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Prefrontal cortex, obesity, appetite

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915363/ghrelin-reductions-following-bariatric-surgery-were-associated-with-decreased-resting-state-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866743/neuroanatomy-of-the-vmpfc-and-dlpfc-predicts-individual-differences-in-cognitive-regulation-during-dietary-self-control-across-regulation-strategies
#2
Liane Schmidt, Anita Tusche, Nicolas Manoharan, Cendri Hutcherson, Todd Hare, Hilke Plassmann
Making healthy food choices is challenging for many people. Individuals differ greatly in their ability to follow health goals in the face of temptation, but it is unclear what underlies such differences. Using voxel-based morphometry, we investigated in healthy humans (i.e., men and women) the links between structural variation in gray matter volume and individuals' level of success in shifting toward healthier food choices. We combined MRI and choice data into a joint dataset by pooling across three independent studies that used a task prompting participants to explicitly focus on the healthiness of food items before making their food choices...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627935/noradrenaline-transporter-availability-on-11-c-mrb-pet-predicts-weight-loss-success-in-highly-obese-adults
#3
Franziska J Vettermann, Michael Rullmann, Georg A Becker, Julia Luthardt, Franziska Zientek, Marianne Patt, Philipp M Meyer, Anke McLeod, Matthias Brendel, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Anja Hilbert, Yu-Shin Ding, Osama Sabri, Swen Hesse
PURPOSE: Although the mechanisms by which the central noradrenaline (NA) system influences appetite and controls energy balance are quite well understood, its relationship to changes in body weight remains largely unknown. The main goal of this study was to further clarify whether the brain NA system is a stable trait or whether it can be altered by dietary intervention. METHODS: We aimed to compare central NA transporter (NAT) availability in ten obese, otherwise healthy individuals with a body mass index (BMI) of 42...
July 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567621/diet-matters-glucocorticoid-related-neuroadaptations-associated-with-calorie-intake-in-female-rhesus-monkeys
#4
Jodi R Godfrey, Maylen Perez Diaz, Melanie Pincus, Zsofia Kovacs-Balint, Eric Feczko, Eric Earl, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Damien Fair, Mar M Sanchez, Mark E Wilson, Vasiliki Michopoulos
Exposure to psychosocial stressors increases consumption of palatable, calorically dense diets (CDD) and the risk for obesity, especially in females. While consumption of an obesogenic diet and chronic stress have both been shown to decrease dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) binding and alter functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), it remains uncertain how social experience and dietary environment interact to affect reward pathways critical for the regulation of motivated behavior...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479505/acute-sleep-fragmentation-does-not-alter-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-gene-expression-in-brain-or-peripheral-tissues-of-leptin-deficient-mice
#5
Jennifer E Dumaine, Noah T Ashley
Obesity and sleep fragmentation (SF) are often co-occurring pro-inflammatory conditions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Leptin is a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes that has anorexigenic effects upon appetite while regulating immunity. The role of leptin in mediating inflammatory responses to SF is incompletely understood. Male C57BL/6j (lean) and ob/ob mice (leptin-deficient mice exhibiting obese phenotype) were subjected to SF or control conditions for 24 h using an automated SF chamber. Trunk blood and tissue samples from the periphery (liver, spleen, fat, and heart) and brain (hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus) were collected...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428788/a-pilot-study-of-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-to-obesity-cns-modification-by-n-i-r-h-e-g-neurofeedback
#6
Ruth Percik, Jenny Cina, Batel Even, Asaf Gitler, Diklah Geva, Lior Seluk, Abigail Livny
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite the thorough mapping of brain pathways involved in eating behavior, no treatment aimed at modulating eating dysregulation from its neurocognitive root has been established yet. We aimed to evaluate the effect of N.I.R. H.E.G. (Near Infra-Red Hemoencephalography) neurofeedback training on appetite control, weight and food-related brain activity. METHODS: Six healthy male participants with overweight or mild obesity went through 10 N...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414579/molecular-and-elemental-effects-underlying-the-biochemical-action-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-in-appetite-control
#7
Artur D Surowka, Agata Ziomber, Mateusz Czyzycki, Alessandro Migliori, Kaja Kasper, Magdalena Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Recent studies highlight that obesity may alter the electric activity in brain areas triggering appetite and craving. Transcranial direct current brain stimulation (tDCS) has recently emerged as a safe alternative for treating food addiction via modulating cortical excitability without any high-risk surgical procedure to be utilized. As for anodal-type tDCS (atDCS), we observe increased excitability and spontaneous firing of the cortical neurons, whilst for the cathodal-type tDCS (ctDCS) a significant decrease is induced...
