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Medial hypothalamus

Guilherme Salemi Riechelmann, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Ricardo Lourenço Caramanti, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Bruno Lourenço Costa, Kléber González-Echeverría, Feres Chaddad-Neto
Giant brain aneurysms account for approximately 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Although treatment modalities can vary widely, none is ideal for every patient. Endovascular treatment is usually preferred, especially when the large size of the aneurysm limits visualization of the brain parenchyma and parent vessels that arise from the aneurysm, making surgical clip placement across the neck a difficult task. However, despite the higher chances of morbidity, microsurgery is an effective treatment modality due to lower recurrence rates...
August 8, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Sheng Zhang, Wuyi Wang, Simon Zhornitsky, Chiang-Shan R Li
The role of dopamine in cocaine misuse has been extensively documented for the mesocorticolimbic circuit. Preclinical work from earlier lesion studies to recent multidisciplinary investigations has suggested that the hypothalamus is critically involved in motivated behavior, with the lateral and medial hypothalamus each involved in waking/feeding and resting/satiety. However, little is known of hypothalamus function and dysfunction in cocaine misuse. Here, we examined resting state functional connectivity of the lateral and medial hypothalamus in 70 individuals with cocaine dependence (CD) and 70 age as well as gender matched healthy controls (HC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
David Cittern, Abbas Edalat
We build on a neuroanatomical model of how empathic states can motivate caregiving behavior, via empathy circuit-driven activation of regions in the hypothalamus and amygdala, which in turn stimulate a mesolimbic-ventral pallidum pathway, by integrating findings related to the perception of pain in self and others. On this basis, we propose a network to capture states of personal distress and (weak and strong forms of) empathic concern, which are particularly relevant for psychotherapists conducting attachment-based interventions...
December 2017: Computational psychiatry
Yoshinori Kawai
To integrate and broadcast neural information, local microcircuits and global macrocircuits interact within certain specific nuclei of the central nervous system. The structural and functional architecture of this interaction was determined for the caudal nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) at the level of the area postrema (AP), a relay station of peripheral viscerosensory information that is processed and conveyed to brain regions concerned with autonomic-affective and other interoceptive reflexive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Terri M Driessen, Changjiu Zhao, Marissa Saenz, Sharon A Stevenson, Yuji Owada, Stephen C Gammie
Fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7) is a versatile protein that is linked to glial differentiation and proliferation, neurogenesis, and multiple mental health disorders. Recent microarray studies identified a robust decrease in Fabp7 expression in key brain regions of the postpartum rodents. Given its diverse functions, Fabp7 could play a critical role in sculpting the maternal brain and promoting the maternal phenotype. The present study aimed at investigating the expression profile of Fabp7 across the postpartum CNS...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Susan A Rapley, Timothy C R Prickett, John C Dalrymple-Alford, Eric A Espiner
Beneficial molecular and neuroplastic changes have been demonstrated in response to environmental enrichment (EE) in laboratory animals across the lifespan. Here, we investigated whether these effects extend to C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), a widely expressed neuropeptide with putative involvement in neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, anxiety, and learning and memory. We determined the CNP response in 36 young (8-9 months) and 36 aged (22-23 months) male PVGc hooded rats that were rehoused with new cage mates in either standard laboratory cages or EE for periods of 14 or 28 days...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Alexander C Whiting, Michael Y Oh, Donald M Whiting
The mechanisms of appetite disorders, such as refractory obesity and anorexia nervosa, have been vigorously studied over the last century, and these studies have shown that the central nervous system has significant involvement with, and responsibility for, the pathology associated with these diseases. Because deep brain stimulation has been shown to be a safe, efficacious, and adjustable treatment modality for a variety of other neurological disorders, it has also been studied as a possible treatment for appetite disorders...
August 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Karolina Haziak, Andrzej Przemysław Herman, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Bartosz Pawlina, Kamila Paczesna, Joanna Bochenek, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
Background: Immune stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) influences the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Presence of LPS interacting Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in the hypothalamus may enable the direct action of LPS on the GnRH/LH secretion. So, the aim of the study was to investigate the influence of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of TLR4 antagonist on GnRH/LH secretion in anestrous ewes during LPS-induced central inflammation. Animals were divided into three groups icv-treated with: Ringer-Locke solution, LPS and TLR4 antagonist followed by LPS...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Manasi Iyer, Rachel A Essner, Bernhard Klingenberg, Matthew E Carter
Neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area that express hypocretin (Hcrt) neuropeptides help regulate many behaviors including wakefulness and reward seeking. These neurons project throughout the brain, including to neural populations that regulate wakefulness, such as the locus coeruleus (LC) and tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN), as well as to populations that regulate reward, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). To address the roles of Hcrt neurons in seemingly disparate behaviors, it has been proposed that Hcrt neurons can be anatomically subdivided into at least two distinct subpopulations: a "medial group" that projects to the LC and TMN, and a "lateral group" that projects to the NAc and VTA...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Pilani Nkomozepi, Pedzisai Mazengenya, Amadi O Ihunwo
Most avian neurogenesis studies have previously focused on the song control system and little attention has been given to non‑song birds. The objective of this study was to assess changes in neurogenesis associated with post‑hatching age (3‑12 weeks) in the Japanese quail brain using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. PCNA‑immunoreactive (ir) cells were observed mainly in the olfactory bulb ventricular zone, telencephalic ventricular zones and cerebellum...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
S Luo, J Alves, K Hardy, X Wang, J Monterosso, A H Xiang, K A Page
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging investigations of brain pathways involved in reward and motivation have primarily focused on adults. This study sought to identify brain responses to visual food cues and explore its relationships with adiposity and sex in pre-pubertal children. METHODS: Brain responses to palatable food vs. non-food cues were measured in 53 children (age: 8.18 ± .66 years; sex: 22 boys, 31 girls) after an overnight fast. Whole-brain analysis (cluster-correction Z > 2...
