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Medial hypothalamus

Yuki Uchida, Koyuki Atsumi, Shinji Hirano, Nao Koyanagi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of estradiol (E2 ) on thermoregulatory responses induced by menthol in ovariectomized rats. Wistar rats were ovariectomized, and implanted with a silastic tube with or without E2 (E2 (+) and E2 (-) groups). L-menthol (10%) or vehicle was applied to the skin of the whole trunk in selected animals, which were then exposed to 27 °C or 16 °C for 2 h. Continuous body temperature (Tb ), tail skin temperature (Ttail ), and treatment-associated behaviors were measured...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Johannes W de Jong, Seyedeh Atiyeh Afjei, Iskra Pollak Dorocic, James R Peck, Christine Liu, Christina K Kim, Lin Tian, Karl Deisseroth, Stephan Lammel
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in mediating motivated behaviors, but the circuitry through which they signal positive and negative motivational stimuli is incompletely understood. Using in vivo fiber photometry, we simultaneously recorded activity in DA terminals in different nucleus accumbens (NAc) subnuclei during an aversive and reward conditioning task. We find that DA terminals in the ventral NAc medial shell (vNAcMed) are excited by unexpected aversive outcomes and to cues that predict them, whereas DA terminals in other NAc subregions are persistently depressed...
November 19, 2018: Neuron
Verónica Trujillo, Patricia Evelinda Durando, Marta Magdalena Suárez
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether early maternal separation would result in long-term, persistent alterations in stress response in adulthood, altering mineralocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity (MR-ir) in the dorsal hippocampal areas [CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG)], paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial and central nucleus of the amygdala, key structures involved in stress response regulation. We also analyzed whether chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine reverses these possible changes...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Chunmei Jin, Hyojin Kang, Shinhyun Kim, Yinhua Zhang, Yeunkum Lee, Yoonhee Kim, Kihoon Han
Various mutations in the SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) gene are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus far, synaptic abnormalities in multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and ventral tegmental area, have been investigated in several lines of Shank3 mutant mice. However, although some reports have shown loss and gain of body weight in Shank3 knock-out and overexpressing transgenic (TG) mice, respectively, the potential functions of Shank3 in the hypothalamus, a brain region critically involved in energy intake and expenditure, are unknown...
November 27, 2018: Molecular Brain
Xing-Yu Li, Ying Han, Wen Zhang, Shao-Ran Wang, Yi-Chao Wei, Shuai-Shuai Li, Jun-Kai Lin, Jing-Jing Yan, Ai-Xiao Chen, Xin Zhang, Zheng-Dong Zhao, Wei L Shen, Xiao-Hong Xu
Agrp (Agouti related neuropeptide) expressing inhibitory neurons sense caloric needs of an animal to coordinate homeostatic feeding. Recent evidence suggests that Agrp neurons also suppress competing actions and motivations to mediate adaptive behavioral selection during starvation. Here, in adult mice of both sexes we show that Agrp neurons form inhibitory synapses onto ∼30% neurons in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region critical for maternal care. Remarkably, optogenetically stimulating Agrp neurons decreases maternal nest-building while minimally affecting pup retrieval, partly recapitulating suppression of maternal behaviors during food restriction...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Andrijana Stanisavljević, Ivana Perić, Peter Gass, Dragos Inta, Undine E Lang, Stefan Borgwardt, Dragana Filipović
Olanzapine (Olz) is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, which can be caused by chronic psychosocial stress. c-Fos protein expression has been used as an indirect marker of neuronal activity in response to various forms of stress or pharmacological treatments. We examined the effects of a 3-week treatment of Olz (7.5 mg/kg/day) on c-Fos protein expression in stress-relevant brain sub/regions, its relationship with isolation-induced behavioral changes, and potential sites of Olz action on control and male rats exposed to 6 weeks of chronic social isolation (CSIS), an animal model of depression...
