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Alcohol personality

O Khukhlina, A Antoniv, L Kanovska, O Mandryk, V Smandych
The article presents a theoretical generalization of the research results the effectiveness of heparisin on the state of the carbohydrate-protein components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue in liver in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with obesity I-II degree and chronic kidney disease І-ІІ stage. The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of heparisin (glycyrizine 40 mg, glycine 400 mg, L-cysteine hydrochloride 20 mg) on the state of the carbohydrate-protein components of the extracellular matrix in connective tissue of the liver in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with obesity I-II degree and chronic kidney disease (CKD) І-ІІ stage...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Faika Zanjani, Hannah Allen, Rachel Vickers Smith, Demetra Antimisiaris, Nancy Schoenberg, Catherine Martin, Richard Clayton
Older adults are at high risk for alcohol and medication interactions (AMI). Pharmacies have the potential to act as ideal locations for AMI education, as pharmacy staff play an important role in the community. This study examined the perspectives of pharmacy staff on AMI prevention programming messaging, potential barriers to and facilitators of older adult participation in such programming, and dissemination methods for AMI prevention information. Flyers, telephone calls, and site visits were used to recruit 31 pharmacy staff members who participated in semistructured interviews...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Kathryn E Lancaster, Angela Hetrick, Antoine Jaquet, Adebola Adedimeji, Lukoye Atwoli, Donn J Colby, Angel M Mayor, Angela Parcesepe, Jennifer Syvertsen
As universal testing and treatment for HIV, or 'treat all', expands across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), substance use will likely have a negative impact on the success of scale-up efforts for antiretroviral treatment (ART). Overwhelming evidence highlights the negative impact of substance use on HIV care and treatment outcomes. Yet, as many countries in SSA expand ART, evidence of the extent of substance use, and its impact in the region, is more limited. Stigma, and the psychoactive effects of substance use, are barriers to seeking HIV treatment and adhering to ART regimens for persons with heavy alcohol use or substance use...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Terence V McCann, Michael Savic, Nyssa Ferguson, Alison Cheetham, Katrina Witt, Kate Emond, Emma Bosley, Karen Smith, Louise Roberts, Dan I Lubman
OBJECTIVE: Continuing stigma towards mental health problems means that many individuals-especially men-will first present in crisis, with emergency services often the first point of call. Given this situation, the aims of this paper were to assess paramedics' ability to recognise, and their attitudes towards, males with clinically defined depression and psychosis with and without comorbid alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional national online survey of 1230 paramedics throughout Australia...
December 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Fan Zhang, Lok-Wa Yuen, Lanyan Ding, Ian M Newman, Duane F Shell
OBJECTIVES: This pilot study tested the effectiveness of a brief alcohol-related intervention delivered by the social media app WeChat to teach about ethanol-induced facial flushing and increase the willingness of students who see another student flushing to suggest that he or she should reduce or stop drinking. In the context of Chinese drinking culture, it is sometimes socially difficult to refuse a drink, even when experiencing physical discomfort, such as flushing. METHODS: Classrooms of students in a medical university in China were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group...
November 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Taylor C Wallace, Scott Bultman, Chris D'Adamo, Carrie R Daniel, Justine Debelius, Emily Ho, Heather Eliassen, Dawn Lemanne, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried, Qiang Tian, Linda T Vahdat
Cancer is a major public health problem and is the second leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide; nearly one in six deaths are attributable to cancer. Approximately 20% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States are attributable to unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and body fatness. Individual cancers are distinct disease states that are multifactorial in their causation, making them exceedingly cumbersome to study from a nutrition standpoint. Genetic influences are a major piece of the puzzle and personalized nutrition is likely to be most effective in disrupting cancer during all stages...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Lauren E Mellor-Crummey, Jordan E Lake, Holly Wilhalme, Chi-Hong Tseng, Philip M Grant, Kristine M Erlandson, Jennifer C Price, Frank J Palella, Larry A Kingsley, Matthew Budoff, Wendy S Post, Todd T Brown
Background and Aim: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common among HIV-infected (HIV+) adults. The Liver Fat Score (LFS) is a non-invasive, rapid, inexpensive diagnostic tool that uses routine clinical data and is validated against biopsy in HIV-uninfected (HIV-) persons. CT liver-to-spleen (L/S) attenuation ratio is another validated method to diagnose NAFLD. We compared NAFLD prevalence using the LFS versus L/S ratio among Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants to assess the LFS's performance in HIV+vs...
