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Alzheimer Diabetes

Hyun Goo Kang, Hyun Young Park, Han Uk Ryu, Seung-Han Suk
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is correlated with Alzheimer's disease and its severity, but the association remains unclear in adults (≥50 years) without a history of stroke or dementia.We assessed BMD and cognitive function using the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) in 650 stroke- and dementia-free subjects (≥50 years) who were recruited for an early health check-up program between January 2009 and December 2010.The mean age was 62.9 ± 8.0 years and mean MMSE score was 27.6 ± 3.6. A total of 361 subjects had reduced BMD: 197 (30...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maia J Frieser, Sylia Wilson, Scott Vrieze
OBJECTIVE: Advances in genomewide association studies have made possible the return of genetic risk results for complex diseases. Two concerns about these results are (a) negative psychological consequences and (b) viewing probabilistic results as deterministic, leading to misinterpretation and inappropriate decisions. The present study evaluates these concerns through a meta-analytic review of existing literature. METHOD: Seventeen genetic testing studies of complex disease, including 1,171 participants and reporting 195 effects, 104 of which were unadjusted for covariates, were meta-analyzed under a random effects model...
October 11, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Valerie A Ivancic, Claire A Krasinski, Qiuchen Zheng, Rebecca J Meservier, Donald E Spratt, Noel D Lazo
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a zinc metalloprotease that selectively degrades biologically important substrates associated with type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). As such, IDE is an attractive target for therapeutic innovations. A major requirement is an understanding of how other molecules present in cells regulate the activity of the enzyme towards insulin, IDE's most important physiologically relevant substrate. Previous kinetic studies of the IDE-dependent degradation of insulin in the presence of potential regulators have used iodinated insulin, a chemical modification that has been shown to alter the biological and biochemical properties of insulin...
October 10, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Durai Sellegounder, Chung-Hsiang Yuan, Phillip Wibisono, Yiyong Liu, Jingru Sun
Upon pathogen infection, the nervous system regulates innate immunity to confer coordinated protection to the host. However, the precise mechanisms of such regulation remain unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that OCTR-1, a putative G protein-coupled receptor for catecholamine, functions in the sensory neurons designated "ASH" to suppress innate immune responses in Caenorhabditis elegans It is unknown what molecules act as OCTR-1 ligands in the neural immune regulatory circuit. Here we identify neurotransmitter octopamine (OA) as an endogenous ligand for OCTR-1 in immune regulation and show that the OA-producing RIC neurons function in the OCTR-1 neural circuit to suppress innate immunity...
October 9, 2018: MBio
Ross Doyle, Denise M Sadlier, Catherine Godson
Inflammation is an essential response to injury and its timely and adequate resolution permits tissue repair and avoidance of chronic inflammation. Ageing is associated with increased inflammation, sub-optimal resolution and these act as drivers for a number of ageing-associated pathologies. We describe the role played by specialised proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) in the resolution of inflammation and how insufficient levels of these mediators, or compromised responsiveness may play a role in the pathogenesis of many ageing-associated pathologies, e...
October 4, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Miia Kivipelto, Francesca Mangialasche, Tiia Ngandu
Research into dementia prevention is of paramount importance if the dementia epidemic is to be halted. Observational studies have identified several potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity at midlife, diabetes mellitus, smoking, physical inactivity, depression and low levels of education. Randomized clinical trials are needed that investigate whether interventions targeting these risk factors can reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in elderly adults, but such trials are methodologically challenging...
October 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Richard Berwick, David Vaux, Létitia Jean
Deposition of misfolded amyloid polypeptides, associated with cell death, is the hallmark of many degenerative diseases (e.g. type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease). In vivo , cellular and extra-cellular spaces are occupied by a high volume fraction of macromolecules. The resulting macromolecular crowding energetically affects reactions. Amyloidogenesis can either be promoted by macromolecular crowding through the excluded volume effect or inhibited due to a viscosity increase reducing kinetics...
October 4, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Theodora Panagaki, Simon Gengler, Christian Hölscher
Alzheimer's disease (AD) afflicts more than 46.8 million people worldwide, with a newly diagnosed case every 3 seconds and no remission in the disease progression. The discovery of disease-modifying drugs is now on the summit of the neuropharmacological research priorities. The long-lasting derivatives of the insulinotropic incretin hormones-glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-have repeatedly been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and counteract an array of deleterious effects across a range of experimental models of neuronal degeneration...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
John Grizzanti, Rachel Corrigan, Gemma Casadesus
Type II diabetes (T2D) has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interestingly, both AD and T2D have similar characteristics including amyloid peptide aggregation, decreased metabolism, and increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Despite their prevalence, therapies for these diseases are limited. To date, most therapies for AD have targeted amyloid-β or tau. Unfortunately, most of these clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful, creating a crucial need for novel therapies...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Blanka Klimova, Petra Maresova, Kamil Kuca
BACKGROUND: There are a few risk factors which definitely have an impact on the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Those include genetics, gender, age, diabetes, head injuries, and lifestyle. Physical activity together with healthy diet is part of people's lifestyle. At present there exist several research studies showing that the physical activities can be a good intervention tool in the delay of cognitive decline in AD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to discuss a relationship between the physical activities and the delay and/or maintenance of cognitive decline in AD and the types of physical activities which are especially suitable for this delay...