November 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Marie Bedos, Anaid Antaramian, Adriana Gonzalez-Gallardo, Raúl G Paredes
Paced mating induces a positive affective state which is blocked by naloxone, an opioid antagonist. Opioids are released in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and other brain regions during sexual behavior and μ opioid receptors (MOR) are activated in males that copulate until ejaculation. The aim of the present study was to determine if paced mating increases the expression of MOR in areas involved in the control of sexual behavior in male rats. Sexually experienced rats were assigned to one of the following groups: Paced, males that paced the sexual interaction; Non-Paced, males that did not pace the sexual interaction; Control, males were able to hear, see and smell a sexually receptive female, but no physical contact was possible...
November 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Christian Buchel, Stephan Miedl, Christian Sprenger
It has been hypothesized that the pleasure of a reward in humans is mediated by an opioidergic system involving the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. Importantly, enjoying the pleasure of a reward is distinct from incentive salience induced by cues predicting the reward. We investigated this issue using a within subject, pharmacological challenge design with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and fMRI. Our data show that blocking opioid receptors reduced pleasure associated with viewing erotic pictures more than viewing symbols of reward such as money...
November 16, 2018: ELife
Yousuke Tsuneoka
The medial preoptic area (MPOA), an anterior part of the hypothalamus, is one of the most important areas for the regulation of instinctively motivated behaviors, such as parental behavior, mating behavior and aggression. Consistent with its role in reproductive behaviors, the MPOA abundantly expresses gonadal steroid hormone receptors and shows distinct sexual dimorphism in its morphology. Despite the functional importance of the MPOA, the anatomical demarcations of the mouse MPOA subregions have been confusing and remained undefined because of their heterogeneity and complexity...
November 3, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Greggory Wroblewski, Md Nabiul Islam, Akie Yanai, Mir Rubayet Jahan, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Koh Shinoda
Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a neural interactor of huntingtin in Huntington's disease and interacts with gene products in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases. In normal brains, HAP1 is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus and limbic-associated regions. These areas tend to be spared from neurodegeneration while those with little HAP1 are frequently neurodegenerative targets, suggesting its role as a protective factor against apoptosis. In light of the relationship between neurodegenerative diseases and deterioration of higher nervous activity, it is important to definitively clarify HAP1 expression in a cognitively important brain region, the retrosplenial-retrohippocampal area...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Ellen P S Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
AIM: To determine the role of neurons in the ventral part of the lateral preoptic area (vLPO) in CNS thermoregulation. METHODS: In vivo electrophysiological and neuropharmacological were used to evaluate the contribution of neurons in the vLPO to the regulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and muscle shivering in urethane/chloralose-anesthetized rats. RESULTS: Nanoinjections of NMDA targeting the medial preoptic area (MPA), and the vLPO suppressed the cold-evoked BAT sympathetic activity (SNA), and reduced BAT temperature (TBAT ), expired CO2 , mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate...
October 26, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Sarah Ehling, Ashley Butler, Stephanie Thi, H Troy Ghashghaei, Wolfgang Bäumer
Background: Strategies to efficiently control itch require a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Several areas in the brain involved in itch and scratching responses have been postulated, but the central mechanisms that drive pruritic responses are still unknown. Histamine is recognized as a major mediator of itch in humans, and has been the most frequently used stimulus as an experimental pruritogen for brain imaging of itch. Objective: Histaminergic itch via histamine and the selective histamine H4 receptor (H4R) agonist, ST-1006, recruit brain nuclei through c-fos activation and activate specific areas in the brain...
