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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986642/population-genetic-structure-and-evolutionary-history-of-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-the-southern-ethiopian-highlands
#1
Addisu Mekonnen, Eli K Rueness, Nils Chr Stenseth, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Rose Missbach, Tanja Haus, Dietmar Zinner, Christian Roos
BACKGROUND: Species with a restricted geographic distribution, and highly specialized habitat and dietary requirements, are particularly vulnerable to extinction. The Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) is a little-known arboreal, bamboo-specialist primate endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands. While most Bale monkeys inhabit montane forests dominated by bamboo, some occupy forest fragments where bamboo is much less abundant. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences to analyse the genetic structure and evolutionary history of Bale monkeys covering the majority of their remaining distribution range...
July 10, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892409/competition-between-sympatric-wolf-taxa-an-example-involving-african-and-ethiopian-wolves
#2
Tariku Mekonnen Gutema, Anagaw Atickem, Afework Bekele, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Mohammed Kasso, Diress Tsegaye, Vivek V Venkataraman, Peter J Fashing, Dietmar Zinner, Nils C Stenseth
Carnivore populations are declining globally due to range contraction, persecution and prey depletion. One consequence of these patterns is increased range and niche overlap with other carnivores, and thus an elevated potential for competitive exclusion. Here, we document competition between an endangered canid, the Ethiopian wolf (EW), and the newly discovered African wolf (AW) in central Ethiopia. The diet of the ecological specialist EW was dominated by rodents, whereas the AW consumed a more diverse diet also including insects and non-rodent mammals...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788543/a-new-glutathione-conjugate-of-the-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-produced-by-human-cytosolic-enzyme-dependent-reactions-in-vitro
#3
Fashe Muluneh, Merja R Häkkinen, Rami El-Dairi, Markku Pasanen, Risto O Juvonen
RATIONALE: The toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are initially formed by cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation reactions and primarily eliminated as glutathione (GSH) conjugates. Although the reaction between the reactive metabolites and GSH can occur spontaneously, the role of the cytosolic enzymes in the process has not been studied. METHODS: The toxic metabolites of selected PAs (retrorsine, monocrotaline, senecionine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine or senkirkine) were generated by incubating them in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 7...
May 22, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729671/multilevel-social-structure-and-diet-shape-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-gelada-monkey-the-only-grazing-primate
#4
Pål Trosvik, Eric J de Muinck, Eli K Rueness, Peter J Fashing, Evan C Beierschmitt, Kadie R Callingham, Jacob B Kraus, Thomas H Trew, Amera Moges, Addisu Mekonnen, Vivek V Venkataraman, Nga Nguyen
BACKGROUND: The gelada monkey (Theropithecus gelada), endemic to the Ethiopian highlands, is the only graminivorous primate, i.e., it feeds mainly on grasses and sedges. In spite of known dental, manual, and locomotor adaptations, the intestinal anatomy of geladas is similar to that of other primates. We currently lack a clear understanding of the adaptations in digestive physiology necessary for this species to subsist on a graminoid-based diet, but digestion in other graminivores, such as ruminants, relies heavily on the microbial community residing in the gastrointestinal (GI) system...
May 5, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664154/flexibility-in-positional-behavior-strata-use-and-substrate-utilization-among-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-response-to-habitat-fragmentation-and-degradation
#5
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Eric J Sargis, Vivek V Venkataraman, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nils Chr Stenseth
Studies of the effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on primate positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization offer valuable insights into the behavioral and ecological flexibility of primates whose habitats have undergone extensive anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we evaluated how positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization differed between Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis)-bamboo-eating cercopithecids endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands-occupying continuous versus fragmented forests...
May 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608292/mix-and-melt-colloidal-engineering
#6
Theodore Hueckel, Stefano Sacanna
Increasing significance is being placed on the synthesis of smart colloidal particles, since the route to various meta-materials has been outlined through their bottom-up self-assembly. Unfortunately, making particles with well-defined shape and surface chemistry often requires considerable effort and time, and as such, they are available only in restrictive yields. Here we report a synthetic methodology, which we refer to as mix-and-melt reactions (MMR), that allows for rapid prototyping and mass production of anisotropic core-shell colloids...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409472/dietary-flexibility-of-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-southern-ethiopia-effects-of-habitat-degradation-and-life-in-fragments
#7
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nils Chr Stenseth
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of habitat modification on the feeding strategies of threatened species is essential to designing effective conservation management plans. Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) are endemic to the rapidly shrinking montane forests of the southern Ethiopian Highlands. Most populations inhabit continuous bamboo forest subsisting largely on the young leaves and shoots of a single species of bamboo. Because of habitat disturbance in recent decades, however, there are now also several dozen small populations inhabiting isolated forest fragments where bamboo has been degraded...
