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Energy homeostasis

Richard Coffey, Ugo Sardo, Léon Kautz, Victoria Gabayan, Elizabeta Nemeth, Tomas Ganz
Erythropoietin (EPO) acts on erythroid progenitor cells to promote their survival and differentiation to mature erythrocytes. Along with this canonical role, EPO is also reported to modulate energy metabolism, resulting in improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. EPO also stimulates the production of the hormone erythroferrone (ERFE) which acts to suppress hepcidin production, thus increasing dietary iron absorption and mobilizing stored iron for use in erythropoiesis. ERFE (initially termed myonectin) was also reported have an effect on systemic lipid metabolism by promoting the clearance of nonesterifed fatty acids (NEFA) from circulation...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Long-Long Xie, Feng Shi, Zheqiong Tan, Yueshuo Li, Ann M Bode, Ya Cao
Mitochondria are the major cellular energy producing organelles and intracellular source of reactive oxygen species. These organelles are responsible for driving cell life and death through mitochondrial network structure homeostasis, which is determined by a balance of fission and fusion. Recent advances revealed that a number of components of the fission and fusion machinery, including dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitofusin1/2 (Mfn1/2) and Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) have been implicated in mitochondrial shape changes are indispensible for autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Science
Sophie Croizier, Soyoung Park, Julien Maillard, Sebastien G Bouret
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are major negative regulators of energy balance. A distinct developmental property of POMC neurons is that they can adopt an orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) phenotype. However, the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of Pomc progenitors remain unknown. Here, we show that the loss of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme Dicer in POMC neurons causes metabolic defects, an age-dependent decline in the number of Pomc mRNA-expressing cells, and an increased proportion of Pomc progenitors acquiring a NPY phenotype...
October 12, 2018: ELife
Vanesa de Oliveira Pateis, Lívia Bracht, Lorena Dos Santos Castro, Gabriela Bueno Franco Salla, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Angela Valderrama Parisotto, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
A study of the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on the hepatic metabolism was conducted with emphasis on parameters linked to energy metabolism and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. The experimental systems were the isolated perfused rat liver and isolated mitochondria. It was found that BHA inhibits biosynthetic pathways (gluconeogenesis) and ammonia detoxification, which are dependent on ATP generated within the mitochondria. Conversely, the compound stimulated glycolysis and fructolysis, which are compensatory phenomena for an inhibited mitochondrial ATP generation...
October 8, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Paishiun N Hsieh, Liyan Fan, David R Sweet, Mukesh K Jain
Nutrient handling by higher organisms is a complex process that is regulated in a significant manner at the transcriptional level. Studies over the past 15 years highlight the critical importance of a family of transcriptional regulators termed the Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) in metabolism. Within an organ, distinct KLFs direct networks of metabolic gene targets to achieve specialized functions. This regulation is often orchestrated in concert with recruitment of tissue-specific transcriptional regulators, particularly members of the nuclear receptor family...
October 10, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Hyeon Young Park, Hye Suk Kang, Seung-Soon Im
Fatty acids are essential nutrients that contribute to several intracellular functions. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are known to be regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which play a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular triglyceride synthesis and cholesterol biogenesis. Recent studies point to a multifunctional role of SREBPs in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, type II diabetes and cancer as well as in immune responses. Notably, fatty acid metabolic intermediates are involved in energy homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, Minho Shong
Mitochondria perform essential roles as crucial organelles for cellular and systemic energy homeostasis, and as signaling hubs, which coordinate nuclear transcriptional responses to the intra- and extra-cellular environment. Complex human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, fatty liver disease and aging-related degenerative diseases are associated with alterations in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) function. However, a recent series of studies in animal models have revealed that an integrated response to tolerable mitochondrial stress appears to render cells less susceptible to subsequent aging processes and metabolic stresses, which is a key feature of mitohormesis...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Maitrayee Sahu, Prashanth Anamthathmakula, Abhiram Sahu
