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Dorsomedial hypothalamus, obesity, appetite

J Yi, J Yuan, E R Gilbert, P B Siegel, M A Cline
Chickens from lines that have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight for more than 57 generations provide a unique model by which to research appetite regulation. The LWS display different severities of anorexia, whereas all HWS become obese. In the present study, we measured mRNA abundance of various factors in appetite-associated nuclei in the hypothalamus. The lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) were collected from 5 day-old chicks that were fasted for 180 minutes or provided with continuous access to food...
August 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Kunio Torii, Hisayuki Uneyama, Eiji Nakamura
Dietary glutamate (Glu) stimulates to evoke the umami taste, one of the five basic tastes, enhancing food palatability. But it is also the main gut energy source for the absorption and metabolism for each nutrient, thus, only a trace amount of Glu reaches the general circulation. Recently, we demonstrated a unique gut sensing system for free Glu (glutamate signaling). Glu is the only nutrient among amino acids, sugars and electrolytes that activates rat gastric vagal afferents from the luminal side specifically via metabotropic Glu receptors type 1 on mucosal cells releasing mucin and nitrite mono-oxide (NO), then NO stimulates serotonin (5HT) release at the enterochromaffin cell...
April 2013: Journal of Gastroenterology
Pablo J Enriori, Puspha Sinnayah, Stephanie E Simonds, Cecilia Garcia Rudaz, Michael A Cowley
Leptin regulates body weight in mice by decreasing appetite and increasing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which increases energy expenditure in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). Diet-induced obese mice (DIO) are resistant to the anorectic actions of leptin. We evaluated whether leptin still stimulated sympathetic outflow in DIO mice. We measured iBAT temperature as a marker of SNA. We found that obese hyperleptinemic mice have higher iBAT temperature than mice on regular diet. Conversely, obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice have lower iBAT temperature...
August 24, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Larissa J Prior, Nina Eikelis, James A Armitage, Pamela J Davern, Sandra L Burke, Jean-Pierre Montani, Benjamin Barzel, Geoffrey A Head
The activation of the sympathetic nervous system through the central actions of the adipokine leptin has been suggested as a major mechanism by which obesity contributes to the development of hypertension. However, direct evidence for elevated sympathetic activity in obesity has been limited to muscle. The present study examined the renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular effects of a high-fat diet (HFD), as well as the changes in the sensitivity to intracerebroventricular leptin. New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13...
April 2010: Hypertension
Katherine Anne Simpson, Niamh M Martin, Stephen R Bloom
Current estimates suggest that over 1 billion people are overweight and over 300 million people are obese. Weight gain is due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and dietary intake. This review discusses the hypothalamic control of appetite and highlights key developments in research that have furthered our understanding of the complex pathways involved. Nuclei within the hypothalamus integrate peripheral signals such as adiposity and caloric intake to regulate important pathways within the central nervous system controlling food intake and energy expenditure...
March 2009: Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Andrea Frontini, Paola Bertolotti, Cristina Tonello, Alessandra Valerio, Enzo Nisoli, Saverio Cinti, Antonio Giordano
Leptin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, reduces food intake and boosts energy expenditure via activation of the JAK2-STAT3 signalling pathway in adult mammal hypothalamic neurons. It is found in blood early after birth, peaking around postnatal day (P) 10. The hypothalamus of neonatal mice administered intraperitoneal leptin (3 mg/kg of body weight) was investigated for phospho-STAT3-positive cells to gain insights into the timing of maturation of the leptin signal transduction system. Leptin responsiveness was first detected in arcuate nucleus, where it was faint at P1 and evident from P5...
June 18, 2008: Brain Research
Thaddeus J Unger, German A Calderon, Leila C Bradley, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Maribel Rios
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB are expressed in several hypothalamic and hindbrain nuclei involved in regulating energy homeostasis, developmentally and in the adult animal. Their depletion during the fetal or early postnatal periods when developmental processes are still ongoing elicits hyperphagic behavior and obesity in mice. Whether BDNF is a chief element in appetite control in the mature brain remains controversial. The required sources of this neurotrophin are also unknown...
December 26, 2007: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Dennis Engler
Recent studies indicate that skeletal muscle may act as an endocrine organ by secreting interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the systemic circulation. From an analysis of the actions of IL-6 and of additional literature, we postulate that skeletal muscle also secretes an unidentified hormone, which we have named Musculin (Latin: musculus = muscle), which acts on the pancreatic beta-cell to restrain the size of the (beta-cell mass and to tonically inhibit insulin secretion and biosynthesis. It is suggested that the amount of Musculin secreted is determined by, and is positively correlated with, the prevailing insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle, thereby accounting for the hyperinsulinemia that occurs in insulin resistant disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and the polycystic ovary syndrome...
