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Newborn infant

Rachel L Knowles, Juliet Oerton, Timothy Cheetham, Gary Butler, Christine Cavanagh, Lesley Tetlow, Carol Dezateux
Context: Active surveillance of primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in a multi-ethnic population with established newborn bloodspot screening. Objective: To estimate performance of newborn screening for CH at different test thresholds; to calculate incidence of primary CH. Design: Prospective surveillance undertaken from June 2011 to June 2012 with three-year follow-up of outcomes. Relative likelihood ratios (rLRs) estimated to compare bloodspot thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test thresholds of 6mU/L and 8mU/L, with the nationally recommended standard of 10mU/L for a presumptive positive result...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
S S Chibisova, T G Markova, N N Alekseeva, A A Yasinskaya, E R Tsygankova, E A Bliznetz, A V Polyakov, G A Tavartkiladze
The aim of this study was the investigation of the epidemiology of permanent hearing impairment in the children of first year of life in the Russian Federation after the implementation of the newborn universal hearing screening program. The prevalence of hearing loss in children in the first year of life was estimated at 2.5 per 1,000 based on the official statistical data and reports of hearing rehabilitation centres in 2016. A cohort of 405 children born in 2012 was examined at the age from 0 to 4 years of life...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Harry T Chugani
In this review, we discuss molecular brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2(18 F)fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) in human newborns and infants, and illustrate how this technology can be applied to probe the neuropathophysiology of neonatal neurologic disorders. PET studies have been difficult to perform in sick babies because of patient transportation issues and suboptimal spatial resolution. With approval from the FDA and the institutional review board, we modified and installed the Focus 220 animal microPET scanner (Concorde Microsystems, Knoxville, TN) directly in our neonatal intensive care unit in Children's Hospital of Michigan and verified the high spatial resolution (<2 mm full-width-at-half-maximum) of this microPET...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Marco Ranucci, Alessandro Giamberti, Ekaterina Baryshnikova
Surgical correction or palliation of complex congenital heart defects in newborns and small infants is often accompanied by severe perioperative bleeding, almost invariably requires the use of blood components (fresh frozen plasma and platelets) and often of other pro-coagulant interventions, including fibrinogen concentrate, prothrombin complex concentrate, factor XIII, and even recombinant activated factor VII [1,2]. The nature of perioperative bleeding in this segment of the cardiac surgery population is certainly multifactorial...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Tiffany E Deihl, Hyagriv N Simhan
OBJECTIVE:  Antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) is known to affect the central nervous system of preterm infants, and there is biologic rationale for influence on other phenotypes. This study investigated the effect of MgSO4 exposure on the trajectory of ponderal index (PI, kg/m3 ) from birth to 2 years of age. STUDY DESIGN:  A secondary analysis of a U.S. randomized controlled trial investigating MgSO4 versus placebo administration among women at high risk for preterm delivery was performed...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Vickie Bailey, Edgardo Szyld, Kristi Cagle, Deborah Kurtz, Hala Chaaban, Dee Wu, Patricia Williams
OBJECTIVE:  To measure sound and vibration in rotary wing air transport (RWAT) and ground ambulance transport (GAT), comparing them to current recommendations, and correlating them with physiological stability measures in transported neonates. STUDY DESIGN:  This is a prospective cohort observational study including infants ≤ 7 days of age transported over an 8-month period. Infants with neurologic conditions were excluded. Sound and vibration was continuously measured during transport...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Ayşe Tuba Altuğ
Nonsyndromic complete cleft lip and palate deformity is primarily functional, then esthetic, and finally but not least importantly, a dental challenge. Feeding and facial appearance are important during the first years of a newborn. Nutrition is universally provided by passive feeding plates. If the Cleft Team prefers to use active plates, alveolar molding combined with nasal approaches in infants is the best method to improve esthetics to date. Orthodontists are predominantly responsible for achieving both the goals...