Pharmacological studies have suggested hypothalamic phosphodiesterase-3B to mediate leptin and insulin action in regulation of energy homeostasis. Whereas Pde3b-null mice show altered energy homeostasis, it is unknown whether this is due to ablation of Pde3b in the hypothalamus. Thus, to address the functional significance of hypothalamic phosphodiesterase-3B, we used Pde3bflox/flox and Nkx2.1-Cre mice to generate Pde3b Nkx2.1KD mice that showed 50% reduction of phosphodiesterase-3B in the hypothalamus. To determine the effect of partial ablation of phosphodiesterase-3B in the hypothalamus on energy and glucose homeostasis, males and females were subjected to either a low- or high-fat diet for 19–21 weeks...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
K Eerola, S Virtanen, L Vähätalo, L Ailanen, M Cai, V Hruby, M Savontaus, E Savontaus
γ-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) is an endogenous agonist of the melanocortin 3-receptor (MC3R). Genetic disruption of MC3Rs increases adiposity and blunts responses to fasting, suggesting that increased MC3R signaling could be physiologically beneficial in the long term. Interestingly, several studies have concluded that activation of MC3Rs is orexigenic in the short term. Therefore, we aimed to examine the short- and long-term effects of γ-MSH in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) on energy homeostasis and hypothesized that the effect of MC3R agonism is dependent on the state of energy balance and nutrition...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
Diabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, "metabolic memory," a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Tingting Zhao, Xiaojuan Shen, Chang Dai, Li Cui
Several studies have reported the effect of absorption of procyanidins and their contribution to small intestine. However, the differences of dietary interventions of procyanidins compared with antibiotic feeding in pigs are rare reported. After 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing, we found that procyanidin administration for 2 months (procyanidin 1 group) or continuously antibiotics feeding for 1 month and then procyanidin for 1 month (procyanidin 2 group) could increase the number of OTUs, Chao 1 and ACE index compared with antibiotic administration for 2 months (antibiotic group)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Asako Kumagai, Atsuo Itakura, Daisuke Koya, Keizo Kanasaki
Although the global maternal mortality ratio has been consistently reduced over time, in 2015, there were still 303,000 maternal deaths throughout the world, of which 99% occurred in developing countries. Understanding pathophysiology of pregnancy complications contributes to the proper prenatal care for the reduction of prenatal, perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity ratio. In this review, we focus on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a regulator of pregnancy complications. AMPK is a serine/threonine kinase that is conserved within eukaryotes...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ping Li, Ping Huang, Xiaojiao Li, Dingzi Yin, Zhiwei Ma, Hui Wang, Haiyun Song
Tankyrase (Tnks) transfers poly(ADP-ribose) on substrates. Whereas studies have highlighted the pivotal roles of Tnks in cancer, cherubism, systemic sclerosis, and viral infection, the requirement for Tnks under physiological contexts remains unclear. Here, we report that the loss of Tnks or its muscle-specific knockdown impairs lifespan, stress tolerance, and energy homeostasis in adult Drosophila. We find that Tnks is a positive regulator in the JNK signaling pathway, and modest alterations in the activity of JNK signaling can strengthen or suppress the Tnks mutant phenotypes...
October 9, 2018: Cell Reports
Ismael González-García, Cristina Contreras, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Francisco Ruíz-Pino, Benoit Colsh, Iván Pensado, Laura Liñares-Pose, Eva Rial-Pensado, Pablo B Martínez de Morentin, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Hervé Le Stunff, Christophe Magnan, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Miguel López
Compelling evidence has shown that, besides its putative effect on the regulation of the gonadal axis, estradiol (E2) exerts a dichotomic effect on the hypothalamus to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The anorectic effect of E2 is mainly mediated by its action on the arcuate nucleus (ARC), whereas its effects on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis occur in the ventromedial nucleus (VMH). Here, we demonstrate that central E2 decreases hypothalamic ceramide levels and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
October 9, 2018: Cell Reports
Katharina Timper, Lars Paeger, Carmen Sánchez-Lasheras, Luis Varela, Alexander Jais, Hendrik Nolte, Merly C Vogt, A Christine Hausen, Christian Heilinger, Nadine Evers, J Andrew Pospisilik, Josef M Penninger, Eric B Taylor, Tamas L Horvath, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens Claus Brüning
Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and substrate utilization critically regulate the function of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons. Here, we demonstrate that inactivation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in POMC neurons mildly impairs mitochondrial respiration and decreases firing of POMC neurons in lean mice. In contrast, under diet-induced obese conditions, POMC-Cre-specific inactivation of AIF prevents obesity-induced silencing of POMC neurons, translating into improved glucose metabolism, improved leptin, and insulin sensitivity, as well as increased energy expenditure in AIFΔPOMC mice...
