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Xiaoyu Chen, Shan Liu, Wei Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Hanchen Liu, Fang Zhang, Zhongbing Lu, Wenjun Ding
Recent studies have demonstrated that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) increases the risk of central nervous (CNS) diseases. As a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is essential for protection against chemically induced oxidative stress to restore cellular redox balance. However, the impact of Nrf2 on the neurotoxic effects of PM2.5 remains to understand. In this study, we exposed wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-/- ) mice to 1 mg/kg PM2...
October 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shengyang Wu, Pinhui Zhu, Bowei Jia, Junkai Yang, Yang Shen, Xiaoxi Cai, Xiaoli Sun, Yanming Zhu, Mingzhe Sun
BACKGROUND: Even though bicarbonate alkaline stress is a serious threat to crop growth and yields, it attracts much fewer researches than high salinity stress. The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors have been well demonstrated to function in diverse abiotic stresses; however, their biological role in alkaline tolerance still remains elusive. In this study, we functionally characterized a bZIP gene from Glycine soja GsbZIP67 in bicarbonate alkaline stress responses. RESULTS: GsbZIP67 was initially identified as a putative bicarbonate responsive gene, on the basis of previous RNA-seq data of 50 mM NaHCO3 -treated Glycine soja roots...
October 13, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Xiaoyan Zhang, Nana Su, Li Jia, Jiyuan Tian, Han Li, Lisha Huang, Zhenguo Shen, Jin Cui
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen gas (H2 ) is the most abundant element in the universe, and has been reported to act as a novel beneficial gaseous molecule in plant adaptive responses. Radish sprouts are popular because they contain substantial amounts of antioxidants and health-promoting compounds, such as anthocyanin and glucosinolates. Although radish sprouts accumulated more anthocyanin under UV-A after treatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW), the molecular mechanism responsible is still elusive...
October 11, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Chunhao Chang, Zhiwen Liu, Yanyan Wang, Zhonghua Tang, Fang Yu
Camptothecin (CPT) has powerful biological activities and its analogs, irinothecan and topothecan, are effective anti-cancer drugs for clinical therapy. Camptothecin was first isolated from Camptotheca acuminata and its low accumulation in planta limits drug supply in the market. Previous works have confirmed that many environmental factors and plant hormones/elicitors could regulate CPT biosynthesis, but only light irradiance has a negative effect on CPT production in C. acuminata. Although light irradiance has been identified as a negative CPT biosynthesis regulator in C...
October 4, 2018: Tree Physiology
Yuancai Xiang, Meng Wang, Shaofan Hu, Lu Qiu, Fang Yang, Zhengwen Zhang, Siwang Yu, Jingbo Pi, Yiguo Zhang
To gain a better understanding of the multistep processing of Nrf1 to yield various isoforms with confused molecular masses, we herein establish a generally acceptable criterion required for identification of its endogenous full-length proteins and derivative isoforms expressed differentially in distinct experimental cell lines. Further work has been focused on the molecular mechanisms that dictate the successive post-translational modifications (i.e. glycosylation by OST, deglycosylation by NGLY, and ubiquitination by Hrd1) of this CNC-bZIP protein and its proteolytic processing to give rise to multiple proteoforms...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Xiuqing Yang, Peng Feng, Ying Yin, Kathryn Bushley, Joseph W Spatafora, Chengshu Wang
The cycloundecapeptide cyclosporin A (CsA) was first isolated from the insect-pathogenic fungus Tolypocladium inflatum for its antifungal activity and later developed as an immunosuppressant drug. However, the full biosynthetic mechanism of CsA remains unknown and has puzzled researchers for decades. In this study, the biosynthetic gene cluster is suggested to include 12 genes encoding enzymes, including the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) (SimA) responsible for assembling the 11 amino acid substrates of cyclosporine and a polyketide synthase (PKS) (SimG) to mediate the production of the unusual amino acid (4 R )-4-[( E )-2-butenyl]-4-methyl-l-threonine (Bmt)...
October 2, 2018: MBio
Prateek Jain, Koushik Shah, Vikas Rishi
Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) are eukaryote-specific proteins that bind to DNA as a homodimer or heterodimer and regulate gene expression. They are involved in several biological processes in plants; therefore inhibiting bZIP-DNA binding activity by targeting protein-protein interface is an attractive proposition with aspects of both basic and applied biology. Here, we describe the equilibrium and kinetic interactions studies of a designed peptide inhibitor A-ZIP53 and its four variants with the bZIP53 protein, a key regulator of seed maturation phase and stress response in Arabidopsis...