April 15, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396448/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-mediates-sex-differences-in-persistent-cognitive-drive-for-food
#8
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Contemporary environments are saturated with food cues that stimulate appetites in the absence of hunger, which leads to maladaptive eating. These settings can induce persistent drive to eat, as learned behaviors can reappear after extinction. Behavioral paradigms of responding renewal provide a valuable framework to study how food cues contribute to the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Using a rat model for this persistent food motivation, we determined sex differences in the causal function for the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during context-mediated renewal of responding to food cues...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326022/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-eating-behaviors-and-body-weight-in-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study
#9
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2 ) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
May 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071480/obesity-appetite-and-the-prefrontal-cortex
#10
REVIEW
Marci E Gluck, Pooja Viswanath, Emma J Stinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a chronic illness and its prevalence is growing worldwide and numerous factors play a role in the regulation of food intake. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in high-order executive function, regulation of limbic reward regions, and the inhibition of impulsive behaviors. Understanding the role of the PFC in the control of appetite regulation may contribute to a greater understanding of the etiology of obesity and could improve weight loss outcomes...
December 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046305/neuromodulation-directed-at-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-subjects-with-obesity-reduces-snack-food-intake-and-hunger-in-a-randomized-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sascha Heinitz, Martin Reinhardt, Paolo Piaggi, Christopher M Weise, Enrique Diaz, Emma J Stinson, Colleen Venti, Susanne B Votruba, Eric M Wassermann, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Jonathan Krakoff, Marci E Gluck
Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity. Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity...
December 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572072/the-critical-role-of-cognitive-based-trait-differences-in-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-suppression-of-food-craving-and-eating-in-frank-obesity
#12
Mary Katherine Ray, Maria D Sylvester, Lauren Osborn, Joel Helms, Bulent Turan, Emilee E Burgess, Mary M Boggiano
Obesity remains a major public health concern and novel treatments are needed. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique shown to reduce food craving and consumption, especially when targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with a right anode/left cathode electrode montage. Despite the implications to treat frank (non-bingeeating) obesity, no study has tested the right anode/left cathode montage in this population. Additionally, most tDCS appetite studies have not controlled for differences in traits under DLPFC control that may influence how well one responds to tDCS...
September 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070396/dyshomeostasis-obesity-addiction-and-chronic-stress
#13
David F Marks
When eating control is overridden by hedonic reward, a condition of obesity dyshomeostasis occurs. Appetitive hedonic reward is a natural response to an obesogenic environment containing endemic stress and easily accessible and palatable high-energy foods and beverages. Obesity dyshomeostasis is mediated by the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The ghrelin axis provides the perfect signalling system for feeding dyshomeostasis, affect control and hedonic reward. Dyshomeostasis plays a central role in obesity causation, the addictions and chronic conditions and in persons with diverse bodies...