July 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
A T Peters, R A Smith, M T Kassel, M Hagan, P Maki, A Van Meter, E M Briceño, K A Ryan, A L Weldon, S L Weisenbach, M N Starkman, S A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Decreased volume and disrupted function in neural structures essential for memory formation (e.g. medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex) are common among individuals with depression. Hypothalamic-pituitary-axis function, as reflected by measurement of cortisol levels, is linked to neural activity during memory encoding in healthy people. However, it is not as well understood whether cortisol is associated with alterations in fronto-temporal recruitment during memory encoding in depression...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
H F A Zoon, S E M de Bruijn, G Jager, P A M Smeets, C de Graaf, I M C Janssen, W Schijns, L Deden, S Boesveldt
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a highly effective weight-loss intervention that often reduces preference and intake of high-energy foods. Research into the neural mechanisms behind this shift has mainly focused on reward processing of food cues. However, the ability to successfully control food intake and thereby weight-loss also depends on inhibitory control capacity. We investigated whether RYGB leads to alterations in neural inhibitory control in response to food cues...
June 23, 2018: Biological Psychology
Sarah A Rudzinskas, Jessica A Mong
Methamphetamine (Meth) is a psychomotor stimulant associated with increased sexual drive and risky sexual behaviors in both men and women. Females are comparatively understudied, despite the fact that are just as likely as men to use methamphetamine. Importantly, Meth-associated sexual behaviors put female-users at a greater risk for unplanned pregnancies, and increase the risk of psychiatric co-morbidities such as depression. Our work in a rodent model has demonstrated that in the presence of the ovarian steroids, estradiol (EB) and progesterone (P), methamphetamine facilitates the activation of neurons of in the Medial Amygdala (MePD) and Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (VMN), nuclei that are integral to female sexual behavior...
June 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Deborah I Lutterschmidt, Ashley R Lucas, Ritta A Karam, Vicky T Nguyen, Meghann R Rasmussen
Seasonal rhythms in physiology and behavior are widespread across diverse taxonomic groups and may be mediated by seasonal changes in neurogenesis, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. We examined if cell proliferation in the brain is associated with the seasonal life-history transition from spring breeding to migration and summer foraging in a free-ranging population of red-sided garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis ) in Manitoba, Canada. We used the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly proliferated cells within the brain of adult snakes collected from the den during the mating season or from a road located along their migratory route...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sarah J Heany, Richard A I Bethlehem, Jack van Honk, Peter A Bos, Dan J Stein, David Terburg
Recent evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone can decrease the functional coupling between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala. Theoretically this decoupling has been linked to a testosterone-driven increase of goal-directed behaviour in case of threat, but this has never been studied directly. Therefore, we placed twenty-two women in dynamically changing situations of escapable and inescapable threat after a within-subject placebo controlled testosterone administration. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we provide evidence that testosterone activates the left lateral OFC (LOFC) in preparation of active goal-directed escape and decouples this OFC area from a subcortical threat system including the central-medial amygdala, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray...
May 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Benjamin Jurek, Inga D Neumann
The many facets of the oxytocin (OXT) system of the brain and periphery elicited nearly 25,000 publications since 1930 (see FIGURE 1 , as listed in PubMed), which revealed central roles for OXT and its receptor (OXTR) in reproduction, and social and emotional behaviors in animal and human studies focusing on mental and physical health and disease. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of OXT expression and release, expression and binding of the OXTR in brain and periphery, OXTR-coupled signaling cascades, and their involvement in behavioral outcomes to assemble a comprehensive picture of the central and peripheral OXT system...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado
The neuroendocrine system consists of a heterogeneous collection of (mostly) neuropeptidergic neurons found in four hypothalamic nuclei and sharing the ability to secrete neurohormones (all of them neuropeptides except dopamine) into the bloodstream. There are, however, abundant hypothalamic non-neuroendocrine neuropeptidergic neurons developing in parallel with the neuroendocrine system, so that both cannot be entirely disentangled. This heterogeneity results from the workings of a network of transcription factors many of which are already known...
June 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Cristina Russo, Antonella Russo, Rosalia Pellitteri, Stefania Stanzani
Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal hormone, is a modulator of the sense of smell. The main source of ghrelin in the central nervous system has been mainly observed in specific populations of hypothalamic neurons. An increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and its effect on neurons outside the hypothalamus. Ghrelin and its receptors are expressed in the olfactory bulbs and in other centres of the brain, such as the amygdala, for processing olfactory signals, pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex and the dorsal vagal complex of the medulla oblongata...
August 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Szilvia Oláh, Melinda Cservenák, Dávid Keller, Emese A Fazekas, Éva Renner, Péter Lőw, Arpád Dobolyi
Nursing has important consequences on mothers. To separate the prolactin-mediated and the neuronally-mediated actions of nursing, neurons directly affected by prolactin were visualized using pSTAT5 immunohistochemistry in relation to Fos-expressing neurons in suckled mother mice. In response to pup exposure following 22-h pup deprivation, we found a markedly elevated number of pSTAT5-containing neurons in several brain regions, including the lateral septum, medial amygdaloid nucleus, subparafascicular area, caudal periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, lateral parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and the periventricular, medial preoptic, paraventricular, arcuate and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus...
May 25, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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