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Newborn infant

Tushar H Jaware, K B Khanchandani, Anita Zurani
BACKGROUND:  Segmentation of brain MR images of neonates is a primary step for assessment of brain evolvement. Advanced segmentation techniques used for adult brain MRI are not companionable for neonates, due to extensive dissimilarities in tissue properties and head structure. Existing segmentation methods for neonates utilizes brain atlases or requires manual elucidation, which results into improper and atlas dependent segmentation. OBJECTIVE:  The primary objective of this work is to develop fully automatic, atlas free, and robust system to segment and classify brain tissues of newborn infants from magnetic resonance images...
December 15, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Daniella Gregoria Bomfim Prado da Silva, Flávia Jacqueline Almeida, Mariana Volpe Arnoni, Marco Aurélio Palazzi Sáfadi, Marcelo Jenne Mimica, Daniel Jarovsky, Gabriela Pereira de Almeida Rossetti, Mauricio Magalhães, Danielle Bruna Leal de Oliveira, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli, Thais Cristina Colmanetti, Edison Luiz Durigon, Eitan Naaman Berezin
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus is a pathogen frequently involved in nosocomial outbreaks. Although several studies have reported nosocomial outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units, molecular epidemiology data are scarce. Here, the authors describe two consecutive respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks caused by genotypes ON-1 and NA-2 in a neonatal intensive care unit in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A prospective search for respiratory syncytial virus was performed after diagnosing the index case and four other symptomatic newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit...
December 12, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Lorenza Romani, Stefania Pane, Carlo Severini, Michela Menegon, Gianluca Foglietta, Stefania Bernardi, Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Andrea Onetti Muda, Paolo Palma, Lorenza Putignani
BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria is usually defined as the detection of asexual forms of Plasmodium spp. in a blood sample of a neonate during perinatal age if there is no possibility of postpartum infection by a mosquito bite. The incidence of congenital malaria is highly variable and seems related to several factors, such as different diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. detection, and area in which the epidemiologic analyses are performed. In non-endemic countries, cases of congenital malaria are rare...
December 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Frédérique Berger-Caron, Bruno Piedboeuf, Geneviève Morissette, David Simonyan, Philippe Chétaille, Annie Pellerin, Audrey Hébert
BACKGROUND:  Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs in 10% of neonatal respiratory insufficiency. To selectively reduce pulmonary vascular resistance, several treatments have been tried. Inhaled epoprostenol (iPGI2 ) has been used for 12 years in our institution for the management of refractory PPHN despite the gaps in the literature to support this use. OBJECTIVES:  The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of iPGI2 for PPHN...
December 14, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
R Garg, L Latimer, S Gomis, V Gerdts, A Potter, S van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Human parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causative agents of serious respiratory tract illness in newborns and infants. Maternal vaccination could be a promising approach to provide immediate protection against severe PIV3 and RSV infection in young infants. Previously, we demonstrated that maternal immunization with a subunit vaccine consisting of the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with TriAdj, an adjuvant consisting of poly(I:C), immune defense regulatory peptide and polyphosphazene, protects newborn lambs from RSV...
December 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
Yoh Isogai, Zheng Wu, Michael I Love, Michael Ho-Young Ahn, Dhananjay Bambah-Mukku, Vivian Hua, Karolina Farrell, Catherine Dulac
Newborn mice emit signals that promote parenting from mothers and fathers but trigger aggressive responses from virgin males. Although pup-directed attacks by males require vomeronasal function, the specific infant cues that elicit this behavior are unknown. We developed a behavioral paradigm based on reconstituted pup cues and showed that discrete infant morphological features combined with salivary chemosignals elicit robust male aggression. Seven vomeronasal receptors were identified based on infant-mediated activity, and the involvement of two receptors, Vmn2r65 and Vmn2r88, in infant-directed aggression was demonstrated by genetic deletion...
December 13, 2018: Cell
Julia Damiani Victora, Mariangela Freitas da Silveira, Cristian Tedesco Tonial, Cesar Gomes Victora, Fernando Celso Barros, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Iná Silva Dos Santos, Diego Garcia Bassani, Pedro Celiny R Garcia, Marola Scheeren, Humberto H Fiori
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, mortality and risk factors associated with the birth of very low birth weight preterm infants over a period of 33 years. METHODS: Four cross-sectional studies were analyzed, using data from perinatal interviews of birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas collected in 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2015. Based on perinatal questionnaires, anthropometric measurements of newborns and death certificates were analyzed to obtain the prevalence rate, neonatal mortality, and risk factors (maternal age, income and type of delivery) for very low birth weight...