January 2016: Health Psychology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761024/eating-disinhibition-and-vagal-tone-moderate-the-postprandial-response-to-glycemic-load-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hayley A Young, Heather Watkins
Reducing the glycemic load (GL) of the diet may benefit appetite control but its utility is complicated by psychological influences on eating. Disinhibited behaviour, a risk factor for overconsumption, is characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn modulates vagal tone; a phenomenon associated with glucoregulation. This double blind randomised controlled trial explored for the first time the influence of disinhibited eating and vagal tone (heart rate variability (HRV)) on hunger and the postprandial response to GL...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207544/altered-brain-response-to-drinking-glucose-and-fructose-in-obese-adolescents
#15
Ania M Jastreboff, Rajita Sinha, Jagriti Arora, Cosimo Giannini, Jessica Kubat, Saima Malik, Michelle A Van Name, Nicola Santoro, Mary Savoye, Elvira J Duran, Bridget Pierpont, Gary Cline, R Todd Constable, Robert S Sherwin, Sonia Caprio
Increased sugar-sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to higher rates of obesity. Using functional MRI, we assessed brain perfusion responses to drinking two commonly consumed monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, in obese and lean adolescents. Marked differences were observed. In response to drinking glucose, obese adolescents exhibited decreased brain perfusion in brain regions involved in executive function (prefrontal cortex [PFC]) and increased perfusion in homeostatic appetite regions of the brain (hypothalamus)...
July 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121248/deactivation-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-prader-willi-syndrome-after-meal-consumption
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
M Reinhardt, A D Parigi, K Chen, E M Reiman, P Thiyyagura, J Krakoff, M G Hohenadel, D S N T Le, C M Weise
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a type of human genetic obesity that may give us information regarding the physiology of non-syndromic obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional correlates of hunger and satiety in individuals with PWS in comparison with healthy controls with obesity, hypothesizing that we would see significant differences in activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) based on prior findings. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study compared the central effects of food consumption in nine individuals with PWS (7 men, 2 women; body fat 35...
September 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090229/social-change-and-access-to-a-palatable-diet-produces-differences-in-reward-neurochemistry-and-appetite-in-female-monkeys
#17
Vasiliki Michopoulos, Maylen Perez Diaz, Mark E Wilson
Understanding factors that contribute to the etiology of obesity is critical for minimizing the effects of obesity-related adverse physical health outcomes. Emotional eating or the inability to control intake of calorically dense diets (CDD) under conditions of psychosocial stress exposure is a potential risk factor for the development of obesity in people. Decreases in dopamine 2 receptors (D2R) availability have been documented in substance abuse and obesity in humans, as well as animal models of chronic stressor exposure...
August 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085777/central-nervous-system-regulation-of-eating-insights-from-human-brain-imaging
#18
REVIEW
Olivia M Farr, Chiang-Shan R Li, Christos S Mantzoros
Appetite and body weight regulation are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS) in a rather complicated manner. The human brain plays a central role in integrating internal and external inputs to modulate energy homeostasis. Although homeostatic control by the hypothalamus is currently considered to be primarily responsible for controlling appetite, most of the available evidence derives from experiments in rodents, and the role of this system in regulating appetite in states of hunger/starvation and in the pathogenesis of overeating/obesity remains to be fully elucidated in humans...
May 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26794671/a-behavioral-genetic-model-of-the-mechanisms-underlying-the-link-between-obesity-and-symptoms-of-adhd
#19
Karen A Patte, Caroline A Davis, Robert D Levitan, Allan S Kaplan, Jacqueline Carter-Major, James L Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: The ADHD-obesity link has been suggested to result from a shared underlying basis of suboptimal dopamine (DA); however, this theory conflicts evidence that an amplified DA signal increases the risk for overeating and weight gain. A model was tested in which ADHD symptoms, predicted by hypodopaminergic functioning in the prefrontal cortex, in combination with an enhanced appetitive drive, predict hedonic eating and, in turn, higher body mass index (BMI). METHOD: DRD2 and DRD4 markers were genotyped...
January 21, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26613332/insulin-sensitivity-affects-corticolimbic-brain-responses-to-visual-food-cues-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients
#20
Hanin M Alsaadi, Dean A Van Vugt
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of insulin sensitivity on the responsiveness of appetite regulatory brain regions to visual food cues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen participants diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were divided into insulin-sensitive (n=8) and insulin-resistant (n=11) groups based on the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing food pictures following water or dextrose consumption...
November 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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