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Alzheimer Diabetes

Sami Gabbouj, Teemu Natunen, Hennariikka Koivisto, Kimmo Jokivarsi, Mari Takalo, Mikael Marttinen, Rebekka Wittrahm, Susanna Kemppainen, Reyhaneh Naderi, Adrián Posado-Fernández, Simo Ryhänen, Petra Mäkinen, Kaisa M A Paldanius, Gonçalo Doria, Pekka Poutiainen, Orfeu Flores, Annakaisa Haapasalo, Heikki Tanila, Mikko Hiltunen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human AD brains show reduced glucose metabolism as measured by [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Here, we used 14-month-old wild-type (WT) and APPSwe /PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice to investigate how a single dose of intranasal insulin modulates brain glucose metabolism using FDG-PET and affects spatial learning and memory. We also assessed how insulin influences the activity of Akt1 and Akt2 kinases, the expression of glial and neuronal markers, and autophagy in the hippocampus...
November 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Sangeetha Srinivasan, Nathan Efron
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established technique for the clinical examination, diagnosis, severity staging and monitoring of ophthalmic disorders. The application of this technology has more recently been extended beyond ophthalmic disease, whereby it has been demonstrated that OCT can serve as an ophthalmic marker for a range of systemic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This review will focus on the clinical utility of OCT-derived retinal measures for the investigation of these conditions...
December 11, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Guannan He, Yanchun Liang, Yan Chen, William Yang, Jun S Liu, Mary Qu Yang, Renchu Guan
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, because of the huge economic burden on society causing by obesity and diabetes, they turn into the most serious public health challenges in the world. To reveal the close and complex relationships between diabetes, obesity and other diseases, search the effective treatment for them, a novel model named as representative latent Dirichlet allocation (RLDA) topic model is presented. RESULTS: RLDA was applied to a corpus of more than 337,000 literatures of diabetes and obesity which were published from 2007 to 2016...
December 14, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
David G Hoel, Frank R de Gruijl
There have been many public health recommendations for avoiding UV radiation exposures. This is primarily due to concerns about skin cancer and especially melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer. However, UV radiation is also known as the primary source of vitamin D and other compounds needed for good health. This brief commentary lists several of the many important recent studies of adverse health effects associated with low sun exposure, including some specific cancers, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, autism, Alzheimer's disease, and age-related macular degeneration...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
M P Taraka Prabhu, Nandini Sarkar
Amyloids are highly ordered beta sheet rich stable protein aggregates, which have been found to play a significant role in the onset of several degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Type II diabetes mellitus and so on. Aggregation of proteins leading to amyloid fibril formation via intermediate(s), is thought to be a nucleated condensation polymerization process associated with many pathological conditions. There has been extensive research to identify inhibitors of these disease oriented aggregation processes...
December 11, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Xingyu Zhang, Zhihui Fu, Lanxia Meng, Mingyang He, Zhentao Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the development of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) consisting of aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau, respectively. The amyloid hypothesis has been the predominant framework for research in AD for over two decades. According to this hypothesis, the accumulation of Aβ in the brain is the primary factor initiating the pathogenesis of AD. However, it remains elusive what factors initiate Aβ aggregation. Studies demonstrate that AD has multiple causes, including genetic and environmental factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Laís S S Ferreira, Caroline S Fernandes, Marcelo N N Vieira, Fernanda G De Felice
The epidemiological connection between diabetes, obesity, and dementia represents an important public health challenge but also an opportunity to further understand these conditions. The key intersection among the three diseases is insulin resistance, which has been classically described to occur in peripheral tissues in diabetes and obesity and has recently been shown to develop in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Here we review encouraging preclinical and clinical data indicating the potential of targeting impaired insulin signaling with antidiabetic drugs to treat dementia...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, Ella Kustrin, David W Morton
As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Recent studies have linked diabetes as a risk factor in developing Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The incidence of patients with type II diabetes and increased levels and activity of α-amylase is higher in patients with dementia...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Adel A Gomaa, Rania M Makboul, Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Engy A Abdel-Rahman, Israa A Ahmed, Mariam A Nicola
PURPOSE: Recent studies suggested that the non-familiar form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be consequence of metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Elettaria cardamomum extract (EC) has exhibited antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of EC on AD-like alterations in rats induced by high fructose and high fat diet coupled with a single small dose of STZ (25 mg/kg) (T2DM rats). METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out...
