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Kiyotaka Nakamagoe, Shiori Yamada, Rio Kawakami, Zenshi Miyake, Naoki Tozaka, Sho Okune, Hayato Takeda, Tadachika Koganezawa, Akira Tamaoka
BACKGROUND: Cortical damage in areas such as the frontal lobe is reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, aside from executive dysfunction, the pathological significance of this cortical damage has yet to be clarified. The present study investigated the effects of cortical damage on vestibular function in ALS. METHODS: Subjects comprised 18 ALS patients and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cold air caloric stimulation was performed in all subjects to induce vestibular nystagmus, which was analysed to evaluate vestibular function...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jason C Chang, Lei Zhang, Alexander E Drilon, Ping Chi, Rita Alaggio, Laetitia Borsu, Ryma Benayed, William D Travis, Marc Ladanyi, Cristina R Antonescu
BACKGROUND: Half of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) regardless of anatomic location harbor ALK gene rearrangements and overexpress ALK protein. The wide application of next generation sequencing (NGS) and the clinical benefit to tyrosine kinase inhibitors have opened new opportunities for investigation of ALK-negative IMT. DESIGN: In this study we investigate a series of pediatric and adult thoracic IMT for abnormalities in a wide spectrum of actionable kinases, by applying a variety of molecular and NGS techniques, including FISH, targeted RNA sequencing and NanoString...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Sara Pereira, Ana Reyes, Marcos A Moura-Dos-Santos, Carla Santos, Thayse N Gomes, Go Tani, Olga Vasconcelos, Tiago V Barreira, Peter T Katzmarzyk, José Maia
OBJECTIVE: Children's differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels are not at random. This study investigates the relevance of individual- and school-level characteristics in explaining these differences. METHODS: In total, 307 children (154 girls) aged 5-10 years, from 19 Portuguese schools, were sampled. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was measured by accelerometry...
December 11, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Vanessa L Castro, Derek M Isaacowitz
Interpersonal accuracy refers to the ability to make accurate perceptions about others' social and emotional qualities. Despite this broad definition, the measurement of interpersonal accuracy remains narrow, as most studies focus on the accurate perception of others' emotional states. Moreover, previous research has relied primarily upon traditional tasks consisting of posed, prototypic expressions and behaviors as stimuli. These methodological limitations may constrain our understanding of how different interpersonal perception skills change in adulthood...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Chunyu Cui, Jiantie Xu, Yiqiong Zhang, Zengxi Wei, Minglei Mao, Xin Lian, Shuangyin Wang, Chongyin Yang, Xiulin Fan, Jianmin Ma, Chunsheng Wang
Antimony (Sb) based materials have been considered as one of promising anodes for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) owing to their high theoretical capacities and appropriate sodium inserting potentials. So far, the reported energy density and cycling stability of the Sb based anodes for SIBs are quite limited and need to be significantly improved. Here, we develop a novel Sb/C hybrid encapsulating the Sb nanorods into highly conductive N & S co-doped carbon (Sb@(N, S-C)) frameworks. As an anode for SIBs, the Sb@(N, S-C) hybrid maintains high reversible capacities of 621...
December 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Qingmeng Gan, Jiwei Xie, Youhuan Zhu, Fangchang Zhang, Peisen Zhang, Zhen He, Suqin Liu
Carbon materials are most promising candidates for potassium-ion battery (PIB) anodes because of their high electrical conductivities, rational potassium storage capabilities, and low costs. However, the large volume change during the K-ion insertion/extraction and the sluggish kinetics of K-ion diffusion inhibit the development of carbon-based materials for PIBs. Here, under the guidance of density functional theory, N/P-codoped ultrafine (≤20 nm) carbon nanoparticles (NP-CNPs) with an expanded interlayer distance, improved electrical conductivity, shortened diffusion distance of K ions, and promoted adsorption capability toward K ions are synthesized through a facile solvent-free method as a high-performance anode material for PIBs...
