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Energy homeostasis

Jingyi Chi, Audrey Crane, Zhuhao Wu, Paul Cohen
Adipose tissue plays a central role in energy homeostasis and thermoregulation. It is composed of different types of adipocytes, as well as adipocyte precursors, immune cells, fibroblasts, blood vessels, and nerve projections. Although the molecular control of cell type specification and how these cells interact have been increasingly delineated, a more comprehensive understanding of these adipose-resident cells can be achieved by visualizing their distribution and architecture throughout the whole tissue. Existing immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence approaches to analyze adipose histology rely on thin paraffin-embedded sections...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Di Chen, Rong Xie, Bing Shu, Alan L Landay, Changli Wei, Jochen Reiser, Anna Spagnoli, Alfonso Torquati, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian, D Rick Sumner
Over the last two decades, it has become increasingly apparent that Wnt signaling plays a critical role in development and adult tissue homeostasis in multiple organs and in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In particular, a crucial role for Wnt signaling in bone development and bone tissue homeostasis has been well recognized. Numerous genome-wide association studies confirmed the importance of Wnt signaling in controlling bone mass. Moreover, ample evidence suggests that Wnt signaling is essential for kidney, intestine, and adipose tissue development and homeostasis...
August 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sofia Shaikh, Jessica L Waxler, Hang Lee, Kathy Grinke, Jamie Garry, Barbara R Pober, Takara L Stanley
OBJECTIVE: We assessed body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose, and lipids in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare microdeletion disorder. DESIGN: Individuals with WS had outpatient assessment at Massachusetts General Hospital. Controls were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006). PATIENTS: 22 individuals with WS, each matched by age, sex, and race to 4 NHANES controls. MEASUREMENTS: Blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan...
August 12, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Marisha Sharma, Sunil K Gupta, Baisakhi Majumder, Vivek K Maurya, Farah Deeba, Afroz Alam, Vivek Pandey
Drought is a major concern for sustainable yield under changing environment. Soybean, an economically important oil and protein crop, is prone to drought resulting in yield instability. Salicylic acid (SA), a multifaceted growth hormone, modulates a series of parallel processes to confer drought tolerance thereby relieving yield limitations. The present study was performed in soybean plants treated with SA (0.5 mM) through seed pretreatment under drought regimes: severe stress (50% RWC) and moderate stress (75% RWC), and rehydration...
August 6, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Isabel Oliveira Abreu, Catarina Monteiro, A Cristina S Rocha, Maria Armanda Reis-Henriques, Catarina Teixeira, Maria Clara Pires Basto, Marta Ferreira, C Marisa R Almeida, Luís Oliva-Teles, Laura Guimarães
Integrated compensatory responses of physiological systems towards homeostasis are generally overlooked when it comes to analysing alterations in biochemical parameters indicative of such processes. Here an hypothesis-driven multivariate analysis accounting for interactive multibiomarker responses was used to investigate effects of long-term exposure of Carcinus maenas to Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS). Adult male crabs were exposed to low and high post-spill levels of acrylonitrile (ACN) or aniline (ANL) for 21d...
August 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Daniel Salinas, Brendan M Mumey, Ronald K June
Chondrocytes use the pathways of central metabolism to synthesize molecular building blocks and energy for cartilage homeostasis. An interesting feature of the in vivo chondrocyte environment is the cyclical loading generated in various activities (e.g., walking). However, it is unknown whether central metabolism is altered by mechanical loading. We hypothesized that physiological dynamic compression alters central metabolism in chondrocytes to promote production of amino acid precursors for matrix synthesis...
