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Energy homeostasis

Payahoo Laleh, Khajebishak Yaser, Ostadrahimi Alireza
Obesity as a multifactorial disorder has been shown a dramatically growing trend recently. Besides genetic and environmental factors, dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system tone is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. This study reviewed the potential efficacy of Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) as an endocannabinoid-like compound in the energy homeostasis and appetite control in people with obesity. OEA as a lipid mediator and bioactive endogenous ethanolamide fatty acid is structurally similar to the endocannabinoid system compounds; nevertheless, it is unable to induce to the cannabinoid receptors...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Daniel Sanford, Leon Luong, Arielle Gabalski, Suwan Oh, John P Vu, Joseph R Pisegna, Patrizia Germano
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide expressed both centrally and peripherally. CGRP has been shown to be involved in arteriolar dilation, cardiovascular regulation, pain transmission, migraine, and gastrointestinal physiology. Our current research is aimed at analyzing CGRP's impact on appetite/satiety, body metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Our study investigated the effects of a single-dose intraperitoneal (IP) treatment with CGRP on food and water consumption, energy expenditure, physical activity, respirometry, and a panel of plasma metabolic hormones in C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) mice...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Baishali Alok Jana, Pavan Kumar Chintamaneni, Praveen Thaggikuppe Krishnamurthy, Ashish Wadhwani, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar
Mitochondria play a central role in the energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells by generating ATP via oxidative metabolism of nutrients. Excess lipid accumulation and impairments in mitochondrial function have been considered as putative mechanisms for the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Accumulation of lipids in tissues occurs due to either excessive fatty acid uptake, decreased fatty acid utilization or both. Consequently, elevated levels cytosolic lipid metabolites, triglycerides, diacylglycerol and ceramides have been demonstrated to adversely affect glucose homeostasis...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Inês Mesquita, Fernando Rodrigues
Metabolism is highly coordinated component of the cellular activity that involves sequential chemical transformations, within a so-called metabolic network. Through these coordinated actions, living organisms acquire energy and biosynthetic precursors to maintain cellular homeostasis and function. Metabolism relies on the breaking down of macromolecules to produce energy [catabolism] and/or intermediary metabolites that are then used to construct essential building blocks for macromolecule production [anabolism]...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Caizhe Pan, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Xin Li, Kai Shi
Elevated atmospheric CO2 improves leaf photosynthesis and plant tolerance to heat stress, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we exposed tomato plants to elevated CO2 (800 μmol mol-1 ) and/or high temperature (42°C for 24 h), and examined a range of photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as cellular redox state to better understand the response of photosystem II (PSII) and PSI to elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results showed that, while the heat stress drastically decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), maximum carboxylation rate ( V cmax ), maximum ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate (RuBP) regeneration rate ( J max ) and maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv /Fm ), the elevated CO2 improved those parameters under heat stress and at a 24 h recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Radheshyam Maurya, Parna Bhattacharya, Ranadhir Dey, Hira L Nakhasi
Leptin, a pleiotropic protein has long been recognized to play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and other physiological functions through its effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and encoded by the obese ( ob ) gene. Leptin acts as a central mediator which regulates immunity as well as nutrition. Importantly, leptin can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Leptin deficiency/resistance is associated with dysregulation of cytokine production, increased susceptibility toward infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, malnutrition and inflammatory responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jing Xu, Charlie W Jackson, Nathalie Khoury, Iris Escobar, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon
Sirtuins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) as a co-substrate in their enzymatic reactions. There are seven proteins (SIRT1-7) in the human sirtuin family, among which SIRT1 is the most conserved and characterized. SIRT1 in the brain, in particular, within the hypothalamus, plays crucial roles in regulating systemic energy homeostasis and circadian rhythm. Apart from this, SIRT1 has also been found to mediate beneficial effects in neurological diseases. In this review, we will first summarize how SIRT1 in the brain relates to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and circadian synchronization, and then we discuss the neuroprotective roles of brain SIRT1 in the context of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Roberto Coccurello, Francesca Nazio, Claudia Rossi, Federica De Angelis, Valentina Vacca, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Patrizia Procacci, Valerio Magnaghi, Domenico Ciavardelli, Sara Marinelli
There is a growing interest on the role of autophagy in diabetes pathophysiology, where development of neuropathy is one of the most frequent comorbidities. We have previously demonstrated that neuropathic pain after nerve damage is exacerbated in autophagy-defective heterozygous Ambra1 mice. Here, we show the existence of a prediabetic state in Ambra1 mice, characterized by hyperglycemia, intolerance to glucose and insulin resistance. Thus, we further investigate the hypothesis that prediabetes may account for the exacerbation of allodynia and chronic pain and that counteracting the autophagy deficit may relieve the neuropathic condition...
