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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336102/the-addicts-on-main-street
#1
Daniel M Becker
Mortality rates for middle-aged whites in the U.S. are rising due to drugs, alcohol, and depression. Unique to our country, these "deaths of despair" disproportionately occur among the under-educated, who are at particular risk for dying young. At one time, less-educated persons aspired to work in the same factory as their parents, at union wages, with benefits. Those jobs, and the sense of community and prosperity and security they allowed, are evaporating. Many former workers suffer from chronic pain, which underlies America's ongoing opioid overdose epidemic...
September 2018: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335883/safety-of-drilling-3-dimensional-printed-temporal-bones
#2
Monika E Freiser, Anish Ghodadra, Lindsay Hart, Christopher Griffith, Noel Jabbour
Importance: Three-dimensional (3-D) printing of temporal bones is becoming more prevalent. However, there has been no measure of the safety of drilling these models to date. It is unknown whether the heat and sheer from the drill may create harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Objective: To determine the level of exposure to airborne contaminants when conducting high-speed drilling on 3-D-printed models and to explore whether there is a need for exposure control measures...
September 1, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335425/risks-strengths-gender-and-recidivism-among-justice-involved-youth-a-meta-analysis
#3
Terri Scott, Shelley L Brown
OBJECTIVE: Debate ensues regarding female-specific risk and strength factors among adolescent offenders. Using meta-analysis, we examined whether risk and strength factors predicted recidivism differentially between male and female youth. METHOD: Database searches identified 22 studies, representing 50,601 justice-involved youth (11,952 females and 38,649 males) and a total of 584 effect sizes. RESULTS: For the global risk domains, there is some evidence for gender neutrality (i...
November 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335205/remote-alcohol-monitoring-to-facilitate-incentive-based-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorder-a-randomized-trial
#4
Mikhail N Koffarnus, Warren K Bickel, Anita S Kablinger
BACKGROUND: The delivery of monetary incentives contingent on verified abstinence is an effective treatment for alcohol use disorder. However, technological barriers to accurate, frequent biochemical verification of alcohol abstinence have limited the dissemination of this technique. METHODS: In the present randomized parallel trial, we employed a breathalyzer that allows remote, user-verified collection of a breath alcohol sample, text messaging, and reloadable debit cards for remote delivery of incentives to evaluate a contingency management treatment for alcohol use disorder that can be delivered with no in-person contact...
October 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332716/in-memoriam-richard-a-deitrich-phd
#5
Boris Tabakoff
Richard (Dick) Adam Deitrich died on September 5, 2018. He was a good friend to many and a particularly important person in the formation of the two major Societies in the field of alcohol research. He was one of the founding fathers of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA), he helped write the incorporation documents for the Society and was the second President of RSA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 17, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332349/psychiatric-and-substance-use-comorbidity-in-treatment-seeking-injection-opioid-users-referred-from-syringe-exchange
#6
Michael Kidorf, Stephanie Solazzo, Haijuan Yan, Robert K Brooner
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated rates of co-occurring current psychiatric and substance use disorders in a sample of opioid-dependent treatment-seeking injection drug users referred from syringe exchange. METHODS: Participants (N = 208) completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-R to assess current (within the past year) psychiatric and substance use disorders and the two most commonly diagnosed personality disorders (antisocial and borderline personality disorders)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327867/long-term-opioid-therapy-of-non-cancer-pain-prevalence-and-predictors-of-hospitalization-in-the-event-of-possible-misuse
#7
W Häuser, T Schubert, N Scherbaum, T Tölle
BACKGROUND: One major concern of long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) is the risk of abuse of prescribed opioids. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and predictors of opioid use-related hospitalizations and potential abuse of prescribed opioids by persons with LTOT for CNCP in a sample representative of the German statutory health insurance companies. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study in 2014. Anonymized German health claims database, including 4,028,618 insured individuals of 69 German statutory health insurances...