August 10, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Yi-Heng Lee, Hao-Chieh Hsu, Pei-Chen Kao, Young-Ji Shiao, Skye Hsin-Hsien Yeh, Feng-Shiun Shie, Shu-Meng Hsu, Chih-Wen Yeh, Hui-Kang Liu, Shi-Bing Yang, Huey-Jen Tsay
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease is highly associated with metabolic syndromes. We previously demonstrated that glycemic dysregulation and obesity are augmented in high fat diet (HFD)-treated APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. In the current study, the underlying mechanism mediating exacerbated metabolic stresses in HFD APP/PS1 transgenic mice was further examined. APP/PS1 mice developed insulin resistance and, consequently, impaired glucose homeostasis after 10 weeks on HFD...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Catherine M Phillips, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Ivan J Perry
Accumulating evidence identifies diet and inflammation as potential mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic risk. However, inconsistent reports regarding dietary inflammatory potential, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk exist. Our objective was to examine the relationships between a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII® ), biomarkers of lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and glucose homeostasis and MetS risk in a cross-sectional sample of 1992 adults...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
Kenneth Allen Dyar, Michaël Jean Hubert, Ashfaq Ali Mir, Stefano Ciciliot, Dominik Lutter, Franziska Greulich, Fabiana Quagliarini, Maximilian Kleinert, Katrin Fischer, Thomas Oliver Eichmann, Lauren Emily Wright, Marcia Ivonne Peña Paz, Alberto Casarin, Vanessa Pertegato, Vanina Romanello, Mattia Albiero, Sara Mazzucco, Rosario Rizzuto, Leonardo Salviati, Gianni Biolo, Bert Blaauw, Stefano Schiaffino, N Henriette Uhlenhaut
Circadian clocks are fundamental physiological regulators of energy homeostasis, but direct transcriptional targets of the muscle clock machinery are unknown. To understand how the muscle clock directs rhythmic metabolism, we determined genome-wide binding of the master clock regulators brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) and REV-ERBα in murine muscles. Integrating occupancy with 24-hr gene expression and metabolomics after muscle-specific loss of BMAL1 and REV-ERBα, here we unravel novel molecular mechanisms connecting muscle clock function to daily cycles of lipid and protein metabolism...
August 10, 2018: PLoS Biology
Hye Eun Lee, Gabsik Yang, Sin-Hee Han, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Tae-Jin An, Jae-Ki Jang, Joo Young Lee
The main function of brown adipose tissue is to dissipate surplus caloric intake into heat energy by thermogenesis, increasing energy expenditure. Inducible brown adipocytes can develop within white adipose tissue (WAT) through a process referred to as browning. Browning of white fat represents a promising strategy for treatment of obesity and the related complications. We investigated whether Glycyrrhiza uralensis and its ingredients modulated adipogenesis through adipocyte browning using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice model...
August 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rushita A Bagchi, Bradley S Ferguson, Matthew S Stratton, Tianjing Hu, Maria A Cavasin, Lei Sun, Ying-Hsi Lin, Dianxin Liu, Pilar Londono, Kunhua Song, Maria F Pino, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Philipp E Scherer, Sheila Collins, Edward Seto, Timothy A McKinsey
Little is known about the biological function of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), which is the lone class IV HDAC. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of HDAC11 in mice stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT). Consequently, HDAC11-deficient mice exhibit enhanced thermogenic potential and, in response to high-fat feeding, attenuated obesity, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced hepatic steatosis. Ex vivo and cell-based assays revealed that HDAC11 catalytic activity suppresses the BAT transcriptional program, in both the basal state and in response to β-adrenergic receptor signaling, through a mechanism that is dependent on physical association with BRD2, a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-histone-binding protein...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Ja Hyun Koo, Kun-Liang Guan
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are two homologous transcriptional coactivators that promote cell proliferation, stem cell maintenance, and tissue homeostasis. Under favorable conditions, YAP and TAZ are active to promote cell growth through a transcriptional program mediated by the TEAD family transcription factors. Given the indispensability of cellular energy and metabolites for survival and growth, YAP and TAZ are inhibited when energy level is low...