2018: PloS One
Veronika Matschke, Carsten Theiss, Johann Matschke
Oxygen is essential to the human life and life of all aerobic organisms. The complete oxidation of nutrients for the biological energy supply is one of the most important prerequisites for the formation of higher life forms. However, cells that benefit from oxidative respiration also suffer from reactive oxygen species because they adapted to oxygen as an energy source. Healthy cells balance the formation and elimination of reactive oxygen species thereby creating and keeping reactive oxygen species-homeostasis...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Nathan Egnew, Nilima Renukdas, Yathish Ramena, Amit K Yadav, Anita M Kelly, Rebecca T Lochmann, Amit Kumar Sinha
Waterborne ammonia is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to all aquatic animals. However, ammonia induced toxicity as well as compensatory mechanisms to defend against high environmental ammonia (HEA) are not well documented at present for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a high value fish for culture and sport fisheries in the United States. To provide primary information on the sensitivity of this species to ammonia toxicity, a 96 h-LC50 test was conducted. Thereafter, responses at physiological, ion-regulatory and transcript levels were determined to get insights into the underlying adaptive strategies to ammonia toxicity...
November 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
A M van Opstal, I Kaal, A A van den Berg-Huysmans, M Hoeksma, C Blonk, H Pijl, S A R B Rombouts, J van der Grond
OBJECTIVE: The brain is essential in regulating intake of food and beverages by balancing energy homeostasis, which is regulated by the hypothalamus, with reward perception, which is regulated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sucralose (a non-caloric artificial sweetener) on the magnitude and trajectory of the hypothalamic and the VTA blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses. METHOD: In five visits, 16 healthy men between 18 to 25 y of age with a body mass index between 20 and 23 kg/m2 drank five interventions in a randomized order while a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was taken...
September 13, 2018: Nutrition
Raghunath Singh, Yashika Bansal, Bikash Medhi, Anurag Kuhad
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are the drug of choice in the management of mental illnesses by virtue of their advantage over typical antipsychotics i.e. least tendency of producing extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS) or pseudoparkinsonism. Despite the clinical efficacy, AAPs produces troublesome adverse effects, particularly hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia weight gain, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and QT prolongation which further develops metabolic and cardiac complications with subsequent reduction in life expectancy, poor patient compliance, and sudden death...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Felipe Baeza-Lehnert, Aiman S Saab, Robin Gutiérrez, Valeria Larenas, Esteban Díaz, Melanie Horn, Miriam Vargas, Ladina Hösli, Jillian Stobart, Johannes Hirrlinger, Bruno Weber, L Felipe Barros
Neurons have limited intracellular energy stores but experience acute and unpredictable increases in energy demand. To better understand how these cells repeatedly transit from a resting to active state without undergoing metabolic stress, we monitored their early metabolic response to neurotransmission using ion-sensitive probes and FRET sensors in vitro and in vivo. A short theta burst triggered immediate Na+ entry, followed by a delayed stimulation of the Na+ /K+ ATPase pump. Unexpectedly, cytosolic ATP and ADP levels were unperturbed across a wide range of physiological workloads, revealing strict flux coupling between the Na+ pump and mitochondria...