December 11, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Jacob L Mackey
A common view among ancient historians about Roman attentiveness to children's psychological development needs reconsideration. The view holds that Romans ignored children's cognitive ontogeny, perceiving early childhood as a largely undifferentiated life stage. A separate but related issue is the problematic claim that Roman childhood was entirely a matter of social construction. I present evidence from over four hundred years of Roman writing to make three points against Roman neglect of children and radical social construction...
December 13, 2018: History of Psychology
Fabrice Damon, Zhihan Li, Yin Yan, Wu Li, Kun Guo, Paul C Quinn, Olivier Pascalis, David Méary
Studies on facial attractiveness in human adults, infants, and newborns have consistently reported a visual preference for faces rated as attractive compared with faces rated as unattractive. Biological accounts of facial attractiveness have typically presented such preferences as arising from adaptations for mate choice or as by-products of general sensory bias. In this cross-species study, we examined whether explicit ratings of attractiveness made by human judges would predict implicit visual preferences in other humans and also in rhesus macaques and, if they do, whether such preferences would extend beyond conspecific faces...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Fadoua Saadani-Makki, Cornelia Hagmann, Olivier Balédent, Malek I Makki
We assessed the sex and the lateralization differences in the corticospinal tract (CST) during the early postnatal period. Twenty-five healthy term neonates (13 girls, aged 39.2 ± 1.2 weeks, and 12 boys aged 38.6 ± 3.0 weeks) underwent Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Fiber tracking was performed to extract bilaterally the CST pathways and to quantify the parallel (E1 ) and perpendicular (E23 ) diffusions, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). The measurements were performed on the entire CST fibers and on four segments: base of the pons (CST-Po), cerebral peduncles (CST-CP), posterior limb of the internal capsule (CST-PLIC), and corona-radiata (CST-CR)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Paula Catirina Germano Magalhães, Ricardo Abadie-Guedes, Manoel Augusto Barbosa da Costa Mendonça, Aline Duarte de Souza, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
The non-caloric sweetener aspartame can be potentially harmful to the developing brain, as some studies suggest an association between aspartame intake and adverse neural effects. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of aspartame, with or without associated early nutritional deficiency, on behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and electrophysiological features of the excitability-related phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Newborn Wistar rats (n = 80) were suckled under favorable (L9 ; n = 40) or unfavorable lactation conditions (L15 ; n = 40), consisting of litters with 9 or 15 pups, respectively...
December 13, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Dasavanh Manivong, Mosiur Rahman, Keiko Nakamura, Kaoruko Seino
Objective: Evidence from developing countries on the association between women's endorsement of attitudes justifying partner abuse and their use of reproductive health services is suggestive but inconclusive. This study uses a nationally representative dataset from Lao PDR to provide strong evidence for the relationship between women's endorsement of attitudes justifying partner abuse and use of reproductive health services. Methods: This study used data from the 2011-2012 Lao Social Indicator survey (LSIS)...
November 2018: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
Viola Schmelter, Lena Antonaci, Susanne Fröhlich, Diran Herebian, Pablo Verde, Martin Heil, Thomas Hoehn
This study assesses the impact of prenatal stress and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in nails of newborns. Nail samples were gained from 56 newborn infants. The concentration of DHEA and DHEAS was measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Prenatal stress was assessed by the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire and by the Life Experience Survey. Prenatal stress was not associated with infant nail DHEA or DHEAS concentrations...