September 29, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Dalia Z Alomari, Kai Eggert, Nicolaus von Wirén, Ahmad M Alqudah, Andreas Polley, Jörg Plieske, Martin W Ganal, Klaus Pillen, Marion S Röder
Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major staple food crops worldwide. Despite efforts in improving wheat quality, micronutrient levels are still below the optimal range for human nutrition. In particular, zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread problem in human nutrition in countries relying mainly on a cereal diet; hence improving Zn accumulation in grains is an imperative need. This study was designed to understand the genetic architecture of Zn grain concentrations in wheat grains. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for grain Zn concentrations in 369 European wheat genotypes, using field data from 3 years...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yuancai Xiang, Josefin Halin, Zhuo Fan, Shaofan Hu, Meng Wang, Lu Qiu, Zhengwen Zhang, Peter Mattjus, Yiguo Zhang
The topobiological behaviour of Nrf1 dictates its post-translational modification and its ability to transactivate target genes. Here, we have elucidated that topovectorial mechanisms control the juxtamembrane processing of Nrf1 on the cyto/nucleoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereupon it is cleaved and degraded to remove various lengths of its N-terminal domain (NTD, also refolded into a UBL module) and acidic domain-1 (AD1) to yield multiple isoforms. Notably, an N-terminal ~12.5-kDa polypeptide of Nrf1 arises from selective cleavage at an NHB2-adjoining region within NTD, whilst other longer UBL-containing isoforms may arise from proteolytic processing of the protein within AD1 around PEST1 and Neh2L degrons...
September 28, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ka-Chun Wong
Although the existing works on DNA motif discovery on DNA sequences are plethoric, mechanistic knowledge to infer DNA motifs from protein sequences across multiple DNA-binding domain families without conducting any wet-lab experiments is still lacking. Therefore, the k-spectrum recognition modeling is proposed to address the issues at the highest possible resolutions. The k-spectrum model can capture DNA motif patterns from protein sequences at the resolution in which local sequence context and nucleotide dependency can be taken into account completely...
September 28, 2018: iScience
Junpeng Zhan, Guosheng Li, Choong-Hwan Ryu, Chuang Ma, Shanshan Zhang, Alan Lloyd, Brenda G Hunter, Brian A Larkins, Gary N Drews, Xiangfeng Wang, Ramin Yadegari
Development of the cereal endosperm involves cell differentiation processes that enable nutrient uptake from the maternal plant, accumulation of storage products and their utilization during germination. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that link cell differentiation processes with those controlling storage product synthesis and deposition, including the activation of zein genes by the maize (Zea mays) bZIP transcription factor Opaque-2 (O2). Here, we mapped in vivo binding sites of O2 in B73 endosperm, and compared the results with genes differentially expressed in B73 and B73o2...
September 27, 2018: Plant Cell
Lifei Yang, Yuhuan Jin, Wei Huang, Qi Sun, Fang Liu, Xianzhong Huang
BACKGROUND: Arabidopsis pumila is native to the desert region of northwest China and it is extraordinarily well adapted to the local semi-desert saline soil, thus providing a candidate plant system for environmental adaptation and salt-tolerance gene mining. However, understanding of the salt-adaptation mechanism of this species is limited because of genomic sequences scarcity. In the present study, the transcriptome profiles of A. pumila leaf tissues treated with 250 mM NaCl for 0, 0...
September 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Jianxin Yuan, Hongxia Wang, Yuancai Xiang, Shaofan Hu, Shaojun Li, Meng Wang, Lu Qiu, Yiguo Zhang
Among multiple distinct isoforms, Nrf1D is synthesized from a de novo translation of an alternatively-spliced transcript of Nrf1 mRNA, as accompanied by a naturally-occurring deletion of its stop codon-flanking 1466 nucleotides. This molecular event leads to the generation of a reading frameshift mutation, which results in a constitutive substitution of the intact Nrf1's C-terminal 72 amino acids (aa, covering the second half of the leucine zipper motif to C-terminal Neh3L domain) by an additional extended 80-aa stretch to generate a unique variant Nrf1D...