November 27, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Aurélie Joly-Amado, Maud Gratuze, Hamza Benderradji, Didier Vieau, Luc Buée, David Blum
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropathological lesions such as Tau aggregates and amyloid plaques, but also associated with metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as impairment of cerebral insulin. However, the origin of these symptoms and their relationship to pathology and cognitive disorders remain poorly understood. Insulin is a hormone involved in the control of peripheral and central energy homeostasis, and insulin-resistant state has been linked to increased risk of dementia...
November 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Rita M Graze, Ruei-Ying Tzeng, Tiffany S Howard, Michelle N Arbeitman
BACKGROUND: The core functions of the insulin/insulin-like signaling and target of rapamycin (IIS/TOR) pathway are nutrient sensing, energy homeostasis, growth, and regulation of stress responses. This pathway is also known to interact directly and indirectly with the sex determination regulatory hierarchy. The IIS/TOR pathway plays a role in directing sexually dimorphic traits, including dimorphism of growth, metabolism, stress and behavior. Previous studies of sexually dimorphic gene expression in the adult head, which includes both nervous system and endocrine tissues, have revealed variation in sex-differential expression, depending in part on genotype and environment...
December 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Fabio Penna, Paola Costelli
Cachexia is a frequent feature of chronic diseases. This syndrome includes loss of body weight, depletion of skeletal muscle mass and altered metabolic homeostasis. Acceleration of protein and energy metabolism, impaired myogenesis and systemic inflammation contribute to cachexia. Its occurrence impinges on treatment tolerance and on the quality of life of the patient, however, no effective therapy is available yet. Areas covered: This review focuses on the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors as pharmacological tools to prevent or delay cachexia, with reference to muscle wasting...
December 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Małgorzata Kałużna, Krzysztof Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof Schwermer, Krzysztof Hoppe, Magdalena Człapka-Matyasik, Aisha Yusuf Ibrahim, Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Andrzej Minczykowski, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Andrzej Oko, Marek Ruchała
BACKGROUND: The new polypeptide hormones adropin and irisin have a broad impact on human metabolism and energy homeostasis. They could be potential biomarkers of cardiac injury. In end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the clinical importance of adropin and irisin is yet to be investigated. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between these peptides and cardiac status in ESRD patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-nine ESRD patients on hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) or after renal transplantation (Tx), and 40 healthy, ageand sex-matched controls (CON) were included in this study...
December 7, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Xiaomin Liu, Yunlin Zhou, Jianwei Xiao, Fei Bao
Chloroplasts are the organelles that perform energy transformation in plants. The normal physiological functions of chloroplasts are essential for plant growth and development. Chilling is a common environmental stress in nature that can directly affect the physiological functions of chloroplasts. First, chilling can change the lipid membrane state and enzyme activities in chloroplasts. Then, the efficiency of photosynthesis declines, and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. On one hand, excess ROS can damage the chloroplast lipid membrane; on the other hand, ROS also represent a stress signal that can alter gene expression in both the chloroplast and nucleus to help regenerate damaged proteins, regulate lipid homeostasis, and promote plant adaptation to low temperatures...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Min-Chen Wang, Hui-Chen Lin
Two major strategies are used by most fish to maintain energy homeostasis under hypoxia. One is to utilize alternative metabolic pathways to increase energy production, and the other is to limit energy expenditure by suppressing energy-consuming processes, especially ionoregulation. Some anabantoid fishes live in tropical rivers, where hypoxic environments occur frequently. We previously found that under ambient hypoxia, anabantoid fishes do not downregulate Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKA) activity to conserve energy in gills but instead increase the frequency of air-breathing respiration (ABR)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Elżbieta Supruniuk, Agnieszka Mikłosz, Adrian Chabowski, Bartłomiej Łukaszuk
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) acts as a powerful modulator of PGC-1α activation and therefore regulates multiple pathways involved in cellular energy homeostasis. In the present study, we assessed the effects of L6 myotubes incubation with 0.5, 1, and 3 μM PQQ solution for 2 and 24 hr with respect to the cells' lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that PQQ significantly elevates PGC-1α content in a dose- and time-dependent manner with the highest efficiency for 0.5 and 1 µM. The level of free fatty acids was diminished (24 hr: -66%), while an increase in triacylglycerol (TAG) amount was most pronounced after 0...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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