2007: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Itziar Churruca, María P Portillo, Arantza Gutiérreza, Luis Casis, María Teresa Macarulla, Jon Zarate, Enrique Echevarría
The aim of the present work was to study the potential involvement of hypothalamic galanin system in the anorectic mechanism of fluoxetine in obese Zucker rats. Male obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were administered fluoxetine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) daily for two weeks. The control group was given 0.9% NaCl solution. Significant decreases in food intake, final body weight and total body fat were observed after fluoxetine treatment. Although fluoxetine-treated rats showed a decrease in urine elimination, this effect was not enough to compensate decreased water intake, leading to dehydration, as showed by decreased body water content...
June 2004: Nutritional Neuroscience
Sheng Bi, Timothy H Moran
Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats lacking cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptors are hyperphagic and obese, and exhibit deficits in meal size control and in neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). The present study was intended to determine whether these deficits would affect OLETF rat's response to an acute 24-h period of food deprivation. OLETF rats lost more body weight in response to deprivation but recovered their weight more quickly during refeeding than did lean Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats...
September 2003: Physiology & Behavior
Ainsley J Marsh, Marco A P Fontes, Suzanne Killinger, Dorota B Pawlak, Jaimie W Polson, Roger A L Dampney
Leptin, a circulating hormone produced by adipose tissue, is believed to act on the hypothalamus to increase sympathetic vasomotor activity, in addition to its well-known effects on appetite and energy expenditure. In this study, we determined the cardiovascular effects of direct application of leptin to specific cell groups within the hypothalamus that are known to be activated by circulating leptin. In rats anesthetized with urethane, microinjections of leptin (16 ng in 20 nL solution) were made into the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, and paraventricular nucleus...
October 2003: Hypertension
Daniela Cota, Giovanni Marsicano, Matthias Tschöp, Yvonne Grübler, Cornelia Flachskamm, Mirjam Schubert, Dorothee Auer, Alexander Yassouridis, Christa Thöne-Reineke, Sylvia Ortmann, Federica Tomassoni, Cristina Cervino, Enzo Nisoli, Astrid C E Linthorst, Renato Pasquali, Beat Lutz, Günter K Stalla, Uberto Pagotto
The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in the regulation of food intake. Here we show that the lack of CB1 in mice with a disrupted CB1 gene causes hypophagia and leanness. As compared with WT (CB1+/+) littermates, mice lacking CB1 (CB1-/-) exhibited reduced spontaneous caloric intake and, as a consequence of reduced total fat mass, decreased body weight. In young CB1-/- mice, the lean phenotype is predominantly caused by decreased caloric intake, whereas in adult CB1-/- mice, metabolic factors appear to contribute to the lean phenotype...
August 2003: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Elena Timofeeva, Frédéric Picard, Martine Duclos, Yves Deshaies, Denis Richard
The present study was conducted to investigate the pattern of neuronal activation and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression in fed, food deprived and refed lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. The pattern of neuronal activation was studied by measuring the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos. Expression of c-fos and CRH mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In both lean and obese rats, one hour of refeeding led to a transient increase in c-fos mRNA levels which was detected in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH), the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, the supraoptic nucleus, the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), the lateral and medial parabrachial nuclei, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the area postrema...
March 2002: European Journal of Neuroscience
N Vrang, M Tang-Christensen, P J Larsen, P Kristensen
We have recently shown that the hypothalamic neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated-transcript) is a leptin dependent endogenous satiety factor in the rat. In the present study we confirm and extend our previous observations by showing that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administered CART(42-89) dose-dependently inhibits 3-h food intake in food restricted rats with a lowest effective dose of 0.5 microgram. CART also potently inhibits NPY-induced food intake in satiated rats as well as nighttime food intake in free feeding animals...
February 13, 1999: Brain Research
N A Tritos, J K Elmquist, J W Mastaitis, J S Flier, E Maratos-Flier
Brown adipose tissue-deficient [uncoupling protein (UCP)-promoter-driven diphtheria toxin A (DTA)] mice develop obesity as a result of both decreased energy expenditure and hyperphagia. The hyperphagia occurs despite high serum leptin levels. Hence, this is a model of leptin-resistant obesity in which the mechanism driving hyperphagia is unknown. Leptin is a regulator of a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis. In ob/ob mice, leptin deficiency results in increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP), and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and decreased expression of POMC...
November 1998: Endocrinology
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