Kunt, Gökay Sağlam
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is important for normal movement as well as in movement disorders. The STN is a target nuclei in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a standard surgical treatment for PD. Although DBS results in a significant reduction in motor disability, several negative side effects have been reported. Thus, to understand the side effects of DBS the connection of the STN should be well known. Therefore, the present study aims to re‑examine the STN with an emphasis on poorly‑ or un‑documented connections...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
M Soiza-Reilly, F J Meye, J Olusakin, L Telley, E Petit, X Chen, M Mameli, D Jabaudon, J-Y Sze, P Gaspar
Antidepressants that block the serotonin transporter, (Slc6a4/SERT), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) improve mood in adults but have paradoxical long-term effects when administered during perinatal periods, increasing the risk to develop anxiety and depression. The basis for this developmental effect is not known. Here, we show that during an early postnatal period in mice (P0-P10), Slc6a4/SERT is transiently expressed in a subset of layer 5-6 pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
October 2, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Joanna Sowa, Magdalena Kusek, Marcin Siwiec, Joanna Ewa Sowa, Bartosz Bobula, Krzysztof Tokarski, Grzegorz Hess
RATIONALE: Chronic stress and corticosterone have been shown to affect serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission; however, the influence of stress on the activity of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the main source of 5-HT in the forebrain, is not well understood. In particular, it is unknown if and how stress modifies DRN 5-HT7 receptors, which are involved in the modulation of the firing of local inhibitory interneurons responsible for regulating the activity of DRN projection cells. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated corticosterone injections on the modulation of the inhibitory transmission within the DRN by 5-HT7 receptors and whether it could be reversed by treatment with a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist...
December 2018: Psychopharmacology
Adeline Cathala, Céline Devroye, Guillaume Drutel, Jean-Michel Revest, Francesc Artigas, Umberto Spampinato
The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2B R) is a well-established modulator of dopamine (DA) neuron activity in the rodent brain. Recent studies in rats have shown that the effect of 5-HT2B R antagonists on accumbal and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DA outflow results from a primary action in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), where they activate 5-HT neurons innervating the mPFC. Although the mechanisms underlying this interaction remain largely unknown, data in the literature suggest the involvement of DRN GABAergic interneurons in the control of 5-HT activity...
September 23, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Deborah Peeters, Jonne Rietdijk, Danny Gerrits, Mark Rijpkema, Sietse F de Boer, Robbert-Jan Verkes, Judith R Homberg
RATIONALE: Only a subset of impulsive aggressive patients benefits from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, confirming contradictory results about the association between serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and aggression. This shows the need to define behavioral characteristics within this subgroup to move towards individualized pharmacological treatment of impulsive aggression. METHODS: Here we submitted an outbred strain of Long Evans rats to a crossover design treatment regimen with the SSRI citalopram, to test its anti-aggressive effect...
December 2018: Neuropharmacology
Mete Ozcan, Sinan Canpolat, Ozgur Bulmus, Nazife Ulker, Ahmet Tektemur, Suat Tekin, Sibel Ozcan, Ihsan Serhatlioglu, Emine Kacar, Ahmet Ayar, Haluk Kelestimur
The main objective of this study was to investigate potential effectiveness of agomelatine pre-treatment in prevention of diabetes itself and encephalopathy, with a focus on brain tissue oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Interleukine-1β (IL-1β) and TACR1 (NK1), which is a tachykinine receptor, were used for the investigation of inflammation in the brain regions including raphe nuclues, periaqueduqtal gyrus (PAG), amygdala and nucleus accumbens. The effects of agomelatine on total antioxidant capacity were also evaluated...