October 9, 2018: Cell Reports
Marzieh Zeinvand-Lorestani, Heibatullah Kalantari, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Ali Teimoori, Najmaldin Saki, Akram Ahangarpour, Fakher Rahim, Layasadat Khorsandi
Arsenic (As) is a toxic and hazardous metalloid. Unfortunately, its presence in drinking water together with wrong nutritional patterns is associated with an increase in the occurrence of metabolic disorders in young people. Degradation of mitochondria is presented by a specific form of autophagy called mitophagy which is an important landmark leading to apoptosis during lipotoxicity. Lipotoxicity and cellular toxicity due to arsenic intake can lead to changes in mitophagy and apoptosis. The protein derived from SQSTM1 gene, also called p62, plays an important role in energy homeostasis in the liver, and it can contribute to the regulation of autophagic responses given its effect on signaling of mTOR, MAPK, and NF-KB...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael A van der Kooij, Tanja Jene, Giulia Treccani, Isabelle Miederer, Annika Hasch, Nadine Voelxen, Stefan Walenta, Marianne B Müller
Stringent glucose demands render the brain susceptible to disturbances in the supply of this main source of energy, and chronic stress may constitute such a disruption. However, whether stress-associated cognitive impairments may arise from disturbed glucose regulation remains unclear. Here we show that chronic social defeat (CSD) stress in adult male mice induces hyperglycemia and directly affects spatial memory performance. Stressed mice developed hyperglycemia and impaired glucose metabolism peripherally as well as in the brain (demonstrated by PET and induced metabolic bioluminescence imaging), which was accompanied by hippocampus-related spatial memory impairments...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tae Hyun Kim, Yoon Mee Yang, Chang Yeob Han, Ja Hyun Koo, Hyunhee Oh, Su Sung Kim, Byoung Hoon You, Young Hee Choi, Tae-Sik Park, Chang Ho Lee, Hitoshi Kurose, Mazen Noureddin, Ekihiro Seki, Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan, Cheol Soo Choi, Sang Geon Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) arises from mitochondrial dysfunction under sustained imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, but the underlying mechanisms controlling mitochondrial respiration have not been entirely understood. Heterotrimeric G proteins converge signals from activated GPCRs, and modulate cell signaling pathways to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Here, we investigated the regulatory role of Gα12 on hepatic lipid metabolism and whole-body energy expenditure in mice. Fasting increased Gα12 level in mouse liver...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Zhiqiang Cheng, Guozhi Liu, Xiang Zhang, Dongsong Bi, Sanyuan Hu
BACKGROUND Bile acids (BAs) are signaling molecules that participate in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Acute enteral infusion of BAs potently reduces the glycemic response to glucose, associated with an increase of incretin hormones. However, the effect of long-term supplementation of BAs on glucose metabolism has not been fully investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty diabetic rats were assigned to a control group (n=10), a low TCA group (L-TCA group, n=10), and a high TCA group (H-TCA group, n=10). Rats in the control group were fed a regular high-fat diet (HFD), while rats in the L-TCA group and H-TCA group were fed a TCA (taurocholic acid)-mixed HFD with the concentrations of 0...
October 9, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Natália R T Amorim, Tatiana Luna-Gomes, Marcos Gama-Almeida, Glaucia Souza-Almeida, Claudio Canetti, Bruno L Diaz, Peter F Weller, Patricia Torres Bozza, Clarissa M Maya-Monteiro, Christianne Bandeira-Melo
Leptin is a cytokine, produced mainly by mature adipocytes, that regulates the central nervous system, mainly to suppress appetite and stimulate energy expenditure. Leptin also regulates the immune response by controlling activation of immunomodulatory cells, including eosinophils. While emerging as immune regulatory cells with roles in adipose tissue homeostasis, eosinophils have a well-established ability to synthesize pro-inflammatory molecules such as lipid mediators, a key event in several inflammatory pathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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