December 2017: Turk J Orthod
Obiora Shedrach Ejiofor, Onyinye Mercy Ajunwa, Chijioke Elias Ezeudu, George Ogonna Emechebe, Kenneth Nchekwube Okeke, Christian Chukwuemeka Ifezulike, Ifeoma Mercy Ekejindu, Jude Nnaemeka Okoyeh, Eunice Ogonna Osuala, Angus Nnamdi Oli
Background: Neonatal infection refers to the infection of the newborn during the first twenty-eight days of life. It is one of the causes of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of the study is to determine the relative contribution of the different pathogens to the overall disease burden. It will also determine the mechanisms of virulence of these pathogens that cause neonatal infections at Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH), Awka. Methods: Biological samples were collected from 30 neonates admitted at the special care baby unit (SCBU) of COOUTH and cultured using selective media and nutrient agar...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Tülay Güran, Başak Tezel, Fatih Gürbüz, Beray Selver Eklioğlu, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Cengiz Kara, Enver Şimşek, Filiz Mine Çizmecioğlu, Alev Ozon, Firdevs Baş, Murat Aydın, Feyza Darendeliler
BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most common form of primary adrenal insufficiency in children. Neonatal screening for CAH is effective in detecting the salt-wasting form and reducing mortality. AIM: To estimate incidence of CAH in Turkey and to assess the characteristics and efficacy of the adopted newborn CAH screening strategy. METHOD: A pilot newborn CAH screening study was carried out under the authority of Turkish Directorate of Public Health...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Erik de Jonge, Kishwar Azad, Munir Hossen, Abdul Kuddus, Dharma S Manandhar, Ellen van de Poel, Swati Sarbani Roy, Naomi Saville, Aman Sen, Catherine Sikorski, Prasanta Tripathy, Anthony Costello, Tanja A J Houweling
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, India and Nepal, neonatal outcomes of poor infants are considerably worse than those of better-off infants. Understanding how these inequalities vary by country and place of delivery (home or facility) will allow targeting of interventions to those who need them most. We describe socio-economic inequalities in newborn care in rural areas of Bangladesh, Nepal and India for all deliveries and by place of delivery. METHODS: We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, India and from Makwanpur and Dhanusha districts in Nepal, covering periods from 2001 to 2011...
August 15, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Girma Temam Shifa, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Alemayehu Worku Yalew
BACKGROUND: Though Ethiopia has shown a considerable improvement in reducing under-five mortality rate since 1990, many children still continue to die prematurely. Mixed results have been reported about determinants of under-five mortality. Besides, there is paucity of mortality studies in the current study site. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess maternal and child health related predictors of under-five mortality in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A matched case control study was conducted in 2014 in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch Zuria District of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
Y N Prashantha, P N Suman Rao, Saudamini Nesargi, B S Chandrakala, Kalyan Chakravarthy Balla, A Shashidhar
BACKGROUND: Different methods have been used for therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with moderate-to-severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). As standard cooling devices are expensive, there is a need to establish the safety and efficacy of low-cost devices such as ice packs (IP) and phase changing material (PCM). AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and the clinico-laboratory profile of neonates who underwent cooling with IP or PCM...
August 15, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Takahiro Korai, Katsunori Kouchi, Ayako Takenouchi, Aki Matsuoka, Kiyoaki Yabe, Chikako Nakata
PURPOSE: We aimed at investigating the incidence and risk factors of non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies (non-IgE-GI-FAs) in neonates and infants. METHODS: A total of 126 infants who underwent neonatal gastrointestinal surgeries were grouped into those with (n = 13) and those without an onset of non-IgE-GI-FAs (n = 113). The characteristics of the two groups (e.g., birth weight, delivery type, small intestinal surgeries, and pre-/postoperative nutrition) were compared...
August 14, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
María C Ifrán, Andrea B Suárez, Ricardo M Pautassi, Giselle V Kamenetzky
The acceptance of bitter, aversive, substances during early life is enhanced by stimulation with familiar, pre-exposed odors. Newborn rats exhibited heightened grasp responses toward an artificial nipple dispensing quinine, and drank more of this bitter solution, if concurrently stimulated with a lemon odor they had been exposed to shortly after birth. It yet unknown, however, if odors made familiar via normative developmental milestones also acquire modulatory influence upon seeking and intake of basic tastants...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ranmali Rodrigo, Lisa H Amir, Della A Forster
BACKGROUND: Sick newborns in neonatal units who are unable to breastfeed are fed expressed breast milk. In Sri Lanka, most mothers stay in hospital throughout baby's stay to provide this milk freshly. In other countries mothers go home, express breast milk at home and bring it to hospital. There are concerns about the safety of transported expressed milk if used in a tropical middle-income country. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast advice offered by different hospitals and organizations on how to express, store and transport breast milk safely...
August 14, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Sètondji G R Padonou, Badirou Aguemon, Gilles M A Bognon, Nicole E Houessou, Georgia Damien, Paul Ayelo, Elisette Djossou
Background: Maternal undernutrition is known to negatively impact newborns' birth weight and length, but this finding is poorly documented in the Beninese population. This study aimed to assess the effect of maternal anthropometry on mean birth weight and length in a Beninese cohort of newborns. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Tori Bossito, Republic of Benin. Pregnant women attending maternity wards between June 2007 and July 2008 were recruited...
