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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323988/basement-membrane-laminin-%C3%AE-2-regulates-btb-dynamics-via-its-effects-on-f-actin-and-microtubule-mt-cytoskeletons-via-mtorc1-signaling
#1
Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
A local axis connects the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, the basal ES at the blood-testis barrier (BTB), and the basement membrane across the seminiferous epithelium functionally in rat testes. As such, cellular events that take place across the epithelium such as spermiation and BTB remodeling that occur at the apical ES and the basal ES, respectively, at stage VIII of the cycle are coordinated. Herein, laminin α2, a structural component of the basement membrane, was found to regulate BTB dynamics...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323869/tyrosine-mutated-aav2-mediated-shrna-silencing-of-pten-promotes-axon-regeneration-of-adult-optic-nerve
#2
ZhengRu Huang, ZiZhong Hu, Ping Xie, QingHuai Liu
Activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway via deleting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been confirmed to enhance intrinsic growth capacity of neurons to facilitate the axons regeneration of central nervous system after injury. Considering conditional gene deletion is currently not available in clinical practice, we exploited capsid residue tyrosine 444 to phenylalanine mutated single-stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) as a vector delivering short hairpin RNA to silence PTEN to promote retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survival and axons regeneration in adult rat optic nerve axotomy paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319062/ctcf-genetic-alterations-in-endometrial-carcinoma-are-pro-tumorigenic
#3
A D Marshall, C G Bailey, K Champ, M Vellozzi, P O'Young, C Metierre, Y Feng, A Thoeng, A M Richards, U Schmitz, M Biro, R Jayasinghe, L Ding, L Anderson, E R Mardis, J E J Rasko
CTCF is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene with diverse normal functions in genome structure and gene regulation. However the mechanism by which CTCF haploinsufficiency contributes to cancer development is not well understood. CTCF is frequently mutated in endometrial cancer. Here we show that most CTCF mutations effectively result in CTCF haploinsufficiency through nonsense-mediated decay of mutant transcripts, or loss-of-function missense mutation. Conversely, we identified a recurrent CTCF mutation K365T, which alters a DNA binding residue, and acts as a gain-of-function mutation enhancing cell survival...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318081/silencing-of-atf2-inhibits-growth-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-and-enhances-sensitivity-to-chemotherapy
#4
Mu Li, Xingda Wu, Ning Liu, Xiaoying Li, Fanbin Meng, Shaowei Song
Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a multifunctional transcription factor, and is implicated in tumor progress, yet its role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, the level of ATF2 in pancreatic cancer tissues and the adjacent non-tumorous tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The roles of ATF2 in the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells were investigated through ATF2 silencing, and the effect of ATF2 shRNA on the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, an anti-tumor drug, was explored...
March 20, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315004/alex1-a-novel-tumor-suppressor-gene-inhibits-gastric-cancer-metastasis-via-the-par-1-rho-gtpase-signaling-pathway
#5
Li Pang, Jian-Fang Li, Liping Su, Mingde Zang, Zhiyuan Fan, Beiqin Yu, Xiongyan Wu, Chen Li, Min Yan, Zheng-Gang Zhu, Bingya Liu
BACKGROUND: The ALEX is a novel member of the armadillo family and ALEX1 was reported to be reduced or even lost in multiple solid tumors. However, its expression profile and oncogenic role in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. METHODS: ALEX1 expression was detected in 161 GC samples by immunohistochemistry staining. NCI-N87 cells transfected by ALEX1 lentivirus vectors and MKN28 cells transfected by ALEX1 shRNA were used for biological function investigation...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314989/inhibition-of-got1-sensitizes-colorectal-cancer-cells-to-5-fluorouracil
#6
Chengyu Hong, Jian Zheng, Xiaoling Li
PURPOSE: Almost all colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines are known to overexpress aspartate aminotransferase (GOT1), which potentially regulates the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the production of NADPH, and supports tumor growth. In our study, the role of GOT1 in the anticancer efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was examined. METHODS: HCT116, SW480, and HT-29 cells were transfected with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against GOT1...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314909/localization-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-and-its-potential-role-in-lamellipodia-formation
#7
Youhwa Jo, Hyo Min Cho, Woong Sun, Jae Ryun Ryu
Dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) plays an essential role in mitochondrial fission: Cytosolic Drp1 is translocated to the mitochondria upon stimulus, and oligomerized Drp1 constricts mitochondria by aid of actin filaments. Drp1 completes the fission process with GTP hydrolysis by its own GTPase activity. The importance of actin filament and its interaction with Drp1 in the mitochondrial fission process have been demonstrated. In this study, we found that Drp1 is enriched in the actin-rich leading edge of lamellipodia of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) wherein mitochondria or peroxisomes are absent...