February 6, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230674/diet-and-activity-patterns-of-arsi-geladas-in-low-elevation-disturbed-habitat-south-of-the-rift-valley-at-indetu-ethiopia
#8
Kelil Abu, Addisu Mekonnen, Afework Bekele, Peter J Fashing
Understanding the basic natural history of threatened primate taxa is crucial to developing and implementing successful conservation strategies for them. Data on feeding ecology and activity patterns are particularly important for identifying the strategies through which primates invest time and foraging effort towards survival and reproduction at a given locale. Here, we report the results of the first study of the diet and activity budget of Arsi geladas, a population of < 1000 individuals endemic to a heavily disturbed region of the southern Ethiopian Highlands and believed to represent a new taxon of geladas...
March 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070375/diagnostic-value-of-fash-ultrasound-and-chest-x-ray-in-hiv-co-infected-patients-with-abdominal-tuberculosis-notes-from-the-field
#9
T Heller, S Goblirsch, S Bahlas, M Ahmed, M-T Giordani, C Wallrauch, E Brunetti
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients with negative acid-fast bacilli smears, chest radiography (CXR) is usually the first imaging step in the diagnostic work-up. Ultrasound, also in the form of focused assessment with sonography for TB-HIV (FASH), is an additional imaging modality used to diagnose extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB). Findings from 82 patients with abdominal TB diagnosed by ultrasound were analysed and compared with CXR results. Enlarged abdominal lymph nodes were seen in 75...
March 1, 2013: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791104/development-of-a-red-fluorescent-light-up-probe-for-highly-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-vicinal-dithiol-containing-proteins-in-living-cells
#10
Yuanyuan Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang, Yaogang Zhong, Xueyun Gong, Zheng Li, Hua Li
Vicinal dithiol-containing proteins (VDPs) play a key role in cellular redox homeostasis and are responsible for many diseases. Here, we develop a red fluorescent light-up probe FAsH for the highly selective and sensitive detection of VDPs using the environment-sensitive 2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-7-diethylamino-1-benzopyrylium (F1) as the fluorescent reporter and cyclic dithiaarsane as the targeting unit. FAsH is almost nonfluorescent in aqueous solution. However, it exhibits intense fluorescence emission upon binding to reduced bovine serum albumin (rBSA, selected as the model protein)...
January 1, 2016: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244593/growth-factor-signaling-alters-the-morphology-of-the-zebrafish-ethmoid-plate
#11
Brian J Cusack, Trish E Parsons, Seth M Weinberg, Alexandre R Vieira, Heather L Szabo-Rogers
Craniofacial development relies on coordinated tissue interactions that allow for patterning and growth of the face. We know a priori that the Wingless, fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog and transforming growth factor-beta growth factor signaling pathways are required for the development of the face, but how they contribute to the shape of the face is largely untested. Here, we test how each signaling pathway contributes to the overall morphology of the zebrafish anterior neurocranium. We tested the contribution of each signaling pathway to the development of the ethmoid plate during three distinct time periods: the time of neural crest migration [10 hour post fertilization (hpf)]; once the neural crest is resident in the face (20 hpf); and finally at the time at which the cartilaginous condensations are being initiated (48 hpf)...
May 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185282/impacts-of-habitat-loss-and-fragmentation-on-the-activity-budget-ranging-ecology-and-habitat-use-of-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-the-southern-ethiopian-highlands
#12
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr Stenseth
Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types...
July 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170253/englerins-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Zhenhua Wu, Senzhi Zhao, David M Fash, Zhenwu Li, William J Chain, John A Beutler
In the decade since the discovery of englerin A (1) and its potent activity in cancer models, this natural product and its analogues have been the subject of numerous chemical, biological, and preclinical studies by many research groups. This review summarizes published findings and proposes further research directions required for entry of an englerin analogue into clinical trials for kidney cancer and other conditions.
March 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144947/comparative-primate-obstetrics-observations-of-15-diurnal-births-in-wild-gelada-monkeys-theropithecus-gelada-and-their-implications-for-understanding-human-and-nonhuman-primate-birth-evolution
#14
Nga Nguyen, Laura M Lee, Peter J Fashing, Niina O Nurmi, Kathrine M Stewart, Taylor J Turner, Tyler S Barry, Kadie R Callingham, C Barret Goodale, Bryce S Kellogg, Ryan J Burke, Emily K Bechtold, Megan J Claase, G Anita Eriksen, Sorrel C Z Jones, Jeffrey T Kerby, Jacob B Kraus, Carrie M Miller, Thomas H Trew, Yi Zhao, Evan C Beierschmitt, Malcolm S Ramsay, Jason D Reynolds, Vivek V Venkataraman
OBJECTIVES: The birth process has been studied extensively in many human societies, yet little is known about this essential life history event in other primates. Here, we provide the most detailed account of behaviors surrounding birth for any wild nonhuman primate to date. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a recent ∼10-year period, we directly observed 15 diurnal births (13 live births and 2 stillbirths) among geladas (Theropithecus gelada) at Guassa, Ethiopia. During each birth, we recorded the occurrence (or absence) of 16 periparturitional events, chosen for their potential to provide comparative evolutionary insights into the factors that shaped birth behaviors in humans and other primates...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836795/ultrasound-for-patients-in-a-high-hiv-tuberculosis-prevalence-setting-a-needs-assessment-and-review-of-focused-applications-for-sub-saharan-africa
#15
REVIEW
Tom Heller, Eric A Mtemang'ombe, Michaëla A M Huson, Charlotte C Heuvelings, Sabine Bélard, Saskia Janssen, Sam Phiri, Martin P Grobusch
Ultrasound is increasingly used in point-of-care applications and has great potential to support the diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 100 Malawian patients with a clinical indication for ultrasound. Furthermore, the literature on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in Sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to establish its applicability, most frequent indications, findings, and implications for treatment, and therefore relevance in POCUS curricula, with a main focus on infectious diseases...