August 7, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Seungyoon B Yu, Gulcin Pekkurnaz
To maintain homeostasis, every cell must constantly monitor its energy level and appropriately adjust energy, in the form of ATP, production rates based on metabolic demand. Continuous fulfillment of this energy demand depends on the ability of cells to sense, metabolize, and convert nutrients into chemical energy. Mitochondria are the main energy conversion sites for many cell types. Cellular metabolic states dictate the mitochondrial size, shape, function and positioning. Mitochondrial shape varies from singular discrete organelles to interconnected reticular networks within cells...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Magdalena Chottova Dvorakova
Neuropeptide W (NPW) and neuropeptide B (NPB) are two structurally and functionally related regulatory peptides, which are highly expressed in several brain regions and, additionally, in some peripheral tissues. Nevertheless, their distributions in the tissues are not similar. They act on target tissues via two subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors which are designated as NPBWR1 (GPR7) and NPBWR2 (GPR8), respectively, and possess different binding affinities. NPB activates NPBWR1, whereas NPW stimulates both the receptors with similar potency...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
A Grandone, A Di Sessa, G R Umano, R Toraldo, E Miraglia Del Giudice
The treatment of childhood obesity represents a greater challenge for pediatricians. To date, it is multidisciplinary, including behavioral, dietary, pharmacological, and surgical options. Given the limited efficacy of available treatments, scientific research on finding new solutions is very active. Several drugs comprising Metformin, Glucagon-like peptide- 1 receptor agonists, Naltrexone-bupropion, Phentermine-Topiramate, and Lorcaserin have been studied as pediatric antiobesity agents. Findings from clinical trials showed a modest but significant effect of these drugs on weight loss, but long-term studies are needed to better define their exact role...
August 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Katia M Perez, Kathleen L Curley, James C Slaughter, Ashley H Shoemaker
Context: Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare, genetic disorder characterized by early-onset obesity and multi-hormone resistance. To treat abnormal weight gain and prevent complication such as diabetes, we must understand energy balance and glucose homeostasis in PHP, type 1A and 1B. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate food intake, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis in children with PHP. Design: Assessments included resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity, food intake, sucrose preference, questionnaires, endocrine and auxological status...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Katsutaka Oishi, Chiaki Hashimoto
Feeding at unusual times of the day is thought to be associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in both experimental animals and humans. We previously reported that time-imposed feeding during the sleep phase (daytime feeding, DF) induces obesity and metabolic disorders compared with mice fed only during the active phase (nighttime feeding, NF). The present study aimed to determine whether leptin resistance is caused by DF, and whether it is involved in the underlying mechanisms of DF-induced obesity in mice, since leptin plays an essential role in regulating energy expenditure and adiposity in addition to food intake...
August 7, 2018: Chronobiology International
Helmut Kovac, Helmut Käfer, Anton Stabentheiner
Honeybees need water for different purposes, to maintain the osmotic homeostasis in adults as well as to dilute stored honey and prepare liquid food for the brood. Water is also used for cooling of the hive. Foraging in endothermic insects is energy-intensive and the question arises how much energy bees invest in a resource without any metabolically usable energy. We investigated the energy demand of water collecting bees under natural conditions. The thermoregulation and energetic effort was measured simultaneously in a broad range of experimental ambient temperatures (Ta  = 12-40 °C)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Miranda M Broadney, Britni R Belcher, David A Berrigan, Robert J Brychta, Ira L Tigner, Faizah Shareef, Alexia Papachristopoulou, Jacob D Hattenbach, Elisabeth K Davis, Sheila M Brady, Shanna B Bernstein, Amber B Courville, Bart E Drinkard, Kevin P Smith, Douglas R Rosing, Pamela L Wolters, Kong Y Chen, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVE: Sedentary children have greater risk of developing abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether interrupting sedentary behavior (sitting) with very short periods of walking would improve glucose metabolism without affecting dietary intake in children with overweight or obesity. We hypothesized that interrupting sitting with short bouts of moderate-intensity walking would decrease insulin area under the curve (AUC) during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared with uninterrupted sitting...
August 6, 2018: Diabetes Care
James M Samet, Phillip A Wages
Oxidative stress is arguably the most common mechanism in the toxicology of environmental agents, unifying the action of broad classes of physichochemically disparate environmental pollutants, including oxidant gases, organic compounds, particulate surfaces, and metal ions. As advances in redox biology identify previously unrecognized targets for disruption by exposure to xenobiotics, redox toxicology has emerged as a new field of investigation. Environmental contaminants can induce oxidative stress on cells through mechanisms that are direct, indirect or involve the disruption of metabolic or bioenergetic processes that are regulated by thiol redox switches...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
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