October 2, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Kevin Mullane, Michael Williams
Compounds targeted for the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) have consistently failed in clinical trials despite evidence for target engagement and pharmacodynamic activity. This questions the relevance of compounds acting at current AD drug targets - the majority of which reflect the seminal amyloid and, to a far lesser extent, tau hypotheses - and limitations in understanding AD causality as distinct from general dementia. The preeminence of amyloid and tau led to many alternative approaches to AD therapeutics being ignored or underfunded to the extent that their causal versus contributory role in AD remains unknown...
September 28, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Gokhan Zengin, Azzurra Stefanucci, Maria João Rodrigues, Adriano Mollica, Luisa Custodio, Muhammad Zakariyyah Aumeeruddy, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally
The genus Scrophularia has received much interest with regards to its traditional uses against eczema, psoriasis, and mastitis. Yet, the medicinal properties of some species still need to be scientifically validated. The present study was designed to investigate into the biological properties of various solvent extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous) of the roots and aerial parts of Scrophularia lucida based on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and enzyme inhibitory activities together with phytochemical screening...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Elena Atrián-Blasco, Paulina Gonzalez, Alice Santoro, Bruno Alies, Peter Faller, Christelle Hureau
Several diseases share misfolding of different peptides and proteins as a key feature for their development. This is the case of important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. Even more, metal ions such as copper and zinc might play an important role upon interaction with amyloidogenic peptides and proteins, which could impact their aggregation and toxicity abilities. In this review, the different coordination modes proposed for copper and zinc with amyloid-β, α-synuclein and IAPP will be reviewed as well as their impact on the aggregation, and ROS production in the case of copper...
September 15, 2018: Coordination Chemistry Reviews
Md Shahinozzaman, Nozomi Taira, Takahiro Ishii, Mohammad A Halim, Md Amzad Hossain, Shinkichi Tawata
Okinawa propolis (OP) and its major ingredients were reported to have anti-cancer effects and lifespan-extending effects on Caenorhabditis elegans through inactivation of the oncogenic kinase, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). Herein, five prenylated flavonoids from OP, nymphaeol-A (NA), nymphaeol-B (NB), nymphaeol-C (NC), isonymphaeol-B (INB), and 3'-geranyl-naringenin (GN), were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-Alzheimer's effects using in vitro techniques. They showed significant anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of albumin denaturation (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values of 0...
September 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Dusanka Janezic, Lorentz Jantschi, Sorana D Bolboaca
Several studies report the effects of excessive use of sugars and sweeteners in the diet. These include obesity, cardiac diseases, diabetes, and even lymphomas, leukemias, cancers of the bladder and brain, chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, autism, and systemic lupus. On the other hand, each sugar and sweetener has a distinct metabolic assimilation process, and its chemical structure plays an important role in this process. Several scientific papers present the biological effects of the sugars and sweeteners in relation to their chemical structure...
September 26, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Noriko Ogama, Takashi Sakurai, Shuji Kawashima, Takahisa Tanikawa, Haruhiko Tokuda, Shosuke Satake, Hisayuki Miura, Atsuya Shimizu, Manabu Kokubo, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Masafumi Kuzuya
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying the effects of glucose management on brain abnormalities is not fully understood. The differential impacts of glucose alteration on brain changes in patients with and without cognitive impairment are also unclear. This cross-sectional study included 57 older type 2 diabetes patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or normal cognition (NC). We examined the effects of hypoglycemia, postprandial hyperglycemia and glucose fluctuations on regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) and brain atrophy among these patients...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Chih-Ming Cheng, Wen-Han Chang, Yu-Chuan Chiu, Yu Sun, Huey-Jane Lee, Li-Yu Tang, Pei-Ning Wang, Ming-Jang Chiu, Cheng-Hung Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Chia-Fen Tsai
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy, defined as the concomitant use of 5 or more medications, has a documented negative association with cognitive impairment such as delirium and is associated, potentially, with a higher risk of dementia. However, whether polypharmacy contributes to increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or decreased cognitive capacity requires further investigation. This nationwide population survey investigated the association among polypharmacy, MCI, and dementia. METHODS: Through random sampling based on the proportion of all Taiwan counties, subjects were recruited and received in-person interviews between December 2011 and March 2013...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Sarah K Baker, Zu-Lin Chen, Erin H Norris, Alexey S Revenko, A Robert MacLeod, Sidney Strickland
Two of the most predominant features of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain are deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and inflammation. The mechanism behind these pathologies remains unknown, but there is evidence to suggest that inflammation may predate the deposition of Aβ. Furthermore, immune activation is increasingly being recognized as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of the disease, and disorders involving systemic inflammation, such as infection, aging, obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and depression are risk factors for the development of AD...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Blanka Klimova, Kamil Kuca, Petra Maresova
The incidence of both diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing and are becoming a social and economic threat worldwide. Recent research studies indicate that both diseases share some pathophysiological features and that specifically type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between diabetes mellitus and AD, explore the efficacy of selected drugs on patients with diabetes and AD, and compare the relative risk of diabetes for Alzheimer's disease within different clinical studies...
September 25, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Katherine J Bangen, Madeleine L Werhane, Alexandra J Weigand, Emily C Edmonds, Lisa Delano-Wood, Kelsey R Thomas, Daniel A Nation, Nicole D Evangelista, Alexandra L Clark, Thomas T Liu, Mark W Bondi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases risk for dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many previous studies of brain changes underlying cognitive impairment in T2DM have applied conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect macrostructural changes associated with cerebrovascular disease such as white matter hyperintensities or infarcts. However, such pathology likely reflects end-stage manifestations of chronic decrements in cerebral blood flow (CBF). MRI techniques that measure CBF may (1) elucidate mechanisms that precede irreversible parenchymal damage and (2) serve as a marker of risk for cognitive decline...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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