December 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Maureen A Kane, Cynthia F Bearer, Adriana Bautista, Jace W Jones, Laura Garrison, Mae-Gilene Begay, Timothy Ozechowski, Johnnye Lewis
BACKGROUND: Although fetal alcohol spectrum disorders represent a significant public health problem, Native Americans are underrepresented in population and targeted screening programs. Prior reports suggest that Native American tribal communities may have a higher prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy; however, systematic examination using ethanol biomarkers is lacking. METHODS: This study utilized data collected through the Navajo Birth Cohort Study (NBCS)-a birth cohort study of a Southwestern tribal community...
December 14, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Ashley F Curtis, Alicia J Roth, Samuel F Sears, Jamie B Conti, Richard B Berry, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Himangshu Rathinakumar, Christina S McCrae
Sleep disturbance and anxiety are highly prevalent in patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs). There is limited research, however, on the associations between cognitive performance and sleep parameters, age and anxiety. Forty-one patients with ICDs and self-reported sleep disturbance completed 14 days of actigraphy (Mage  = 60.3, SD = 12.3) measuring total sleep time (TST), and a computerized cognitive test battery measuring processing speed and attention (i.e. simple reaction time and symbol digit modality task [SDMT]) and executive function (i...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Arthur Prochazka
Neuroprostheses (NPs) are electrical stimulators that activate nerves, either to provide sensory input to the central nervous system (sensory NPs), or to activate muscles (motor NPs: MNPs). The first MNPs were belts with inbuilt batteries and electrodes developed in the 1850s to exercise the abdominal muscles. They became enormously popular among the general public, but as a result of exaggerated therapeutic claims they were soon discredited by the medical community. In the 1950s, MNPs reemerged for the serious purpose of activating paralyzed muscles...
December 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Shihan Yan, K P Abhilash, Lingyu Tang, Mei Yang, Yifan Ma, Qiuying Xia, Qiubo Guo, Hui Xia
Amorphous metal oxides (AMOs) have aroused great enthusiasm across multiple energy areas over recent years due to their unique properties, such as the intrinsic isotropy, versatility in compositions, absence of grain boundaries, defect distribution, flexible nature, etc. Here, the materials engineering of AMOs is systematically reviewed in different electrochemical applications and recent advances in understanding and developing AMO-based high-performance electrodes are highlighted. Attention is focused on the important roles that AMOs play in various energy storage and conversion technologies, such as active materials in metal-ion batteries and supercapacitors as well as active catalysts in water splitting, metal-air batteries, and fuel cells...
December 13, 2018: Small
Wenping Yang, Xiaxia Li, Yan Li, Rongmei Zhu, Huan Pang
Carbon materials derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention in the field of scientific research in recent years because of their advantages of excellent electron conductivity, high porosity, and diverse applications. Tremendous efforts are devoted to improving their chemical and physical properties, including optimizing the morphology and structure of the carbon materials, compositing them with other materials, and so on. Here, many kinds of carbon materials derived from metal-organic frameworks are introduced with a particular focus on their promising applications in batteries (lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and sodium-ion batteries), supercapacitors (metal oxide/carbon and metal sulfide/carbon), electrocatalytic reactions (oxygen reduction reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction), water treatment (MOF-derived carbon and other techniques), and other possible fields...
December 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Fan Wang, Zicheng Zuo, Liang Li, Feng He, Fushen Lu, Yuliang Li
The structural and interfacial stabilities of metal oxides (MOs) are key issues while facing the volumetric variation and intensive interfacial polarization in electrochemical applications, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), supercapacitors, and catalysts. The growth of a seamless all-carbon interfacial layer on MOs with complex dimensions is not only a scientific problem, but also a practical challenge in these fields. Here, the growth of graphdiyne under ultramild condition is successfully implemented in situ for coating MOs of complex dimensions...
December 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jieting Ding, Shan Ji, Hui Wang, Dan J L Brett, Bruno G Pollet, Rongfang Wang
The development of alternative electrocatalysts exhibiting high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity is vital for the deployment of large-scale clean energy devices, such as fuel cells and Zn-air batteries. N-doped carbon materials offer a promising platform for the design and synthesis of electrocatalysts due to their high ORR activity, high surface area and tuneable porosity. In this study, MnO nanoparticles entrapped N-doped mesoporous carbon compounds (MnO/NC) were developed as electrocatalysts for ORR, and their performances were evaluated in operational zinc-air batteries...