March 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776547/validation-of-the-fash-functional-assessment-scale-for-acute-hamstring-injuries-questionnaire-for-german-speaking-football-players
#16
Heinz Lohrer, Tanja Nauck, Vasileios Korakakis, Nikos Malliaropoulos
BACKGROUND: The FASH (Functional Assessment Scale for Acute Hamstring Injuries) questionnaire has been recently developed as a disease-specific self-administered questionnaire for use in Greek, English, and German languages. Its psychometric qualities (validity and reliability) were tested only in Greek-speaking patients mainly representing track and field athletes. As hamstring injuries represent the most common football injury, we tested the validity and reliability of the FASH-G (G = German version) questionnaire in German-speaking footballers suffering from acute hamstring injuries...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650577/dietary-ecology-of-fossil-theropithecus-inferences-from-dental-microwear-textures-of-extant-geladas-from-ecologically-diverse-sites
#17
Amy E Shapiro, Vivek V Venkataraman, Nga Nguyen, Peter J Fashing
As the only extant graminivorous primate, gelada monkeys (Theropithecus gelada) offer unique insights into how hominins and other extinct primates with strong C4 isotopic signatures may have subsisted on graminoid-rich diets. Fossil Theropithecus species sharing a strong C4 signal (i.e., Theropithecus brumpti, Theropithecus darti, and Theropithecus oswaldi) have been reconstructed as predominantly graminivorous and potentially in ecological competition with contemporaneous hominins. However, inferring the breadth and variation of diet in these species (and therefore hominins) has proven problematic...
October 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107948/synthesis-of-a-stable-and-orally-bioavailable-englerin-analogue
#18
David M Fash, Cody J Peer, Zhenwu Li, Ian J Talisman, Sima Hayavi, Florian J Sulzmaier, Joe W Ramos, Carole Sourbier, Leonard Neckers, W Douglas Figg, John A Beutler, William J Chain
Synthesis of analogues of englerin A with a reduced propensity for hydrolysis of the glycolate moiety led to a compound which possessed the renal cancer cell selectivity of the parent and was orally bioavailable in mice.
June 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27060569/erratum
#19
(no author information available yet)
In the February 2014 issue of The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, the Editorial, “The World Hypertension League and International Society of Hypertension Call on Governments, Nongovernmental Organizations, and the Food Industry to Work to Reduce Dietary Sodium,” by Norm Campbell, MD, FRCPC; Daniel Lackland, DrPH, FACE, FAHA, FASH; Arun Chockalingam, MS, PhD, FACC; Liu Lisheng, MD; Ernesto L. Schiffrin, MD, PhD, FRSC, FRCPC, FACP; Stephen Harrap, MBBS, FRACP, PhD; Rhian M. Touyz, MBBCh, PhD; Louise Burrell, MBChB, MRCP, MD, FRACP; Augustin Ramírez, MD, PhD; Roland Schmieder, Prof Dr med, MD; Schutte Aletta, PhD; Dorairaj Prabhakaran, MD, DM (Cardiology), MSc, FRCP, FNASc (J Clin Hypertens [Greenwich]...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416111/point-of-care-ultrasound-assessment-of-tropical-infectious-diseases-a-review-of-applications-and-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Sabine Bélard, Francesca Tamarozzi, Amaya L Bustinduy, Claudia Wallrauch, Martin P Grobusch, Walter Kuhn, Enrico Brunetti, Elizabeth Joekes, Tom Heller
The development of good quality and affordable ultrasound machines has led to the establishment and implementation of numerous point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocols in various medical disciplines. POCUS for major infectious diseases endemic in tropical regions has received less attention, despite its likely even more pronounced benefit for populations with limited access to imaging infrastructure. Focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB (FASH) and echinococcosis (FASE) are the only two POCUS protocols for tropical infectious diseases, which have been formally investigated and which have been implemented in routine patient care today...
January 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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