December 2018: IBRO Reports
Charlotte K Callaghan, Jennifer Rouine, Shane M O'Mara
Deficits in motivation are at the core of many neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Research in MDD has been heavily focused on anhedonia and depression or negative/positive symptoms of depression, with less research attention focused on the dysregulation of motivational processes. Opioid receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain, particularly in areas implicated in motivation, especially the striatum, nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, hypothalamus, and amygdala...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Maria Alice Oliveira, William Gustavo Lima, Dante Alighieri Schettini, Cristiane Queixa Tilelli, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves
PURPOSE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is known as a potent vasodilator. Postmenopausal women who experience hot flushes have high levels of plasma CGRP, suggesting its involvement in menopausal vasomotor symptoms. METHODS: In this review, we describe the biochemical aspects of CGRP and its effects associated with deficiencies of sexual hormones on skin temperature, vasodilatation, and sweating as well as the possible peripheral and central mechanisms involved in these events...
October 10, 2018: Endocrine
Elusa Cristina Oliveira, Carina Leonelli, Oduvaldo Cm Pereira, Jackson C Bittencourt, Hernandes F Carvalho
Neonatal exposure to high dose 17β-estradiol (E2) affects the morphology and physiology of sex and accessory sex organs in the long term. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 imprinting on male sexual behavior, fertility and the number of androgen receptor (AR) expressing cells in the hypothalamus. E2-treated males showed copulatory behavior represented by mounts and/or intromissions, demonstrating the preservation of aspects of male behavior. They had slightly increased latency for first intromission and a reduced number of ejaculations, associated with a 50% reduction in the fertility index...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tridu R Huynh, Conrad Lu, Doniel Drazin, Gregory Lekovic
Background: Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) with anaplastic features is extremely rare, with only three case reports in the literature. Case Description: We report the case of a MPE with anaplastic features in a 24-year-old female who presented with a dominant lumbar mass along with intracranial and sacral metastases. Upon gross total resection of the dominant tumor located at L2-L3, it appeared to arise from the filum terminale, and had a solid component in addition to soft or necrotic areas...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
John F Bowyer, Karen M Tranter, Bonnie L Robinson, Joseph P Hanig, Madeline G Faubion, Sumit Sarkar
The initial goals of these experiments were to determine: 1) if blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was a cause or an effect of METH-induced seizures; 2) all the brain regions where BBB is disrupted as seizures progress; and 3) the correlations between body temperature and vascular leakage and neurodegeneration. A fourth objective was added after initial experimentation to determine if sub-strain differences existed in adult male C57 B6 J (Jackson laboratories, JAX) versus C57 B6N (Charles River, CR) mice involving their susceptibility to BBB breakdown and seizure severity...
September 30, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Miranda Wood, Othman Adil, Tyler Wallace, Sarah Fourman, Steven P Wilson, James P Herman, Brent Myers
The medial prefrontal cortex is critical for contextual appraisal, executive function, and goal-directed behavior. Additionally, the infralimbic (IL) subregion of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in stress responding, mood, and fear memory. However, the specific circuit mechanisms that mediate these effects are largely unknown. To date, IL output to the limbic forebrain has been examined largely qualitatively or within a restricted number of sites. To quantify IL presynaptic input to structures throughout the forebrain, we utilized a lentiviral construct expressing synaptophysin-mCherry...
September 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ying Wang, Guanmao Chen, Shuming Zhong, Yanbin Jia, Liu Xia, Shunkai Lai, Lianping Zhao, Li Huang, Tiebang Liu
Disturbed hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, which leads to excessive and prolonged hypercortisolemia, is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationships between depression, brain structure and function, and cortisol levels are unclear. The current study examined the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with MDD and evaluated the association between functional connectivity and serum cortisol levels in MDD. A total of 93 unmedicated patients with MDD and 139 healthy control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
László Ákos Kovács, Josef Andreas Schiessl, Anna Elisabeth Nafz, Valér Csernus, Balázs Gaszner
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the main regulator of the stress response. The key of the HPA is the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN) controlled by higher-order limbic stress centers. The reactivity of the HPA axis is considered to be a function of age, but to date, little is known about the background of this age-dependency. Sporadic literature data suggest that the stress sensitivity as assessed by semi-quantitation of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos may also be influenced by age...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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