October 16, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322710/resilience-to-risk-for-psychopathology-the-role-of-white-matter-microstructural-development-in-adolescence
#8
Scott A Jones, Angelica M Morales, Bonnie J Nagel
BACKGROUND: One major risk factor for the development of psychopathology is a family history of psychopathology (FHP). Cross-sectional studies have shown that FHP is associated with alterations in white matter microstructure in adolescents without current psychopathology; however, whether these associations persist throughout adolescence, particularly in those who remain resilient to developing psychopathology, is unclear. METHODS: Sixty-six adolescents underwent diffusion-weighted imaging at baseline (12-16 years of age) and at one or two follow-up visits (142 total scans)...
August 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321875/-use-of-tobacco-alcohol-and-illegal-drugs-among-brandenburg-youth-2005-2017
#9
Andreas Böhm, Andrea Hardeling, Berit Gundermann
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents are seen as an important target group for reducing tobacco and alcohol consumption in the population. Data on substance use over a longer period of time for adolescents are a basis for addiction policy in the state of Brandenburg and show certain trends. METHODS: Adolescents of the 10th grade in the state of Brandenburg were asked in 2005, 2009, 2013 and 2017 about consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other psychoactive substances and about possibly helpful contact persons...
October 15, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321740/a-longitudinal-investigation-of-the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-alcohol-use-among-people-living-with-hiv
#10
Jeffrey D Wardell, Paul A Shuper, Christian S Hendershot
BACKGROUND: Both cannabis use and alcohol use are elevated among people living with HIV, but few studies have investigated the relationship between cannabis use and alcohol use in this population. This study examined the longitudinal association between cannabis use and alcohol use among people living with HIV and explored the moderating role of medicinal vs. recreational cannabis use. METHOD: Participants were cannabis users (N=763) enrolled in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (67% White, 88% male, 68% gay, median income in the $40,000-$50,000 range)...
October 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321089/alexithymia-impulsivity-and-reward-sensitivity-in-young-adult-university-student-children-of-alcoholics
#11
Michael Lyvers, Niloufar Hayatbakhsh, Janet Stalewski, Fred Arne Thorberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Personality traits previously known as risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) were assessed in 29 young adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 68 young adult children of nonalcoholics (non-COAs). Male and female university students (Mage  = 22.11 years) completed questions pertaining to demographics and alcohol use, and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test; Toronto Alexithymia Scale; Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire; and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales...
October 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318974/youth-response-to-rape-rape-myths-and-social-support
#12
Lauren F Lichty, L Kris Gowen
Adolescents and young adults face the highest incidence of sexual assault, yet only limited research focuses on the experience of adolescent survivors, adolescent rape myth acceptance, or the ways youth respond to rape. Survivors tend to disclose to at least one person, typically peers, and the response, whether positive or negative, can impact well-being and help-seeking behaviors. Focus groups across Oregon, a leader in state-level comprehensive sexuality education policy, solicited high school-student reactions to an alcohol-involved rape scenario...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317162/effects-of-neuromodulation-on-cognitive-performance-in-individuals-exhibiting-addictive-behaviors-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Katherine R Naish, Lana Vedelago, James MacKillop, Michael Amlung
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques as treatments for addictive disorders. While multiple reviews have examined the effects of neuromodulation on craving and consumption, there has been no review of how neuromodulation affects cognitive functioning in addiction. This systematic review examined studies of the cognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in individuals exhibiting addictive behavior...
October 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316144/key-personality-traits-and-alcohol-use-disorder-symptoms-in-first-and-second-year-college-students-detangling-antecedent-from-consequence
#14
Lucy R Nichols, Diana R Samek, Leanna McConnell
BACKGROUND: Studies have consistently shown that low constraint and high negative emotionality are associated with higher levels of alcohol use and greater alcohol related problems. Less research has examined associations between these traits and alcohol use disorder (AUD) from the first to second year of college, when alcohol use increases rapidly, or has evaluated gender differences in these associations. METHODS: The longitudinal College Experiences Study (N = 209, 60% female, 90% white) was used to detangle antecedent vs...