December 10, 2018: Biological Psychology
Anjana Srinivasan, Alex Al Khoury, Svetlana Puzhko, Carole Dobrich, Meira Stern, Howard Mitnick, Lenore Goldfarb
BACKGROUND: Infant tongue-tie can cause breastfeeding problems, which may be improved by frenotomy. However, controversy exists among the medical community. RESEARCH AIM: To examine the influence of frenotomy on infants with posterior ankyloglossia, by quantifying the changes in breastfeeding and maternal nipple pain using standardized tools. METHODS: Newborns ( N=30) below 12 weeks of age were recruited from the Herzl-Goldfarb Breastfeeding Clinic between April 2014 and April 2015...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Laurence Dillenseger, Claire Langlet, Silvia Iacobelli, Thomas Lavaux, Charline Ratomponirina, Marc Labenne, Dominique Astruc, François Severac, Jean Bernard Gouyon, Pierre Kuhn
Background: Early diagnosis is essential to improve the treatment and prognosis of newborn infants with nosocomial bacterial infections. Although cytokines and procalcitonin (PCT) have been evaluated as early inflammatory markers, their diagnostic properties have rarely been compared. Objectives: This study evaluated and compared the ability of individual inflammatory markers available for clinician (PCT, semi-quantitative determination of IL-8) and of combinations of markers (CRPi plus IL-6 or quantitative or semi-quantitative determination of IL-8) to diagnose bacterial nosocomial infections in neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Yong Jing, Fudong Peng, Yufeng Shan, Jingkai Jiang
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening disease that occurs in premature infants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid mainly used to treat digestive diseases, in a rat model of NEC. NEC models were established in newborn rats via inhalation of N2 for 90 sec every 4 h and oral administration of 4 mg/kg/day lipopolysaccharides on days 0 and 1. Berberine was administered via oral gavage. In the NEC model group, Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, nuclear factor NF-κB (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were upregulated...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Maria Dennis, Joshua Eudailey, Justin Pollara, Arthur S McMillan, Kenneth D Cronin, Pooja T Saha, Alan D Curtis, Michael G Hudgens, Genevieve G Fouda, Guido Ferrari, Munir Alam, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Sallie Permar, Xiaoying Shen
Prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) is an indispensable component of the combat against the global AIDS epidemic. A combination of passive broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) infusion and active vaccination promises to provide protection of infants against MTCT from birth through the breastfeeding period, and could prime the immune system for life-long immunity. In this study, we investigate the impact of a single infusion of CD4 binding site (CD4bs) bnAb administered at birth on de novo antibody responses elicited by concurrent active HIV envelope vaccination...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Diego F Niño, Qinjie Zhou, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Laura Y Martin, Sanxia Wang, William B Fulton, Hongpeng Jia, Peng Lu, Thomas Prindle, Fan Zhang, Joshua Crawford, Zhipeng Hou, Susumu Mori, Liam L Chen, Andrew Guajardo, Ali Fatemi, Mikhail Pletnikov, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Sujatha Kannan, Chhinder P Sodhi, David J Hackam
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe gastrointestinal disease of the premature infant. One of the most important long-term complications observed in children who survive NEC early in life is the development of profound neurological impairments. However, the pathways leading to NEC-associated neurological impairments remain unknown, thus limiting the development of prevention strategies. We have recently shown that NEC development is dependent on the expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the intestinal epithelium, whose activation by bacteria in the newborn gut leads to mucosal inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Deandra H Luong, Po-Yin Cheung, Megan O'Reilly, Tze-Fun Lee, Georg M Schmolzer
Background: In 2015, the neonatal resuscitation guidelines incorporated the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to monitor heart rate of newborns. However, previous studies have indicated that cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity rhythm (PEA) may occur in the delivery room, rendering this method problematic. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of ECG and auscultation to assess heart rate during PEA. Methods: A total of 45 piglets (age 1-3 days, weight 1.7-2.3 kg) were exposed to 30 min normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by asphyxia until asystole, achieved by disconnecting the ventilator and clamping the endotracheal tube...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Simone Pratesi, Simona Montano, Stefano Ghirardello, Fabio Mosca, Luca Boni, Lorenzo Tofani, Carlo Dani
Background: Preterm newborns receiving briefly delayed cord clamping or cord milking at birth have better neonatal outcomes. However, the time frame in which both these procedures are performed (< 60 s of life) is too short to explore the possible beneficial effects on early infant postnatal adaptation and outcomes of a prolonged transfusion strategy associated with neonatal respiration. Methods and Design: We have designed a randomized, multicenter, controlled two-phase study: phase 1 to assess the feasibility of carrying out the protocol in a large randomized trial, and phase 2 to assess the efficacy of bedside assistance with intact placental circulation for 3 min in comparison to cord milking to improve outcome in the neonatal period; we present here the feasibility and safety phase of the study...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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