March 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314283/stable-shrna-silencing-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-a-ldha-in-human-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells-fails-to-alter-lactic-acid-production-glycolytic-activity-atp-or-survival
#8
Nzinga Mack, Elizabeth A Mazzio, David Bauer, Hernan Flores-Rozas, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND: In the US, African Americans have a high death rate from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by lack of hormone receptors (ER, PR, HER2/ERRB2) which are otherwise valuable targets of chemotherapy. There is a need to identify novel targets that negatively impact TNBC tumorigenesis. TNBCs release an abundance of lactic acid, under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions; this referred to as the Warburg effect. Accumulated lactic acid sustains peri-cellular acidity which propels metastatic invasion and malignant aggressive transformation...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304186/mir-205-mediates-the-inhibition-of-cervical-cancer-cell-proliferation-using-olmesartan
#9
Zhang Yue, Zhang Yun-Shan, Xue Feng-Xia
OBJECTIVE: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has become known as a prerequisite for tumor angiogenesis that is now recognized as a crucial step in the development of tumors, including cervical cancer. The Ang II-AT1R pathway is known to play an important role in tumor angiogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, regulating RNAs that participate in tumor genesis, differentiation and proliferation. The current study focused on the anti-tumor mechanism of olmesartan, a novel angiotensin II antagonist, on cervical cancer cells...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301220/periostin-promotes-migration-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Ziqiang Wu, Wenyong Dai, Pei Wang, Xiaozhen Zhang, Yi Tang, Lin Liu, Qiaona Wang, Ming Li, Chunbo Tang
PURPOSE: Periostin (POSTN) is critical to bone and dental tissue morphogenesis, postnatal development, and maintenance, however, its roles in tissue repair and regeneration mediated by human periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs) remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of POSTN on hPDLSCs in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hPDLSCs were isolated and characterized by their expression of the cell surface markers CD44, CD90, CD105, CD34, and CD45...
March 16, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300646/developmental-changes-in-trak-mediated-mitochondrial-transport-in-neurons
#11
Omar Loss, F Anne Stephenson
Previous studies established that the kinesin adaptor proteins, TRAK1 and TRAK2, play an important role in mitochondrial transport in neurons. They link mitochondria to kinesin motor proteins via a TRAK acceptor protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane, the Rho GTPase, Miro. TRAKs also associate with enzyme, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), to form a quaternary, mitochondrial trafficking complex. A recent report suggested that TRAK1 preferentially controls mitochondrial transport in axons of hippocampal neurons whereas TRAK2 controls mitochondrial transport in dendrites...
March 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300551/role-of-caveolin-1-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-pathway-in-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis-after-treadmill-training-following-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#12
Qiongyi Pang, Huimei Zhang, Zhenzhen Chen, Yudan Wu, Min Yidian Bai Liu, Yun Zhao, Fengxia Tu, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
Exercise is known to aid functional recovery following ischemia, though the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of exercise on recovery from ischemic stroke are not fully understood. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) contributes to angiogenesis and promotes neurologic functional recovery after stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms whereby treadmill exercise ameliorated impaired angiogenesis and neurogenesis following transient cerebral ischemia in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats...
March 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298552/dynamic-expression-of-fkbp5-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-resiliency-to-conditioned-fear
#13
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Roberto J Morales Silva, Bethzaly Velazquez, Anixa Hernández, María Colon, Emmanuel Cruz, Omar Soler-Cedeño, James T Porter
The factors influencing resiliency to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain to be elucidated. Clinical studies associate PTSD with polymorphisms of the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5). However, it is unclear whether changes in FKBP5 expression alone could produce resiliency or susceptibility to PTSD-like symptoms. In this study, we used rats as an animal model to examine whether FKBP5 in the infralimbic (IL) or prelimbic (PL) medial prefrontal cortex regulates fear conditioning or extinction...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298247/tissue-specific-inhibition-of-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-expression-in-the-testes-of-mice-by-inducible-lentiviral-rna-interference-causes-male-infertility
#14
Kai Zhao, Yan Liu, Zhe Xiong, Lian Hu, Cheng-Liang Xiong
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is involved in many physiological processes, including male infertility. To explore the effects of uPA in male reproduction, we constructed an inducible uPA short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system expressed by lentiviral vectors. After proving inhibition of uPA expression in the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 by 1μgmL-1 doxycycline (Dox), two lentivirus (pLenti4-shRNA and pLenti6/TR) were co-microinjected into mouse testes to produce TetR&shuPA mice model. Though oral gavage by 0...