October 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316143/willingness-as-a-mediator-of-the-effects-of-personality-on-alcohol-related-consequences-between-the-first-and-second-years-of-college-a-longitudinal-prospective-study
#15
Bradley M Trager, Kimberly A Mallett, Rob Turrisi, Nichole M Sell, Brittney A Hultgren
The present study used a prospective longitudinal design to examine whether willingness to experience negative alcohol-related consequences mediated the effects of personality on consequences (e.g., blacking out, getting into a fight, and regretted sex). Students (N = 2024) were assessed at three time points: fall semester of the students' first year in college (baseline), 6-months post-baseline, and one-year post-baseline. Personality constructs were assessed at baseline (i.e., impulsivity, sensation seeking, self-regulation), willingness to experience negative alcohol-related consequences was assessed at baseline and 6-months, and negative alcohol-related consequences were examined at baseline and one-year post-baseline...
October 5, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316084/gender-moderates-the-relationship-between-stressful-life-events-and-psychopathology-findings-from-a-national-study
#16
Jessica L Armstrong, Silvia Ronzitti, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza
BACKGROUND: While data suggest a strong relationship between trauma exposure and psychopathology, less research has investigated relationships between psychopathology and stressful life events more broadly, and how these relationships may differ by gender. AIM: To examine strengths of associations between stressful life events and psychiatric disorders (i.e., past-year Axis I and lifetime Axis II, per DSM-IV) and how they may differ by gender. METHODS: Data from Wave 1 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n = 43,093) were analyzed using chi-square tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314081/entomobrya-collembola-entomobryidae-for-the-canary-islands
#17
Enrique Baquero, Rafael Jordana
This paper examines a single genus of springtails (Collembola, Entomobryidae, Entomobrya) across the Canary Islands archipelago. A great sampling effort carried out more than 20 years ago, and over several years, allows us to present the distribution of the genus with the presence of 17 species, some better represented by their abundance than others. In addition to some species present in continental Europe or elsewhere in the world, or those already reported for the Canary Islands (e.g., E. multifasciata (Tullberg, 1871), E...
August 21, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30313022/frequent-milk-and-soybean-consumption-are-high-risks-for-uterine-leiomyoma-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Mei Gao, Hui Wang
This study aims to retrospectively analyze the potential risk factors for uterine leiomyoma and prospectively examine whether these risk factors can increase the incidence of uterine leiomyoma.Women who attended our outpatient department from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 were enrolled. General demographical characteristics, personal information, and living habits were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the potential risk factors. Follow-up was regularly conducted to complete the prospective analysis...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311281/the-interactive-effects-of-perceived-peer-drinking-and-personality-profiles-on-adolescent-drinking-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Nina Pocuca, Leanne Hides, Catherine A Quinn, Melanie J White, Louise Mewton, Nicola Clare Newton, Tim Slade, Cath Chapman, Gavin Andrews, Maree Teesson, Steve Allsop, Nyanda McBride
AIMS: (1) To classify Australian adolescents according to their alcohol consumption trajectories; and (2) to assess the direct and interactive effects of perceived peer drinking (PPD) and personality on adolescent drinking. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study comprising secondary analysis of six waves of prospective data (collected between 2014 and 2016) from the control arm of the Climate Schools Combined Study. SETTING: Nineteen schools across three Australian states...
October 12, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310874/behaviors-and-risks-for-cardiovascular-disease-among-muslim-women-in-the-united-states
#20
Henna Budhwani, Seth Borgstede, Aarin L Palomares, Roman B Johnson, Kristine R Hearld
Purpose: This study examines statistical associates of cardiovascular disease risk factors, as defined by the American Heart Association's Life's Simple Seven, among Muslim women who reside in the United States. Methods: Data collected nationally through the 2015 Muslim Women's Health project were analyzed ( N =373). Logistic regression models estimated associations between sample characteristics and diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, blood pressure, cholesterol, and weight. Results: Over half of respondents reported exercising regularly (64%) and maintaining a healthy diet (85%); 20% consumed alcohol...
2018: Health Equity
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