2018: Journal of clinical gastroenterology and hepatology
Dominique F Maciejewski, Loes Keijsers, Pol A C van Lier, Susan J T Branje, Wim H J Meeus, Hans M Koot
One particular developmental task during adolescence is to regulate fluctuating moods to successfully transition through this period. The aim of this person-centered study was to identify distinct developmental trajectories of adolescent mood variability and to compare adolescents in different trajectories on changes in depressive symptoms, delinquency, and alcohol consumption in early to middle (ages 13-16) and middle to late adolescence (ages 16-20). Dutch adolescents (n = 482, 57.1% male) rated their daily emotions three weeks per year for five years using Internet daily diaries (ages 13-18)...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Marianne Six Dijkstra, Remko Soer, André Bieleman, Rollin McCraty, Frits Oosterveld, Douglas Gross, Michiel Reneman
Low heart rate variability (HRV) is related to health problems that are known reasons for sick-leave or early retirement. A 1-minute-protocol could allow large scale HRV measurement for screening of health problems and, potentially, sustained employability. Our objectives were to explore the association of HRV with measures of health. Cross-sectional design with 877 Dutch employees assessed during a Workers' Health Assessment. Personal and job characteristics, workability, psychological and mental problems, and lifestyle were measured with questionnaires...
December 1, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Richard Paul
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are metabolites of alcohol that when detected in hair can provide evidence of a person's drinking behavior. The analysis of these compounds in hair has become commonplace in recent years and has been used as evidence in legal proceedings. Despite the routine use of such toxicological analysis, the correct interpretation of alcohol biomarker hair testing can be complex, and there may be debate as to the significance of the data. This paper considers whether the accepted norm of applying interpretative cut-off values to EtG and FAEE concentrations from hair samples is appropriate, and asks whether Bayesian theory, using a likelihood ratio approach may offer greater insight as to the strength of evidence...
November 30, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Jing Chen, Arjun K Venkatesan, Rolf U Halden
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), an emerging tool for monitoring public health in near real-time, is used extensively in Europe but applications to U.S. populations are still scarce. In this longitudinal study, raw wastewater was collected monthly from three U.S. cities as 24-h weekday composites and analyzed for evidence of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Over the 11-month sampling period, biomarkers of stimulant use were detected in wastewater by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in units of μg/L (ethyl sulfate, 1...
November 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Rana Abdrabalnabi, Alla Taher, Shantymole Mathew, Kamal Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) caused multiple outbreaks. Such outbreaks increase economic and infection control burdens. We studied the infection control influence of MERS-CoV using a hospital-based analysis. METHODS: Our hospital had 17 positive and 82 negative cases of MERS-CoV between April 1, 2013, and June 3, 2013. The study evaluated the impact of these cases on the use of gloves, surgical masks, N95 respirators, alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and soap, as well as hand hygiene compliance rates...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Kyle Possemato, Emily M Johnson, J Bronte Emery, Michael Wade, Michelle C Acosta, Lisa A Marsch, Andrew Rosenblum, Stephen A Maisto
OBJECTIVE: Many combat veterans struggle with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and hazardous alcohol use and are hesitant to engage in behavioral health services. Combining peer support with an eHealth intervention may overcome many barriers to care. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of adding peer support to a web-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) targeting PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking, called Thinking Forward. METHOD: Thirty primary care patients with PTSD and hazardous alcohol use were randomized to receive Thinking Forward with or without peer support...