March 16, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294332/autophagy-mediates-cytotoxicity-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-treated-with-garcinielliptone-fc
#15
Shen-Jeu Won, Cheng-Hsin Yen, Ting-Yu Lin, Ya-Fen Jiang-Shieh, Chun-Nan Lin, Jyun-Ti Chen, Chun-Li Su
The tautomeric pair of garcinielliptone FC (GFC) is a novel tautomeric pair of polyprenyl benzophenonoid isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (G. subelliptica, Clusiaceae), a tree with abundant sources of polyphenols. Our previous report demonstrated that GFC induced apoptosis on various types of human cancer cell lines including chemoresistant human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. In the present study, we observed that many autophagy-related genes in GFC-treated HT-29 cells were up- and down-regulated using a cDNA microarray containing oncogenes and kinase genes...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292985/binding-of-candida-albicans-to-human-ceacam1-and-ceacam6-modulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Esther Klaile, Mario M Müller, Miriam R Schäfer, Ann-Katrin Clauder, Sabina Feer, Kerstin A Heyl, Magdalena Stock, Tilman E Klassert, Peter F Zipfel, Bernhard B Singer, Hortense Slevogt
Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa, including the gastrointestinal tract, as a commensal. In immunocompromised patients, C. albicans can breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause fatal invasive infections. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66a), CEACAM5 (CEA), and CEACAM6 (CD66c) are immunomodulatory receptors expressed on human mucosa and are recruited by bacterial and viral pathogens. Here we show for the first time that a fungal pathogen (i.e., C. albicans) also binds directly to the extracellular domain of human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5, and CEACAM6...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291820/gab3-overexpression-in-human-glioma-mediates-akt-activation-and-tumor-cell-proliferation
#17
Pifeng Jia, Feng Li, Weiting Gu, Weifeng Zhang, Yu Cai
This current study tested expression and potential biological functions of Gab3 in human glioma. Gab3 mRNA and protein expression was significantly elevated in human glioma tissues and glioma cells. Its level was however low in normal brain tissues and primary human astrocytes. In both established (U251MG cell line) and primary human glioma cells, Gab3 knockdown by shRNA/siRNA significantly inhibited Akt activation and cell proliferation. Reversely, forced Gab3 overexpression in U251MG cells promoted Akt activation and cell proliferation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290601/ict1-knockdown-inhibits-breast-cancer-cell-growth-via-induction-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis
#18
Chen Wang, Chenlu Liang, Weiliang Feng, Xianghou Xia, Feng Chen, Enqi Qiao, Xiping Zhang, Daobao Chen, Zhiqiang Ling, Hongjian Yang
The protein encoded by immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 (ICT1) is a component of the human mitochondrial ribosome, and is reported to be implicated in cell proliferation, viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells. This study was conducted to investigate the role of ICT1 in human breast cancer. Oncomine database was used to investigate ICT1 expression in human breast cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. The results showed that ICT1 was highly overexpressed in various human breast cancer subtypes. Then short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of ICT1 was performed in human breast cancer ZR-75-30 and T-47D cells...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289921/genome-wide-in-vivo-rnai-screen-identifies-itih5-as-a-metastasis-suppressor-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
Ken Sasaki, Hiroshi Kurahara, Eric D Young, Shoji Natsugoe, Asami Ijichi, Tomoo Iwakuma, Danny R Welch
The overwhelming majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not diagnosed until the cancer has metastasized, leading to an abysmal average life expectancy (3-6 months post-diagnosis). Earlier detection and more effective treatments have been hampered by inadequate understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling metastasis. We hypothesized that metastasis suppressors are involved in controlling metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Using an unbiased genome-wide shRNA screen, an shRNA library was transduced into the non-metastatic PDAC line S2-028 followed by intrasplenic injection...
March 13, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289711/the-volume-regulated-anion-channel-lrrc8-in-nodose-neurons-is-sensitive-to-acidic-ph
#20
Runping Wang, Yongjun Lu, Susheel Gunasekar, Yanhui Zhang, Christopher J Benson, Mark W Chapleau, Rajan Sah, François M Abboud
The leucine rich repeat containing protein 8A (LRRC8A), or SWELL1, is an essential component of the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) that is activated by cell swelling and ionic strength. We report here for the first time to our knowledge its expression in a primary cell culture of nodose ganglia neurons and its localization in the soma, neurites, and neuronal membrane. We show that this neuronal VRAC/SWELL1 senses low external pH (pHo) in addition to hypoosmolarity. A robust sustained chloride current is seen in 77% of isolated nodose neurons following brief exposures to extracellular acid pH...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
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