December 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Meng Zhao, Hong-Jie Peng, Ze-Wen Zhang, Bo-Quan Li, Xiao Chen, Jin Xie, Xiang Chen, Jun-Yu Wei, Qiang Zhang, Jia-Qi Huang
Surface reactions constitute the foundation of various energy conversion/storage technologies such as the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. To expedite surface reactions for high-rate battery applications demands for in-depth understanding of reaction kinetics and rational catalyst design. Herein, we proposed an in-situ extrinsic-metal etching strategy to activate an inert monometal nitride of hexagonal Ni3N through iron-incorporated cubic Ni3FeN. In-situ etched Ni3FeN regulates polysulfide-involving surface reactions at high rates...
December 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Zhijie Wang, Hong Gao, Qing Zhang, Yuqing Liu, Jun Chen, Zaiping Guo
Graphene is widely applied as an electrode material in energy storage fields. However, the strong π-π interaction between graphene layers and the stacking issues lead to a great loss of electrochemically active surface area, damaging the performance of graphene electrodes. Developing 3D graphene architectures that are constructed of graphene sheet subunits is an effective strategy to solve this problem. The graphene architectures can be directly utilized as binder-free electrodes for energy storage devices...
December 12, 2018: Small
Di Liu, Jiawei Wan, Guangsheng Pang, Zhiyong Tang
Hollow metal-organic framework (MOF) micro/nanostructures and their derivatives are attracting a great amount of research interest in recent years because their hierarchical porous structures not only provide abundant, easily accessed metal sites but also endow 3D channels for rapid mass transport. As a result, they demonstrate significant advantages in many applications including catalysis, gas sensors, batteries, supercapacitors, and so on. Nevertheless, studies on hollow MOFs and their derivatives are still at the beginning of this field, and the relationship between their structures and application performances is not yet reviewed comprehensively...
December 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yayuan Liu, Hongbo Geng, Edison Huixiang Ang, Xueqin Cao, Junwei Zheng, Hongwei Gu
Nanostructured hybrid metal sulfides have attracted intensive attention due to their fascinating properties that are unattainable by the single-phased counterpart. Herein, we report an efficient approach to construct cobalt sulfide/molybdenum disulfide (Co9 S8 /MoS2 ) wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The unique structures constructed by ultrathin nanosheets and synergetic effects benefitting from bimetallic sulfides provide improved lithium ions reaction kinetics, and they retain good structural integrity...
December 10, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Qi Xia, Hou Wang, Binbin Huang, Xingzhong Yuan, Jingjing Zhang, Jin Zhang, Longbo Jiang, Ting Xiong, Guangming Zeng
Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), as an original kind of organic-inorganic porous material, are constructed with metal centers and organic linkers via a coordination complexation reaction. Among uncountable MOF materials, iron-containing metal organic frameworks (Fe-MOFs) have excellent potential in practical applications owing to their many fascinating properties, such as diverse structure types, low toxicity, preferable stability, and tailored functionality. Here, recent research progresses of Fe-MOFs in attractive features, synthesis, and multifunctional applications are described...
December 7, 2018: Small
Dongna Liu, Xiaoming Xu, Jian Tan, Jiexin Zhu, Qi Li, Yanzhu Luo, Peijie Wu, Xiao Zhang, Chunhua Han, Liqiang Mai
High-capacity anodes of lithium-ion batteries generally suffer from poor electrical conductivity, large volume variation, and low tap density caused by prepared nanostructures, which make it an obstacle to achieve both high-areal capacity and stable cycling performance for practical applications. Herein, micrometer-sized porous Fe2 N/C bulk is prepared to tackle the aforementioned issues, and thus realize both high-areal capacity and stable cycling performance at high mass loading. The porous structure in Fe2 N/C bulk is beneficial to alleviate the volumetric change...
December 7, 2018: Small
Johan Klarbring, Sergei I Simak
Theoretical studies of phase stability in solid materials with dynamic disorder are challenging due to the failure of the standard picture of atoms vibrating around fixed equilibrium positions. Dynamically disordered solid materials show immense potential in applications. In particular, superionic conductors, where the disorder results in exceptionally high ionic conductivity, are very promising as solid state electrolytes in batteries and fuel cells. The biggest obstacle in living up to this potential is the limited stability of the dynamically disordered phases...
November 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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