November 29, 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Rachel Golan, Yftach Gepner, Iris Shai
Health benefits of moderate wine consumption have been studied during the past decades, first in observational studies and more recently, in experimental settings and randomized controlled studies. Suggested biological pathways include antioxidant, lipid regulating, and anti-inflammatory effects. Both the alcoholic and polyphenolic components of wine are believed to contribute to these beneficial effects. Although several of these studies demonstrated protective associations between moderate drinking and cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, and the metabolic syndrome, no conclusive recommendations exist regarding moderate wine consumption...
November 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Rune Aakvik Pedersen, Halfdan Petursson, Irene Hetlevik
BACKGROUND: After a stroke, a person has an increased risk of recurrent strokes. Effective secondary prevention can provide significant gains in the form of reduced disability and mortality. While considerable efforts have been made to provide high quality acute treatment of stroke, there has been less focus on the follow-up in general practice after the stroke. One strategy for the implementation of high quality, evidence-based treatment is the development and distribution of clinical guidelines...
November 28, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Alexis C Edwards, Henrik Ohlsson, Dace S Svikis, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to clarify the etiology of the association between pregnancy and reduced risk of alcohol use disorder. METHODS: The authors used data from longitudinal population-wide Swedish medical, pharmacy, and criminal registries to evaluate whether rates of alcohol use disorder are lower during pregnancy. They compared pregnant women born between 1975 and 1992 (N=322,029) with matched population controls, with female relatives discordant for pregnancy, and with pre- and postpregnancy periods within individuals...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Rose N Mafiana, Ahmed S Al Lawati, Mostafa I Waly, Yahya Al Farsi, Maimouna Al Kindi, Mansour Al Moundhri
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. CRC vary on the basis of both the biologic features of the disease and its associated lifestyle characteristics. The risk of CRC increases with several modifiable factors including obesity, physical inactivity, a diet high in red or processed meat, heavy alcohol consumption, and possibly inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. We aimed to establish a baseline data for dietary and lifestyle characteristics of Omani adults diagnosed with CRC...
November 29, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Perry Hendricks
Much of the debate about the ethics of abortion has centered on whether the fetus is a person. In an attempt to sidestep this complex issue, I argue that, even if the fetus is not a person, abortion is immoral. To arrive at this conclusion, I argue that giving a fetus fetal alcohol syndrome is immoral, and that if this is so, then killing the fetus is immoral. Roughly, this is because killing the fetus impairs it more than giving it fetal alcohol syndrome. Since abortion (in most cases) amounts to killing the fetus, this means that abortion (in most cases) is immoral...
November 27, 2018: Bioethics
Laurence Claes, Brianna Turner, Eva Dierckx, Koen Luyckx, Margaux Verschueren, Katrien Schoevaerts
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) features are common in patients with eating disorders (ED), yet little is known regarding the clinical presentation of ED patients who present with NSSI with and without BPD. The current study compared self-injurious, female ED inpatients with (n = 98; NSSI+BPD) and without BPD (n = 45; NSSI-only) on different self-reported clinical features. Results suggest that ED patients with NSSI+BPD differ from those with NSSI-only with regard to frequency of suicidal ideation, alcohol, drug or medication abuse, internalizing/externalizing psychopathology, interpersonal problems, and coping strategies, with the NSSI+BPD group demonstrating more impairment in each of these domains...
September 27, 2018: Psychologica Belgica
Sígrid Gallego, Laura Mezquita, Jorge Moya-Higueras, Generós Ortet, Manuel I Ibáñez
Personality characteristics such as extraversion, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness are relevant for alcohol use during adolescence. In addition, having friends who use alcohol is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol consumption and its negative outcomes. The selection model posits that friends display similar alcohol consumption when their friendships are formed on the basis of common characteristics as, among others, personality. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the mediation role of peers in the association between the five-factor model of personality and adolescent alcohol use in two cultures...
November 27, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
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