January 2019: Cytokine
Alina Mihaela Leustean, Manuela Ciocoiu, Anca Sava, Claudia Florida Costea, Mariana Floria, Claudia Cristina Tarniceriu, Daniela Maria Tanase
The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases-retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Sima Kianpour Rad, Aditya Arya, Hamed Karimian, Priya Madhavan, Farzana Rizwan, Shajan Koshy, Girish Prabhu
The pathophysiological link between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suggested in several reports. Few findings suggest that T2DM has strong link in the development process of AD, and the complete mechanism is yet to be revealed. Formation of amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are two central hallmarks in the AD. APs are the dense composites of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) which accumulates around the nerve cells. Moreover, NFTs are the twisted fibers containing hyperphosphorylated tau proteins present in certain residues of Aβ that build up inside the brain cells...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
X Raymond Gao, Hua Huang, Heejin Kim
The macula, located near the center of the retina in the human eye, is responsible for providing critical functions, such as central, sharp vision. Structural changes in the macula are associated with many ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. Although macular thickness is a highly heritable trait, there are no prior reported genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of it. Here, we describe the first GWAS of macular thickness, which was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using 68,423 participants from the UK Biobank cohort...
December 7, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Francesca Trampetti, Catarina Pereira, Maria João Rodrigues, Odeta Celaj, Brigida D'Abrosca, Gokhan Zengin, Adriano Mollica, Azzurra Stefanucci, Luísa Custódio
In this study, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and water extracts from flowers, stems and roots of Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout were appraised for radical scavenging activity (RSA) towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and superoxide free radicals, and for metal chelating activities on iron and copper ions. The water extracts had the highest antioxidant activity, especially those from roots and flowers, and were further appraised for in vitro inhibition of enzymes implicated on the onset of human ailments, namely acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) for Alzheimer's disease, α-glucosidase and α-amylase for diabetes, and tyrosinase for skin hyperpigmentation disorders...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Isabel H Salas, Bart De Strooper
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk to develop Alzheimer disease, however, the underlying mechanisms for this association are still unclear. In this review we will provide a critical overview of the major findings coming from clinical studies and animal models.
December 6, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Fakhra Amin, Bilqees Bano
Thiol Protease inhibitors (cystatins) are endogenous natural inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They are present in all mammalians cells and body fluids. Cystatin are allocated into three major families. Family -I stefins, family -II cystatins and family -III kininogens, according to their amino acid sequence, molecular weight, carbohydrate content and disulphide bonds. It has been investigated that thiol proteases (cathepsin) and their endogenous inhibitor, cystatins have been closely associated with diseases like Alzheimer's, Prions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and diabetes...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Andre F Batista, Victor Bodart-Santos, Fernanda G De Felice, Sergio T Ferreira
The current absence of effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) reflects an incomplete knowledge of the underlying disease processes. Considerable efforts have been made to investigate the central pathological features of these diseases, giving rise to numerous attempts to develop compounds that interfere with such features. However, further characterization of the molecular targets within the interconnected AD and PD pathways is still required. Impaired brain insulin signaling has emerged as a feature that contributes to neuronal dysfunction in both AD and PD, leading to strategies aiming at restoring this pathway in the brain...
December 3, 2018: CNS Drugs
Alastair J Barr
This article gives the reader an insight into the role of biochemistry in some of the current global health and disease problems. It surveys the biochemical causes of disease in an accessible and succinct form while also bringing in aspects of pharmacology, cell biology, pathology and physiology which are closely aligned with biochemistry. The discussion of the selected diseases highlights exciting new developments and illuminates key biochemical pathways and commonalities. The article includes coverage of diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, microorganisms and disease, nutrition, liver disease and Alzheimer's disease, but does not attempt to be comprehensive in its coverage of disease, since this is beyond its remit and scope...
December 3, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Maria Oczkowicz, Tomasz Szmatoła, Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Artur Gurgul, Tomasz Ząbek
BACKGROUND: Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (cDDGS) are a byproduct of biofuel and alcohol production. cDDGS have been used in pig feed for many years, because they are readily available and rich in protein, fiber, unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols. However, feed mixtures too high in cDDGS result in the worsening of backfat quality. We performed RNA-sequencing analysis of backfat from crossbred pigs fed different diets. The diets were isoenergetic but contained different amounts of cDDGS and various sources of fats...
December 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Keivan Javanshiri, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Niklas Friberg, Fredrik Sjövall, Karin Wickerström, Mattias Haglund, Elisabet Englund
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Maarja Andaloussi Mäe, Tian Li, Giacomo Bertuzzi, Elisabeth Raschperger, Michael Vanlandewijck, Liqun He, Khayrun Nahar, Annika Dalheim, Jennifer J Hofmann, Bàrbara Laviña, Annika Keller, Christer Betsholtz, Guillem Genové
Diabetes mellitus is associated with cognitive impairment and various central nervous system pathologies such as stroke, vascular dementia, or Alzheimer's disease. The exact pathophysiology of these conditions is poorly understood. Recent reports suggest that hyperglycemia causes cerebral microcirculation pathology and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and leakage. The majority of these reports, however, are based on methods including in vitro BBB modeling or streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rodents, opening questions regarding the translation of the in vitro findings to the in vivo situation, and possible direct effects of streptozotocin on the brain vasculature...
November 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
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