August 11, 2018: International Health
Khadija Murtaza Bhimji, Helga Naburi, Said Aboud, Karim Manji
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is emerging as a serious public health problem globally; however due to lack of resources, vitamin D levels are not routinely measured among neonates. The study was conducted to determine vitamin D levels in neonates and factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among neonates admitted at neonatal ward of a tertiary care hospital. Means and proportions were calculated from summarized data in frequency tables. Chi square test was used to determine association between vitamin D and various associated factors such as sex, infant birth weight, gestation age, parity of the mother, maternal age, and HIV status of the mother...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Khosro Sardarian, Amir Hossein Maghsood, Marzieh Farimani, Mehrdad Hajiloii, Masoud Saidijam, Manizheh Farahpour, Hanie Mahaki, Alireza Zamani
BACKGROUND: Congenital toxoplasmosis is an important disease that occurs when pregnant women become infected with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of T. gondii B1 gene in placental tissues of IgM seronegative women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this research, chronic toxoplasmosis was identified through examination of blood samples in a group of pregnant women by anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM ELISA and nested-PCR techniques...
July 14, 2018: Human Antibodies
Rebecca Levin, Josephine Misun Jung, Lindsay Forrey, Jill Glick
Vitamin K refusal and associated sequelae of vitamin K deficiency bleed (VKDB) in the newborn period is becoming a more common occurrence. We present six recent cases from a 4-month period in 2017 of parent refusal of vitamin K and describe the reasons for refusal and the clinical outcomes of these infants. There have been a number of case reports citing the rising incidence of VKDB and the reasons why parents refuse. However, there is a gap in the literature and clinical practice guidelines describing how a physician should approach a refusal in the hospital and in the office, and the need to report a refusal to child welfare...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
A Pinto, S Adams, K Ahring, H Allen, M F Almeida, D Garcia-Arenas, N Arslan, M Assoun, Y Atik Altınok, D Barrio-Carreras, A Belanger Quintana, S M Bernabei, C Bontemps, F Boyle, G Bruni, M Bueno-Delgado, G Caine, R Carvalho, A Chrobot, K Chyż, B Cochrane, C Correia, K Corthouts, A Daly, S De Leo, A Desloovere, A De Meyer, A De Theux, B Didycz, M E Dijsselhof, K Dokoupil, J Drabik, C Dunlop, W Eberle-Pelloth, K Eftring, J Ekengren, I Errekalde, S Evans, A Foucart, L Fokkema, L François, M French, E Forssell, C Gingell, C Gonçalves, H Gökmen Özel, A Grimsley, G Gugelmo, E Gyüre, C Heller, R Hensler, I Jardim, C Joost, M Jörg-Streller, C Jouault, A Jung, M Kanthe, N Koç, I L Kok, T Kozanoğlu, B Kumru, F Lang, K Lang, I Liegeois, A Liguori, R Lilje, O Ļubina, P Manta-Vogli, D Mayr, C Meneses, C Newby, U Meyer, S Mexia, C Nicol, U Och, S M Olivas, C Pedrón-Giner, R Pereira, K Plutowska-Hoffmann, J Purves, A Re Dionigi, K Reinson, M Robert, L Robertson, J C Rocha, C Rohde, S Rosenbaum-Fabian, A Rossi, M Ruiz, J Saligova, A Gutiérrez-Sánchez, A Schlune, K Schulpis, J Serrano-Nieto, A Skarpalezou, R Skeath, A Slabbert, K Straczek, M Giżewska, A Terry, R Thom, A Tooke, J Tuokkola, E van Dam, T A M van den Hurk, E M C van der Ploeg, K Vande Kerckhove, M Van Driessche, A M J van Wegberg, K van Wyk, C Vasconcelos, V Velez García, J Wildgoose, T Winkler, J Żółkowska, J Zuvadelli, A MacDonald
Background: In infants with phenylketonuria (PKU), dietary management is based on lowering and titrating phenylalanine (Phe) intake from breast milk or standard infant formula in combination with a Phe-free infant formula in order to maintain blood Phe levels within target range. Professionals use different methods to feed infants with PKU and our survey aimed to document practices across Europe. Methods: We sent a cross sectional, survey monkey® questionnaire to European health professionals working in IMD...
September 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
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