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Medial hypothalamus

Charlotte K Callaghan, Jennifer Rouine, Shane M O'Mara
Deficits in motivation are at the core of many neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Research in MDD has been heavily focused on anhedonia and depression or negative/positive symptoms of depression, with less research attention focused on the dysregulation of motivational processes. Opioid receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain, particularly in areas implicated in motivation, especially the striatum, nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, hypothalamus, and amygdala...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Maria Alice Oliveira, William Gustavo Lima, Dante Alighieri Schettini, Cristiane Queixa Tilelli, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves
PURPOSE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is known as a potent vasodilator. Postmenopausal women who experience hot flushes have high levels of plasma CGRP, suggesting its involvement in menopausal vasomotor symptoms. METHODS: In this review, we describe the biochemical aspects of CGRP and its effects associated with deficiencies of sexual hormones on skin temperature, vasodilatation, and sweating as well as the possible peripheral and central mechanisms involved in these events...
October 10, 2018: Endocrine
Elusa Cristina Oliveira, Carina Leonelli, Oduvaldo Cm Pereira, Jackson C Bittencourt, Hernandes F Carvalho
Neonatal exposure to high dose 17β-estradiol (E2) affects the morphology and physiology of sex and accessory sex organs in the long term. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 imprinting on male sexual behavior, fertility and the number of androgen receptor (AR) expressing cells in the hypothalamus. E2-treated males showed copulatory behavior represented by mounts and/or intromissions, demonstrating the preservation of aspects of male behavior. They had slightly increased latency for first intromission and a reduced number of ejaculations, associated with a 50% reduction in the fertility index...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tridu R Huynh, Conrad Lu, Doniel Drazin, Gregory Lekovic
Background: Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) with anaplastic features is extremely rare, with only three case reports in the literature. Case Description: We report the case of a MPE with anaplastic features in a 24-year-old female who presented with a dominant lumbar mass along with intracranial and sacral metastases. Upon gross total resection of the dominant tumor located at L2-L3, it appeared to arise from the filum terminale, and had a solid component in addition to soft or necrotic areas...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
John F Bowyer, Karen M Tranter, Bonnie L Robinson, Joseph P Hanig, Madeline G Faubion, Sumit Sarkar
The initial goals of these experiments were to determine: 1) if blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was a cause or an effect of METH-induced seizures; 2) all the brain regions where BBB is disrupted as seizures progress; and 3) the correlations between body temperature and vascular leakage and neurodegeneration. A fourth objective was added after initial experimentation to determine if sub-strain differences existed in adult male C57 B6 J (Jackson laboratories, JAX) versus C57 B6N (Charles River, CR) mice involving their susceptibility to BBB breakdown and seizure severity...
September 30, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Miranda Wood, Othman Adil, Tyler Wallace, Sarah Fourman, Steven P Wilson, James P Herman, Brent Myers
The medial prefrontal cortex is critical for contextual appraisal, executive function, and goal-directed behavior. Additionally, the infralimbic (IL) subregion of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in stress responding, mood, and fear memory. However, the specific circuit mechanisms that mediate these effects are largely unknown. To date, IL output to the limbic forebrain has been examined largely qualitatively or within a restricted number of sites. To quantify IL presynaptic input to structures throughout the forebrain, we utilized a lentiviral construct expressing synaptophysin-mCherry...
September 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ying Wang, Guanmao Chen, Shuming Zhong, Yanbin Jia, Liu Xia, Shunkai Lai, Lianping Zhao, Li Huang, Tiebang Liu
Disturbed hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, which leads to excessive and prolonged hypercortisolemia, is a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationships between depression, brain structure and function, and cortisol levels are unclear. The current study examined the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with MDD and evaluated the association between functional connectivity and serum cortisol levels in MDD. A total of 93 unmedicated patients with MDD and 139 healthy control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
László Ákos Kovács, Josef Andreas Schiessl, Anna Elisabeth Nafz, Valér Csernus, Balázs Gaszner
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the main regulator of the stress response. The key of the HPA is the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (pPVN) controlled by higher-order limbic stress centers. The reactivity of the HPA axis is considered to be a function of age, but to date, little is known about the background of this age-dependency. Sporadic literature data suggest that the stress sensitivity as assessed by semi-quantitation of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos may also be influenced by age...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Linnea R Freeman, Gary Aston-Jones
Orexin neurons (Orx; also referred to as hypocretin) are found exclusively in the hypothalamus, and release the neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B (also referred to as hypocretin 1 and 2) throughout the CNS. With its widespread targets, the orexin system is involved in a number of functions including, but not limited to stress, reward, wakefulness, and food seeking. Our laboratory has previously proposed that the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and perifornical (PFA) orexin neurons function in stress and arousal whereas those in lateral hypothalamus (LH) participate in reward processes (Harris and Aston-Jones, 2006)...
September 1, 2018: Brain Research
Dongju Seo, Arielle G Rabinowitz, Ryan J Douglas, Rajita Sinha
Trauma alters neuroendocrine responses to stress and increases vulnerability to stress-related disorders. Yet, relationships among trauma, stress-induced neural changes and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity have not been determined. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of life trauma on basal cortisol levels and neural responses to acute stress in 73 healthy individuals during brief stress and neutral-relaxing imagery using a well-established, individualized imagery method...