September 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yu-Ping Zhu, Meng Wang, Yuancai Xiang, Lu Qiu, Shaofan Hu, Zhengwen Zhang, Peter Mattjus, Xiaomei Zhu, Yiguo Zhang
Normal growth and development, as well as adaptive responses to various intracellular and environmental stresses, are tightly controlled by transcriptional networks. The evolutionarily conserved genomic sequences across species highlights the architecture of such certain regulatory elements. Among them, one of the most conserved transcription factors is the basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) family. Herein, we have performed phylogenetic analysis of these bZIP proteins and found, to our surprise, that there exist a few homologous proteins of the family members Jun, Fos, ATF2, BATF, C/EBP and CNC (cap'n'collar) in either viruses or bacteria, albeit expansion and diversification of this bZIP superfamily have occurred in vertebrates from metazoan...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alexander Lathbridge, Jody M Mason
Basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) proteins reside at the end of cell-signalling cascades and function to modulate transcription of specific gene targets. bZIPs are recognised as important regulators of cellular processes that include cell growth, apoptosis and cell differentiation. One such validated transcriptional regulator, Activator Protein-1 is typically comprised of heterodimers of Jun and Fos family members, and is key in the progression and development of a number of different diseases. The best described component, cJun is upregulated in a variety of diseases that include cancer and osteoporosis and psoriasis...
September 26, 2018: Biochemistry
Chaobin Li, Yihong Yue, Hanjun Chen, Weiwei Qi, Rentao Song
Zeins are the most abundant storage proteins in maize (Zea mays) kernels, thereby affecting the nutritional quality and texture of this crop. 27-kD γ-zein is highly expressed and plays a crucial role in protein body formation. Several transcription factors (TFs) (O2, PBF1, OHP1 and OHP2) regulate the expression of the 27-kD γ-zein gene, but the complexity of its transcriptional regulation is not fully understood. Here, using probe affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified ZmbZIP22, a TF that binds to the 27-kD γ-zein promoter...
September 21, 2018: Plant Cell
Daisuke Tsugama, Shenkui Liu, Kaien Fujino, Tetsuo Takano
VIP1 (VIRE2-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1) and its close homologues are Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP proteins regulating stress responses and root tropisms. They are present in the cytoplasm under steady conditions, but transiently accumulate in the nucleus when cells are exposed to mechanical stress such as hypo-osmotic stress and touch. This pattern of changes in subcellular localization is unique to VIP1 and its close homologues, and can be useful to further characterize mechanical stress signaling in plants. A recent study showed that calcium signaling regulates this pattern of subcellular localization...
September 20, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xuan Zhao, Liru Dou, Zhizhong Gong, Xiangfeng Wang, Tonglin Mao
Proper regulation of seed germination is essential for the successful propagation of a plant. The transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway plays a central role in the inhibition of seed germination. ABI5 is precisely regulated by the core ABA signaling components and multiple other factors. However, the complex regulatory network of ABI5 remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the biochemical interaction between ABI5 and the BRINSENSITIVE1 (BRI1)-EMS-SUPPRESSOR1 (BES1) transcription factor of the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway, as well as the function of BES1 regulating ABI5 during seed germination in Arabidopsis...
September 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Chunli Ji, Xue Mao, Jingyun Hao, Xiaodan Wang, Jinai Xue, Hongli Cui, Runzhi Li
The basic leucine-region zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) act as crucial regulators in various biological processes and stress responses in plants. Currently, bZIP family members and their functions remain elusive in the green unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , an important model organism for molecular investigation with genetic engineering aimed at increasing lipid yields for better biodiesel production. In this study, a total of 17 C. reinhardtii bZIP (CrebZIP) TFs containing typical bZIP structure were identified by a genome-wide analysis...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Peong Gang Park, Kee Hyuck Kim, Hye Sun Hyun, Chan Hee Lee, Jin-Su Park, Jeong Hae Kie, Young Hun Choi, Kyung Chul Moon, Hae Il Cheong
BACKGROUND: Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome (MCTO) is characterized by progressive destruction and disappearance of the carpal and tarsal bones associated with nephropathy. MCTO is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MAF bZIP transcription factor B (MAFB) gene. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes three unrelated patients with MAFB mutations, including two male and one female patient. Osteolytic lesions in the carpal and tarsal bones were detected at 2 years, 12 years, and 14 months of age, respectively...
September 12, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
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