September 14, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Thomas R Barber, Ludovica Griffanti, Kinan Muhammed, Daniel S Drew, Kevin M Bradley, Daniel R McGowan, Marie Crabbe, Christine Lo, Clare E Mackay, Masud Husain, Michele T Hu, Johannes C Klein
Apathy is a common and under-recognized disorder that often emerges in the prodromal phase of Parkinsonian diseases. The mechanism by which this occurs is not known, but recent evidence from patients with established Parkinson's disease suggests that serotonergic dysfunction may play a role. The integrity of the raphe serotonergic system can be assessed alongside dopaminergic basal ganglia imaging using the radioligand 123I-ioflupane, which binds both serotonin and dopamine transporters. To investigate the relative roles of these neurotransmitters in prodromal parkinsonism, we imaged patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, the majority of whom will develop a parkinsonian disorder in future...
October 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
László Ákos Kovács, Josef Andreas Schiessl, Anna Elisabeth Nafz, Valér Csernus, Balázs Gaszner
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the main regulator of the stress response. The key of the HPA is the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN) controlled by higher-order limbic stress centers. The reactivity of the HPA axis is considered to be a function of age, but to date, little is known about the background of this age-dependency. Sporadic literature data suggest that the stress sensitivity as assessed by semi-quantitation of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos may also be influenced by age...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Fabiola Hernández-Vázquez, Julieta Garduño, Salvador Hernández-López
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Jessica A Babb, Sofia E Linnros, Kathryn G Commons
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are strongly implicated in mood disorders such as depression and are importantly regulated by feedback inhibition mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. These receptors may play a role, albeit a poorly understood one, in the generation of mood disorders, treatment response to antidepressants and delayed therapeutic efficacy. Here we sought to gain insight into the role of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated feedback inhibition in these processes by studying Fos protein expression within serotonin neurons in a rat model of stress-related mood disorder, early life maternal separation (MS), combined with two-week treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) in adulthood...
October 2018: Neuropharmacology
Roberta Monteiro Incrocci, Franciely Paliarin, Manoel Jorge Nobre
Ketamine (KET) is a non-competitive N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors antagonist that intensifies sensory experiences, prompts hallucinations and delusions, exacerbates previously installed psychosis and disrupts physiological evoked potentials (AEPs). Pharmacologically, KET stimulates glutamate efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex, mainly in the prelimbic (PrL) sub-region. Efferences from this region exert a top-down regulatory control of bottom-up sensory processes either directly or indirectly. In the midbrain, the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC) plays a fundamental role in the processing of auditory ascending information related to sound localization, sensorimotor gating, and preattentive event-related potentials...
August 28, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Ruth E Grahn, Brian A Kalman, Jennifer A Vlasaty, Jaclyn A Perna, Christine Nevins-Herbert, Stephanie M Patton, Leah K Barison
The extent to which rats express anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze (EPM) depends on their previous maze experience. Open-arm avoidance develops in maze-experienced rats, and is often accompanied by a diminished anxiolytic response to benzodiazepines. Regions of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats using c-Fos and serotonin immunohistochemistry following a single exposure, a second exposure or no exposure to the EPM. We then examined the effect of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5 mg/kg) on EPM behavior and DRN neural activity...
August 30, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Dominik P Kiser, Sandy Popp, Angelika G Schmitt-Böhrer, Tatyana Strekalova, Daniel L van den Hove, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Olga Rivero
OBJECTIVE: Cadherin-13 (CDH13), a member of the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule family, has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders, but also to depression. In the adult brain, CDH13 expression is restricted e.g. to the presynaptic compartment of inhibitory GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus and Cdh13 knockout mice show an increased inhibitory drive onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, leading to a shift in excitatory/inhibitory balance...
August 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Gina L Forster, Eden M Anderson, Jamie L Scholl, Jodi L Lukkes, Michael J Watt
Early-life adversity is associated with increased risk for substance abuse in later life, with women more likely to report past and current stress as a mediating factor in their substance use and relapse as compared to men. Preclinical models of neonatal and peri-adolescent (early through late adolescence) stress all support a direct relationship between experiences of early-life adversity and adult substance-related behaviors, and provide valuable information regarding the underlying neurobiology. This review will provide an overview of these animal models and how these paradigms alter drug and alcohol consumption and/or seeking in male and female adults...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
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