August 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yinghua Yu, Craig Patch, Katrina Weston-Green, Yuan Zhou, Kuiyang Zheng, Xu-Feng Huang
SCOPE: A high-fat, but low-fiber, diet is associated with obesity and cognitive dysfunction, while dietary fiber supplementation can improve cognition. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study examines whether dietary fibers, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and resistant starch (RS), could prevent high-fat (HF)-diet-induced alterations in neurotransmitter receptor densities in brain regions associated with cognition and appetite. Rats are fed a HF diet, HF diet with GOS, HF diet with RS, or a low-fat (LF, control) diet for 4 weeks...
August 27, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Michael G Ruscio, S Bradley King, Serena-Kaye Kinley-Cooper, Greer McKendrick
Social environment has well-established effects on an animal's social behavior and associated neuroendocrine responses. The presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in limbic system brain regions is related to the expression of a variety of social, reproductive and aggressive behaviors. We hypothesized that alterations to the social environment, specifically social isolation, would cause changes in ERα throughout the limbic system. The number of ERα immunoreactive (ERα-ir) cells within specific limbic system brain regions was quantified in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus), isolated or same sex pair-housed for 4 or 24 days...
August 23, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Guilherme Salemi Riechelmann, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Ricardo Lourenço Caramanti, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Bruno Lourenço Costa, Kléber González-Echeverría, Feres Chaddad-Neto
Giant brain aneurysms account for approximately 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Although treatment modalities can vary widely, none is ideal for every patient. Endovascular treatment is usually preferred, especially when the large size of the aneurysm limits visualization of the brain parenchyma and parent vessels that arise from the aneurysm, making surgical clip placement across the neck a difficult task. However, despite the higher chances of morbidity, microsurgery is an effective treatment modality due to lower recurrence rates...
August 8, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Sheng Zhang, Wuyi Wang, Simon Zhornitsky, Chiang-Shan R Li
The role of dopamine in cocaine misuse has been extensively documented for the mesocorticolimbic circuit. Preclinical work from earlier lesion studies to recent multidisciplinary investigations has suggested that the hypothalamus is critically involved in motivated behavior, with the lateral and medial hypothalamus each involved in waking/feeding and resting/satiety. However, little is known of hypothalamus function and dysfunction in cocaine misuse. Here, we examined resting state functional connectivity of the lateral and medial hypothalamus in 70 individuals with cocaine dependence (CD) and 70 age as well as gender matched healthy controls (HC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
David Cittern, Abbas Edalat
We build on a neuroanatomical model of how empathic states can motivate caregiving behavior, via empathy circuit-driven activation of regions in the hypothalamus and amygdala, which in turn stimulate a mesolimbic-ventral pallidum pathway, by integrating findings related to the perception of pain in self and others. On this basis, we propose a network to capture states of personal distress and (weak and strong forms of) empathic concern, which are particularly relevant for psychotherapists conducting attachment-based interventions...
December 2017: Computational psychiatry
Yoshinori Kawai
To integrate and broadcast neural information, local microcircuits and global macrocircuits interact within certain specific nuclei of the central nervous system. The structural and functional architecture of this interaction was determined for the caudal nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) at the level of the area postrema (AP), a relay station of peripheral viscerosensory information that is processed and conveyed to brain regions concerned with autonomic-affective and other interoceptive reflexive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Terri M Driessen, Changjiu Zhao, Marissa Saenz, Sharon A Stevenson, Yuji Owada, Stephen C Gammie
Fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7) is a versatile protein that is linked to glial differentiation and proliferation, neurogenesis, and multiple mental health disorders. Recent microarray studies identified a robust decrease in Fabp7 expression in key brain regions of the postpartum rodents. Given its diverse functions, Fabp7 could play a critical role in sculpting the maternal brain and promoting the maternal phenotype. The present study aimed at investigating the expression profile of Fabp7 across the postpartum CNS...
October 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Susan A Rapley, Timothy C R Prickett, John C Dalrymple-Alford, Eric A Espiner
Beneficial molecular and neuroplastic changes have been demonstrated in response to environmental enrichment (EE) in laboratory animals across the lifespan. Here, we investigated whether these effects extend to C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), a widely expressed neuropeptide with putative involvement in neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, anxiety, and learning and memory. We determined the CNP response in 36 young (8-9 months) and 36 aged (22-23 months) male PVGc hooded rats that were rehoused with new cage mates in either standard laboratory cages or EE for periods of 14 or 28 days...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Alexander C Whiting, Michael Y Oh, Donald M Whiting
The mechanisms of appetite disorders, such as refractory obesity and anorexia nervosa, have been vigorously studied over the last century, and these studies have shown that the central nervous system has significant involvement with, and responsibility for, the pathology associated with these diseases. Because deep brain stimulation has been shown to be a safe, efficacious, and adjustable treatment modality for a variety of other neurological disorders, it has also been studied as a possible treatment for appetite disorders...
August 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Karolina Haziak, Andrzej Przemysław Herman, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Bartosz Pawlina, Kamila Paczesna, Joanna Bochenek, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
Background: Immune stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) influences the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Presence of LPS interacting Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in the hypothalamus may enable the direct action of LPS on the GnRH/LH secretion. So, the aim of the study was to investigate the influence of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of TLR4 antagonist on GnRH/LH secretion in anestrous ewes during LPS-induced central inflammation. Animals were divided into three groups icv-treated with: Ringer-Locke solution, LPS and TLR4 antagonist followed by LPS...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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